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1.
Ann Plast Surg ; 84(1S Suppl 1): S123-S127, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833899

RESUMO

Injection of fillers has gained popularity over the past decades in aesthetic treatments. Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA; Radiesse) was introduced in the year 2003 and received approval from the Food and Drug Administration in 2006 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe wrinkles. The properties of CaHA include biostimulation, neocollagenesis, and stability over a long period. However, similar to other fillers, CaHA is associated with the risk of complications such as ecchymosis, inflammation, local infection, skin necrosis, and vascular occlusion. Iatrogenic vision loss remains the most devastating complication related to vascular occlusion. Development of vision impairment is associated with a relatively high risk of permanent damage to vision acuity and poor prognosis. The current report presents a case of a patient who suffered from skin necrosis, vision impairment, and ophthalmoplegia after the injection of CaHA into the nasal dorsum. Significant improvement in visual acuity was observed during hospitalization after the treatment. The patient recovered to near-normal visual acuity and completely recovered from ophthalmoplegia. We aimed to discuss the current treatment employed and review the literature on CaHA-related vision loss.

2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 592, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eimeria tenella is a highly pathogenic coccidian that causes avian coccidiosis. Both nitromezuril (NZL) and ethanamizuril (EZL) are novel triazine compounds with high anticoccidial activity, but the mechanisms of their action are still unclear. This study explored the response of E. tenella to NZL and EZL by the study of changes in protein composition of the second-generation merozoites. METHODS: Label-free quantification (LFQ) proteomics of the second-generation merozoites of E. tenella following NZL and EZL treatment were studied by LC-MS/MS to explore the mechanisms of action. The identified proteins were annotated and analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1430 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, of which 375 were considered as differential proteins in response to drug treatment (DPs). There were 26 only found in the NZL treatment group (N-group), 63 exclusive to the EZL treatment group (E-group), and 80 proteins were present in both drug groups. In addition, among the DPs, the abundant proteins with significantly altered expression in response to drug treatment (SDPs) were found compared with the C-group, of which 49 were upregulated and 51 were downregulated in the N-group, and 66 upregulated and 79 downregulated in the E-group. Many upregulated proteins after drug treatment were involved in transcription and protein metabolism, and surface antigen proteins (SAGs) were among the largest proportion of the downregulated SDPs. Results showed the top two enriched GO terms and the top one enriched pathway treated with EZL and NZL were related, which indicated that these two compounds had similar modes of action. CONCLUSIONS: LFQ proteomic analysis is a feasible method for screening drug-related proteins. Drug treatment affected transcription and protein metabolism, and SAGs were also affected significantly. This study provided new insights into the effects of triazine anticoccidials against E. tenella.

3.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 45(8): 2040-2048, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130409

RESUMO

Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) is an innovative vascular imaging technique for ultrasound (US). Compared with conventional color Doppler imaging (CDI) and power Doppler imaging (PDI), SMI can detect more blood flow in thyroid nodules. In this study, a total of 203 thyroid nodules (160 benign nodules, 43 malignant nodules) in 195 patients were assessed with the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) published by the American College of Radiology in 2017) and SMI. With TI-RADS alone, 24 (15.0%), 76 (47.5%), 65 (40.6%) and 39 (24.4%) thyroid nodules were classified as TR2, TR3, TR4 and TR5, respectively. However, with the combination of TI-RADS and SMI, 31 (19.4%), 79 (49.4%), 44 (27.5%) and 49 (30.6%) thyroid nodules were classified as TR2, TR3, TR4 and TR5, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the combination (0.952) was larger than that for TI-RADS alone (0.883) (Z = 3.478, p = 0.001). The efficiency of TI-RADS alone and the TI-RADS + SMI combination in diagnosing thyroid nodules was determined for all except TR2 nodules. Although no significant differences between the methods were observed for TR3 and TR5 thyroid nodules (p > 0.05), the diagnostic efficiency of TI-RADS + SMI for TR4 thyroid nodules was higher than that of TI-RADS alone for TR4 nodules (p < 0.05). This study indicated that the vascularity of thyroid nodules can be well characterized using SMI, and the combined use of gray-scale US and SMI can improve the diagnostic performance of TI-RADS for TR4 thyroid nodules.

4.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(1): 201-208, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of shear wave elastography (SWE) in avoiding repeat fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic and undetermined cytology. METHODS: A total of 232 thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic (n = 132) and undetermined (n = 100) cytology underwent ultrasound (US) and SWE, followed by repeat ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The final diagnosis was based on cytological or pathological findings. The US and SWE characteristics of benign and malignant nodules were compared using the χ2 -test. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) categories from the US and the EMean and ESD from the SWE were graphed, and the areas under the curves (AUCs) were compared using a Z test. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the benign and malignant nodules in terms of the echogenicity, shape, margin, calcification and TI-RADS categories (all P < 0.05). The differences were significant between the malignant and benign nodules for EMean [(34.57 ± 14.81) kPa vs. (19.18 ± 7.09) kPa] and ESD [(13.68 ± 13.01) kPa vs. (3.97 ± 2.58) kPa] (both P < 0.001). Though the difference in the AUCs of EMean (0.864) and ESD (0.876) was not significant (P = 0.745), they both had higher diagnostic performances in comparison with TI-RADS categories (0.762) (all P < 0.05). Moreover, ESD attained a sensitivity of 100% with a relatively higher specificity of 49.75% when its cut-off value was 3.3 kPa. CONCLUSIONS: Shear wave elastography is a promising imaging method for reducing repeat FNAC for benign thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic and undetermined cytology when using ESD as an index.

5.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(9): 14628-14635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009103

RESUMO

2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one (eriodictyol), a flavonoid compound, was proved to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiarthritis activities. However, the effects of eriodictyol on the rheumatoid proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammatory response of arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) remain unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of eriodictyol on RA-FLS survival, apoptosis, and inflammatory response, and further explore the potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that eriodictyol inhibited the survival of RA-FLSs and promoted its apoptosis. Eriodictyol significantly reduced RA-FLS secretion of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1ß. Furthermore, eriodictyol prevented the activation of the protein kinase B (AKT) pathway and increased the expression of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in RA-FLS. FOXO1 silence reversed the effects of eriodictyol on RA-FLS survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In conclusion, these findings indicated that eriodictyol inhibits the cell survival and inflammatory response in RA-FLS, and the AKT/FOXO1 signaling pathway is involved in the effect of eriodictyol on the RA-FLS. Thus, eriodictyol might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

6.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2545-2552, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883040

RESUMO

RAD51D (RAD51L3) is a member of the RAD51 gene family which plays important roles in maintaining genomic stability and preventing DNA damage. This study is aimed to investigate the associations between RAD51D polymorphisms and the hereditary susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study we conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 805 cases (HCC patients) and 846 controls (nontumor patients) in Guangxi, China. A total of two Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12947947 and rs28363292 of RAD51D were selected and genotyped. Although we did not find two SNPs individually that had any significant main effect on risk of HCC, We found that the combined genotypes with 1-2 risk genotypes were associated with significantly increased overall risk of HCC (OR = 1.462, 95% CI = 1.050-2.036). According to the results of further stratification analysis, GT/GG genotype of rs28363292 increased HCC risk in zhuang people (OR = 3.913, 95% CI = 1.873-8.175) and nonhepatitis B virus (HBV) infection population (OR = 1.774, 95% CI = 1.060-2.969), the combined 1-2 risk genotypes increased the risk of HCC in zhuang people (OR = 2.817, 95% CI = 1.532-5.182) and non-HBV infected population (OR = 1.567, 95% CI = 1.042-2.358). Our results suggest that rs12947947 and rs28363292 polymorphisms may jointly contribute to the risk of HCC. Further large studies and functional studies are required to validate our findings.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(2): e10716, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal narratives have been seen as a useful way of communicating about cancer treatment options and providing recovery information. Many printed versions of such material are available, including comics that explore the individual memories of patients who have gone through cancer treatment. These studies have been used to orientate patients, patients' relatives, and physicians. However, only a few Web-based comics have been specifically designed for patients with breast cancer and used as aids to decision making. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the developmental process of creating an animated comic as a Web-based surgery decision-making tool; the comic was aimed at illustrating the feelings, thoughts, and meanings when a patient suffers from breast cancer. This was done by recounting the symptoms, diagnostic process, treatments, and treatment effects of such women from the diagnosis stage onward. METHODS: Using cycles of planning, action, evaluation, and reflection, which involved collaborative work, action research was conducted to develop a Web-based animated comic. The stages of action research consisted of (1) semistructured and in-depth interviews to collect experiences of women with breast cancer; (2) construction of an animated comic by editors, graphics designers, dubbers, and information technology engineers; (3) redrawing of pictures of the comic after gathering feedback from a breast surgeon; and (4) evaluation of the Web-based animated comic using 6 patient focus groups. RESULTS: The comic was produced and showcased on the website "The Network of Making-decision Aids for Breast Cancer Surgery"; the comic was accompanied by soft music and audio explanations. The comic functions as a personal statement that describes experiencing breast cancer. The animated comic consists of 8 chapters, based on the 8 themes deducted from the findings obtained during the analysis of relevant interviews. The 8 chapters include (1) the appearance of a lump; (2) confirmation by medical diagnosis; (3) the uncertainty of waiting (4) fear of life-threatening disease; (5) choosing life over despair; (6) being brave and deciding to undergo treatment; (7) choosing the type of surgery; and (8) being reborn. CONCLUSIONS: Using action research, this study illustrated that the comic that sheds light on issues of feelings, emotions, and thoughts that are present when a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer and provides a communication medium to explain the steps in the process. Meanwhile, it implies that hope will be able to overcome the challenges that will be faced. Within the Web-based decision aid for patients with breast cancer, the animated comic acts as an information resource and is aimed at patients' understanding of impacts of emotions arising when suffering from breast cancer. It is potentially applicable as a therapeutic tool that facilitates self-reflection and self-healing among newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto , Humanos , Internet
8.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 31: 30-36, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173824

RESUMO

PURPOSE: End-of-life (EOL) care is considered to be inherently difficult and vulnerable for patients and nurses. It also seems hard to develop passion for care during these problematic times. This study elucidates how EOL nurses interpret their care experience and how they transform their experience and mindset. METHODS: This study was conducted by organizing a reflective group based on the concept of group analysis for oncology and hospice nurses to share their experience. Thirteen registered nurses were enrolled from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data drawn from the group dialogue was derived from six digitally recorded sessions and then analysed alone with the researcher's diaries and participants' feedback sheets. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results showed that nurses who provide EOL care actually experience suffering by witnessing patients' suffering. However, the suffering authentically drives the nurses to encounter their own inner selves, to induce the shift of mindset, and then allow them to continuously provide and maintain the passion in EOL care. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a new viewpoint for understanding of EOL nurses' experiences, indicating that this line of work may be recognized as a privilege. We recommend that the setting of a nurse reflective group is important and it may be considered in providing EOL care training for nurses. Hopefully the study results could shed lights for future policies regarding EOL care.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Emoções , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Enfermagem Oncológica , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico , Taiwan
9.
Neuroscience ; 355: 188-199, 2017 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504198

RESUMO

Rapamycin (RAPA), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), exhibits a high neuroprotective action against neurodegenerative diseases in mouse models. Since neuroinflammation has been shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and progression, the aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory role of RAPA in AD in vivo and in vitro, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We found that amyloid-ß (Aß) induced neuronal inflammation and a remarkable increase in mTOR activity in in-vivo and in-vitro models of inflammation, suggesting the critical role of mTOR signaling in neuronal inflammation. In addition, administration of RAPA was found to down-regulate mTOR, p-mTOR, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-p65, TNF-α, IL-1ß and Bax protein expression in Aß25-35- or lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated mice and cultured Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. Moreover, RAPA disrupted Aß25-35-induced nuclear translocation of mTOR and NF-κB. Our findings indicate that RAPA inhibits Aß25-35- or LPS-induced neuronal inflammation through suppressing mTOR signaling and reducing nuclear import of NF-κB.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção
10.
Chin J Nat Med ; 15(4): 310-320, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527517

RESUMO

The present study was designed to establish a multi-wavelength quantitative fingerprinting method for San-Huang Tablets (SHT), a widely used and commercially available herbal preparation, where high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) was employed to obtain the fingerprint profiles. A simple linear quantitative fingerprint method (SLQFM) coupled with multi-ingredient simultaneous determination was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of the tested samples qualitatively and quantitatively. Additionally, the component-activity relationship between chromatographic fingerprints and total radical-scavenging capacity in vitro (as assessed using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) was investigated by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to predict the antioxidant capacity of new samples from the chromatographic fingerprints and identify the main active constituents that can be used as the target markers for the quality control of SHT. In conclusion, the strategy developed in the present study was effective and reliable, which can be employed for holistic evaluation and accurate discrimination for the quality consistency of SHT preparations and other traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and herbal preparations as well.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Radicais Livres/química , Estrutura Molecular , Picratos/química , Controle de Qualidade , Comprimidos/química
11.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 64(2): 34-43, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing end-of-life (EOL) care elicits complex emotions in nurses in the context of modern medicine. Nurses must not only watch their patients succumb to disease and death but also witness their suffering. PURPOSE: This qualitative study adopted the perspective of "the other", as proposed by Emmanuel Levinas, to understand the experience of nurses who provide EOL care and the possibilities of nurses build up their ethical selves within the context of modern medicine. METHODS: The study used interpretative phenomenology and group dialogue. Thirteen nurses who had EOL care experience were included. Data were drawn from the six transcripts of the group sessions, the researcher's diaries, and participants' feedback sheets. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The findings showed that nurses not only execute medical procedures but are also capable of self-molding into ethical subjects. The categories of participant experiences included: (1) encountering the death; (2) encountering my inner self; and (3) greeting the death. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: EOL nursing does not require abstract or decontextualized knowledge, but rather requires more experiential knowledge. EOL care may inspire nurses to become ethical persons and to gain wisdom if they shift away from a self-centered perspective to receive "the other". This study illustrates that EOL care should not depend solely on ethical codes or principles but should also adopt the attitudes of "for the other".


Assuntos
Ética em Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Terminal/ética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 37(5): 879-887, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27631411

RESUMO

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of metabolism, cell growth, and protein synthesis. Since decreased mTOR activity has been found to slow aging in many species, the aim of this study was to examine the activity of mTOR and its phosphorylated form in in vitro and in vivo models mimicking Alzheimer's disease (AD), and investigate the potential pathway of PGC-1ß in regulating mTOR expression. Primary neurons and N2a cells were treated with Aß25-35, while untreated cells served as controls. The expression of mTOR, p-mTOR (Ser2448), and PGC-1ß was determined with Western blotting and RT-PCR assay, and the translocation of mTOR was detected using confocal microscopy. Aß25-35 treatment stimulated the translocation of mTOR from cytoplasm to nucleus, and resulted in elevated expression of mTOR and p-mTOR (Ser2448) and reduced PGC-1ß expression. In addition, overexpression of PGC-1ß was found to decrease mTOR expression. The results of this study demonstrate that Aß increases the expression of mTOR and p-mTOR at the site of Ser2448, and the stimulation of Aß is likely to depend on sirtuin 1, PPARγ, and PGC-1ß pathway in regulating mTOR expression.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , Coativadores de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Acetilação , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuritos/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
13.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 10: 2973-2987, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695294

RESUMO

Albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising technology for developing drug-carrier systems, with improved deposition and retention profiles in lungs. Improved understanding of these drug-carrier interactions could lead to better drug-delivery systems. The present study combines computational and experimental methods to gain insights into the mechanism of binding of albuterol sulfate (AS) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the molecular level. Molecular dynamics simulation and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy were used to determine that there are two binding sites on BSA for AS: the first of which is a high-affinity site corresponding to AS1 and the second of which appears to represent the integrated functions of several low-affinity sites corresponding to AS2, AS3, and AS8. AS1 was the strongest binding site, established via electrostatic interaction with Glu243 and Asp255 residues in a hydrophobic pocket. Hydrogen bonds and salt bridges played a main role in the critical binding of AS1 to BSA, and water bridges served a supporting role. Based upon the interaction mechanism, BSA NPs loaded with AS were prepared, and their drug-loading efficiency, morphology, and -release profiles were evaluated. Successful clinical development of AS-BSA-NPs may improve therapy and prevention of bronchospasm in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease, and thus provide a solid basis for expanding the role of NPs in the design of new drug-delivery systems.


Assuntos
Albuterol/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Albuterol/farmacocinética , Albuterol/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Teoria Quântica , Soroalbumina Bovina/administração & dosagem , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação
14.
Protein Expr Purif ; 127: 88-97, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450536

RESUMO

An immunogenic protein, enolase 2, was identified among the secreted excretory/secretory antigens (ESAs) from Toxoplasma gondii strain RH using immunoproteomics based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Enolase 2 was cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed. BLAST analysis revealed 75-96% similarity with enolases from other parasites. Immunoblotting demonstrated good immunoreactivity of recombinant T. gondii enolase (Tg-enolase 2) to T. gondii-infected animal serum. Purified Tg-enolase 2 was found to catalyze dehydration of 2-phospho-d-glycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In vitro studies revealed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 37 °C, and activity was inhibited by K(+), Ni(2+), Al(3+), Na(+), Cu(2+) and Cr(3+). A monoclonal antibody against Tg-enolase 2 was prepared, 1D6, with the isotype IgG2a/κ. Western blotting revealed that 1D6 reacts with Tg-enolase 2 and native enolase 2, present among T. gondii ESAs. The indirect immunofluorescence assays showed that enolase 2 could be specifically detected on the growing T. gondii tachyzoites. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the surface and intracellular locations of enolase 2 on T. gondii cells. In conclusion, our results clearly show that the enzymatic activity of T. gondii enolase 2 is ion dependent and that it could be influenced by environmental factors. We also provide evidence that enolase 2 is an important immunogenic protein of ESAs from T. gondii and that it is a surface-exposed protein with strong antigenicity and immunogenicity. Our findings indicate that enolase 2 could play important roles in metabolism, immunogenicity and pathogenicity and that it may serve as a novel drug target and candidate vaccine against T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase , Proteínas de Protozoários , Toxoplasma , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/biossíntese , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Protozoários/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/biossíntese , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/imunologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/isolamento & purificação , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/farmacologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/biossíntese , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Toxoplasma/enzimologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia
15.
Parkinsons Dis ; 2016: 1859321, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26989558

RESUMO

Background. Several guidelines for Parkinson's disease (PD) management were recently updated. We examined temporal trends for antiparkinsonism drugs in Taiwan. Methods. Antiparkinsonism prescriptions, including levodopa, ergot/nonergot dopamine agonists (DAs), amantadine, selegiline, entacapone, and anticholinergics, were identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2004 to 2011. Time trend analyses were estimated assuming Poisson distribution. Results. A total of 19,302 PD patients in 2004 and 41,606 PD patients in 2011 were analyzed. Antiparkinsonism prescriptions increased significantly from 187,137 in 2004 to 414,587 in 2011. Levodopa monotherapy or combination therapy was the mainstay. Levodopa monotherapy comprised 37.4% of prescriptions in 2004 and 44.2% in 2011, with an annual increase rate of 18.14%. There was a substantially increasing trend of DA prescriptions, which were higher in younger-aged patients (<60 years) than in older-aged group (p = 0.0006). Among combination therapy, DA combined with levodopa or other antiparkinsonism medications became the main combinations for younger-aged patients after 2009. After 2005, the proportion of ergot DA usage markedly decreased and PD patients using nonergot DA increased. Conclusions. Levodopa was the major treatment from 2004 to 2011. There was a steeply increased trend of DA use, especially in younger-aged patients. Nonergot agents comprised the major DA group after 2005.

16.
Vet Parasitol ; 215: 88-91, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790742

RESUMO

As an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) can rapidly invade chicken cecum epithelial cells and cause avian coccidiosis. Enolase, an essential enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenolpyruvate, plays a very important role in glycolysis. In this study, each chicken was inoculated with 8×10(4) sporulated E. tenella oocysts suspended in 1ml of distilled water to determine the effects of acetamizuril, a new triazine anticoccidial drug, on enolase in the second-generation merozoites of E. tenella. The chickens were divided into two groups: the untreatment group (challenged with E. tenella oocysts and provided with normal feed) and the treatment group (challenged with E. tenella oocysts and provided with 5mg/kg of acetamizuril by oral gavage at 96h after inoculation). The second-generation merozoites of E. tenella (mz-En) were obtained at 120h after inoculation. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were conducted to detect the enolase changes in mz-En at the transcriptional and translational levels. The results showed that enolase mRNA expression was downregulated, and the translational level was decreased in the treatment group. In addition, the subcellular localization of enolase demonstrated that enolase was distributed primarily at the top of the mz-En and that the fluorescence intensity was weak after treatment with acetamizuril. These findings indicated that enolase may be a promising target to prevent coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria tenella/efeitos dos fármacos , Eimeria tenella/enzimologia , Merozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Merozoítos/enzimologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Protozoário/genética
17.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 115(7): 531-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Identifying trends in the prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) may yield information that supports public health goals. Our aim was to evaluate time-trend changes in the prevalence and incidence of PD in Taiwan between 2004 and 2011. METHODS: This retrospective, nationwide, longitudinal study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with PD from 2004 to 2011 based on having ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes, which were assigned by neurologists, and being prescribed PD medication. Annual incidence and prevalence were calculated, and time-trend analyses were estimated assuming a Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Over the study period, 19,302 patients in 2004 and 41,606 patients in 2011 fulfilling the study criteria for PD were included in the analysis. The average age-standardized prevalence of PD per 100,000 of population was 84.8 in 2004 and 147.7 in 2011, with a 7.9% yearly increase. Increasing prevalence trends of PD were statistically significant (p < 0.001) in all age groups, with the steepest rate among those aged ≥ 80 years. In contrast, the average age-standardized incidence of PD decreased steadily from 35.3 per 100,000 in 2005 to 28.8 per 100,000 in 2011. The incidence rate was higher in men than in women, and increased with age. CONCLUSION: We identified an increasing trend in the annual prevalence rates of PD from 2004 to 2011; however, the substantial decline in the incidence of PD suggests that some major environmental risk factors for PD were removed from this population during this time period.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144175, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26633653

RESUMO

ZAC, an encoding gene mapped at chromosome 6q24-q25 within PSORS1, was previously found over-expressed in the lower compartment of the hyperplastic epidermis in psoriatic lesions. Cytokines produced in the inflammatory dermatoses may drive AP-1 transcription factor to induce responsive gene expressions. We demonstrated that mZac1 can enhance AP-1-responsive S100A7 expression of which the encoding gene was located in PSORS4 with HaCaT keratinocytes. However, the mZac1-enhanced AP-1 transcriptional activity was suppressed by curcumin, indicating the anti-inflammatory property of this botanical agent and is exhibited by blocking the AP-1-mediated cross-talk between PSORS1 and PSORS4. Two putative AP-1-binding sites were found and demonstrated to be functionally important in the regulation of S100A7 promoter activity. Moreover, we found curcumin reduced the DNA-binding activity of AP-1 to the recognition element located in the S100A7 promoter. The S100A7 expression was found to be upregulated in the lesioned epidermis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, which is where this keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant engaged in the pro-inflammatory feedback loop. Understanding the regulatory mechanism of S100A7 expression will be helpful to develop therapeutic strategies for chronic inflammatory dermatoses via blocking the reciprocal stimuli between the inflammatory cells and keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína A7 Ligante de Cálcio S100 , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Microencapsul ; 32(8): 745-54, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299658

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as an antitumor model drug in liposomes because of its high encapsulation efficiency. The cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) has potential applications in drug delivery systems. However, we discovered that the encapsulation efficiency of DOX decreased with increasing modification density of CPP on liposomes. To explore the interaction mechanisms of CPP-modified liposomes (CPPL) for DOX loading, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were utilised, and theoretical calculations based on molecular dynamics simulation were performed. Results showed that the monomeric intermolecular interaction between CPP and DOX, in which the guanidinium group of CPP was parallel to the planar aromatic chromophore of DOX, depending on the cation-pi interaction and hydrogen bonds, weakened the tendency of DOX transporting into the internal medium from the liposomal external medium. Analysis of the interaction between CPP and DOX at the molecular level provided theoretical guidance for the further development of CPPL.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/química , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Modelos Químicos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Lipossomos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Análise Espectral Raman , Difração de Raios X
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