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1.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 14(2): 252-262, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325390

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the probiotic potential of gut indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) originated from Apis cerana. Six Limosilactobacillus reuteri and one Lactobacillus helveticus were isolated from gut samples of A. cerana adult worker bee. All isolates antagonized the growth of pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Flavobacterium frigidimaris, and L. helveticus KM7 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity among them. All strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, cephalothin, penicillin G, kanamycin, and vancomycin, moderately sensitive to novobiocin and resistant to gentamicin. Six out of seven strains were sensitive to ampicillin. L. helveticus KM7 was chosen to evaluate in vivo probiotic effect of adult worker bees of A. cerana through fed sucrose syrup supplemented with KM7. Administration of KM7 increased survival rate and gut LAB but decreased gut fungi and Enterococcus in honeybees. Expressions of genes related to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including Abaecin and Defensin were also induced in the gut of honeybees. The results suggested that L. helveticus KM7 with greater probiotic properties could improve the survival rate of adult worker honeybees of A. cerana through regulating gut microbiota and AMPs genes expression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillales , Probióticos , Animais , Abelhas , Enterococcus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130275

RESUMO

The cell orientation characteristics of the natural combs of honey bees have received much research attention. Although natural combs have been shown to be composed of cells with three orientations-vertical, intermediate (oblique), and horizontal-the proportion of comb cells in these three orientations varies. Knowledge of the comb-building preferences of honey bees is essential for the installation of wax comb foundations, and clarification of the cell orientation characteristics of natural honey bee combs is important for beekeeping. The purpose of this study was to determine the cell orientation characteristics of natural combs of Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and Western honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica). Newly built combs were used to measure the orientation of hexagonal cells and calculate the proportion of cells in different orientations relative to the total number of cells. The number of eggs laid by queens in the cells of different orientations was also determined. The orientation of cells in the natural combs of Eastern and Western honey bees was determined based on the value of the minimum included angle between the pair of parallel cell walls and a vertical line connecting the top and bottom bars of the movable frame in the geometric plane of the comb: 0°≤θ≤10°, 10°<θ≤20°, and 20°<θ≤30° for vertical, intermediate, and horizontal orientations, respectively. Natural combs were composed of cells with at least one orientation (vertical or horizontal), two orientations (vertical + intermediate (oblique) or vertical + horizontal), or three orientations (vertical + intermediate + horizontal), and the proportions of combs with the three aforementioned configurations differed. Both Eastern honey bees and Western honey bees preferred building combs with cells in a vertical orientation. Queens showed no clear preference for laying eggs in cells of specific orientations. The results of this study provide new insight that could aid the production and cutting of wax comb foundations of Eastern and Western honey bees. Our study highlights the importance of installing wax comb foundations compatible with the comb-building preferences of bees.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Zigoto/fisiologia , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Tamanho da Ninhada/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Oviposição/fisiologia
3.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(7): 1827-1833, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940065

RESUMO

The nectar of Camellia reticulata Lindl. contains sugar, amino acids and other nutritional components, suggesting that it could be developed for food and food additives. To understand the effects of the nectar on human health, we investigated its chemical constituents. Two new flavonoid glycosides, cameretiins A and B (1 and 2), and two known flavonoid glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3) and tiliroside (4) were obtained from the nectar of Camellia reticulata Lindl. Their structures were determined based on analysis of their spectroscopic data and by comparison with 1D NMR spectroscopic data of known compounds reported in the literature. Compounds (1-4) were first isolated from the nectar of Camellia reticulata Lindl.


Assuntos
Camellia , Glicosídeos , Camellia/química , Flavonoides/química , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Néctar de Plantas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368764

RESUMO

Diabetic cutaneous ulcers (DCU) are a chronic and refractory complication of diabetes mellitus, which can lead to amputation or even death in extreme cases. Promoting the early healing of DCU and reducing the disability rate and treatment cost are important research topics in treating with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Centella asiatica total glycosides are extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Centella asiatica and have angiogenic, anticancer, antioxidant, and wound healing effects. Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of wound healing. During the development of DCU, endogenous NO secretion is insufficient. It has been reported that exogenous nitric oxide can promote wound healing, but it is difficult to adhere to the skin because of its short half-life. Therefore, in this study, we used the polymer excipient hydroxyethyl cellulose as the matrix, combined with Centella asiatica total glycosides and NO, and developed a new type of topical gel that can promote wound healing. At the same time, we made a comprehensive research and evaluation on the preparation technology, quality standard, skin toxicity, reproductive toxicity, and pharmacodynamics against diabetic skin ulcers of the gel. According to our research results, the combination of Centella asiatica total glycosides and nitric oxide can accelerate the healing speed of DCU wounds, and 8% Centella asiatica total glycosides nitric oxide gel (CATGNOG) has the best effect in ulcer wound healing. CATGNOG has the advantages of feasible preparation method, controllable quality, good stability at low temperature, and no apparent skin toxicity and reproductive toxicity. It can effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria on the wound surface, relieve the inflammatory reaction of the wound surface, and promote the healing of ulcer wound, which provides a basis for further research of the preparation in the future.

5.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(4): 511-520, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970318

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate in vitro effects of the selected prebiotics alone, and in combination with two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains on the microbial composition of Apis cerana gut microbiota and acid production. Four prebiotics, inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, and isomalto-oligosaccharides were chosen, and glucose served as the carbon source. Supplementation of this four prebiotics increased numbers of Bifidobacterium and lactic acid bacteria while decreasing the pH value of in vitro fermentation broth inoculated with A. cerana gut microbiota compared to glucose. Then, two potential probiotics derived from A. cerana gut at different dosages, Lactobacillus helveticus KM7 and Limosilactobacillus reuteri LP4 were added with isomalto-oligosaccharides in fermentation broth inoculated with A. cerana gut microbiota, respectively. The most pronounced impact was observed with isomalto-oligosaccharides. Compared to isomalto-oligosaccharides alone, the combination of isomalto-oligosaccharides with both lactobacilli strains induced the growth of Bifidobacterium, LAB, and total bacteria and reduced the proliferation of Enterococcus and fungi. Consistent with these results, the altered metabolic activity was observed as lowered pH in in vitro culture of gut microbiota supplemented with isomalto-oligosaccharides and lactobacilli strains. The symbiotic impact varied with the types and concentration of Lactobacillus strains and fermentation time. The more effective ability was observed with IMO combined with L. helveticus KM7. These results suggested that isomalto-oligosaccharides could be a potential prebiotic and symbiotic with certain lactobacilli strains on A. cerana gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Animais , Abelhas/microbiologia , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Simbióticos/análise
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 744868, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721299

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a combination of neuropathy and various degrees of peripheral vasculopathy in diabetic patients resulting in lower extremity infection, ulcer formation, and deep-tissue necrosis. The difficulty of wound healing in diabetic patients is caused by a high glucose environment and various biological factors in the patient. The patients' skin local microenvironment changes and immune chemotactic response dysfunction. Wounds are easy to be damaged and ulcerated repeatedly, but difficult to heal, and eventually develop into chronic ulcers. DFU is a complex biological process in which many cells interact with each other. A variety of growth factors released from wounds are necessary for coordination and promotion of healing. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a family of cell signaling proteins, which can mediate various processes such as angiogenesis, wound healing, metabolic regulation and embryonic development through its specific receptors. FGF can stimulate angiogenesis and proliferation of fibroblasts, and it is a powerful angiogenesis factor. Twenty-three subtypes have been identified and divided into seven subfamilies. Traditional treatments for DFU can only remove necrotic tissue, delay disease progression, and have a limited ability to repair wounds. In recent years, with the increasing understanding of the function of FGF, more and more researchers have been applying FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-4, FGF-7, FGF-21 and FGF-23 topically to DFU with good therapeutic effects. This review elaborates on the recently developed FGF family members, outlining their mechanisms of action, and describing their potential therapeutics in DFU.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5273-5290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703268

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication in the late stages of diabetes. Currently, the etiology and pathogenesis of DN are not well understood. Even so, available evidence shows its development is associated with metabolism, oxidative stress, cytokine interaction, genetic factors, and renal microvascular disease. Diabetic nephropathy can lead to proteinuria, edema and hypertension, among other complications. In severe cases, it can cause life-threatening complications such as renal failure. Patients with type 1 diabetes, hypertension, high protein intake, and smokers have a higher risk of developing DN. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) regulates several human processes essential for normal development. Even though FGF has been implicated in the pathological development of DN, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This review summarizes the role of FGF in the development of DN. Moreover, the association of FGF with metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in the context of DN is discussed. Findings of this review are expected to deepen our understanding of DN and generate ideas for developing effective prevention and treatments for the disease.

8.
Oncogenesis ; 10(10): 66, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611125

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer lymph node metastasis remain unclear. Using single-cell sequencing, we investigated the transcriptome profile of 96,796 single cells from 15 paired samples of primary tumors and axillary lymph nodes. We identified nine cancer cell subclusters including CD44 + / ALDH2 + /ALDH6A1 + breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which had a copy-number variants profile similar to that of normal breast tissue. Importantly, BCSCs existed only in primary tumors and evolved into metastatic clusters infiltrating into lymph nodes. Furthermore, transcriptome data suggested that NECTIN2-TIGIT-mediated interactions between metastatic breast cancer cells and tumor microenvironment (TME) cells, which promoted immune escape and lymph node metastasis. This study is the first to delineate the transcriptome profile of breast cancer lymph node metastasis using single-cell RNA sequencing. Our findings offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying breast cancer metastasis and have implications in developing novel therapies to inhibit the initiation of breast cancer metastasis.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 675725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234672

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with severe disability and adverse effects on life quality. In PD, motor dysfunction can occur, such as quiescence, muscle stiffness, and postural instability. PD is also associated with autonomic nervous dysfunction, sleep disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and other non-motor symptoms. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compact (SNPC), Lewy body, and neuroinflammation are the main pathological features of PD. The death or dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons in the dense part of the substantia nigra leads to dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia and motor dysfunction. The formation of the Lewy body is associated with the misfolding of α-synuclein, which becomes insoluble and abnormally aggregated. Astrocytes and microglia mainly cause neuroinflammation, and the activation of a variety of pro-inflammatory transcription factors and regulatory proteins leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. At present, PD is mainly treated with drugs that increase dopamine concentration or directly stimulate dopamine receptors. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a family of cellular signaling proteins strongly associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. FGF and its receptor (FGFR) play an essential role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system as well as in neuroinflammation and have been shown to improve the survival rate of dopaminergic neurons. This paper summarized the mechanism of FGF and its receptors in the pathological process of PD and related signaling pathways, involving the development and protection of dopaminergic neurons in SNPC, α-synuclein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation. It provides a reference for developing drugs to slow down or prevent the potential of PD.

10.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 178-187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390842

RESUMO

As a transcription factor and proto-oncogene, MYC is known to be deregulated in a variety of tumors, including breast cancer. However, no consistent conclusion on the role and mechanism of MYC deregulation during breast cancer carcinogenesis has been formed. Here, we used the UALCAN, bc-GenExMiner, TCGA, cBioportal, STRING and Kaplan-Meier Plotter databases to explore the mRNA expression, prognosis, transcriptional profile changes, signal pathway rewiring and interaction with the cancer stem cells of MYC in breast cancer. We found that the expression of MYC varies in different subtypes of breast cancer, with relatively high frequency in TNBC. As a transcription factor, MYC not only participates in the rewiring of cancer signaling pathways, such as estrogen, WNT, NOTCH and other pathways, but also interacts with cancer stem cells. MYC is significantly positively correlated with breast cancer stem cell markers such as CD44, CD24, and ALDH1. Collectively, our results highlight that MYC plays an important regulatory role in the occurrence of breast cancer, and its amplification can be used as a predictor of diagnosis and prognosis. The interaction between MYC and cancer stem cells may play a crucial role in regulating the initiation and metastasis of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
11.
Transl Cancer Res ; 10(5): 2229-2246, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35116541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and patients with lymph node metastasis always suffer from a worse prognosis. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) has been reported as a potential predictor for tumor behaviors. However, the correlation between TMB and lymph node metastasis of BC remains unclear. This study aimed to explore TMB-related biomarkers to predict the lymph node metastasis in BC patients. METHODS: A total of 949 BC patients with RNA-seq data, mutation data and clinical data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We visualized mutation data by "maftools" package. We calculated TMB of each patient and investigated its association with lymph node metastasis. BC patients were divided into lymph node positive and negative groups and we respectively identified TMB-related and lymph node-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to figure out intersected genes. Functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to observe relevant biological functions. We constructed a TMB-related signature for predicting lymph node metastasis through Logistic regression analysis. A validation database (GSE102484) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was downloaded to verify the accuracy. RESULTS: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occupied the highest proportion in variant types while C>T appeared most frequently in single nucleotide variant (SNV). TMB was regarded as negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis in BC (P=0.003). We identified 125 common DEGs through venn diagram, which were enriched in vesicle localization, calcium signaling pathway and salmonella infection. A TMB-related signature based on six genes (BAHD1, PPM1A, PQLC3, SMPD3, EEF1A1 and S100B) had reliable efficacy for predicting lymph node metastasis in BC and was proven as an independent predictive factor. The accuracy of this signature was further validated by GSE102484 database. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that TMB was associated with lymph node metastasis of BC. We built a TMB-related signature consisting of six genes which might function as a novel biomarker for predicting lymph node metastasis in BC.

12.
RSC Adv ; 10(3): 1757-1768, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35494666

RESUMO

To explore an efficient photocatalyst for NO pollution, a direct Z-scheme photocatalytic system is successfully fabricated by coupling Bi2WO6 with NH2-UiO-66 via a simple hydrothermal synthesis technique. The Z-scheme system promotes the NO photocatalytic oxidation activity with an optimum NO removal rate of 79%, which is 2.7 and 1.2 times that obtained by using only pristine Bi2WO6 and NH2-UiO-66, respectively. Simultaneously, superior selectivity for converting NO to NO3 -/NO2 - is observed. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of the Bi2WO6/NH2-UiO-66 hybrids is attributed to the following two aspects: (i) large specific area of NH2-UiO-66, which exposes more active sites and is beneficial to the adsorption and activation of NO; (ii) outstanding Z-scheme structure constructed between BiWO6 and NH2-UiO-66, which can improve the efficiency of the separation of electron-hole pairs and preserves the strong oxidation ability of hybrids. ESR analysis shows that ·O2 - and ·OH contribute to NO removal. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of NO oxidation on the direct Z-scheme photocatalyst (BWO/2NU) under visible light irradiation is proposed. This work displays the BWO/2NU hybrid's potential for treating low-concentration air pollutants, and the proposed Z-scheme photocatalyst design and promotion mechanism may inspire more rational synthesis of highly efficient photocatalysts for NO removal.

13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 68(6): 1251-5, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23386262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic basis of pleuromutilin resistance in porcine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and to map the genetic environment of the identified plasmid-borne resistance gene. METHODS: Seventy porcine MRSA isolates, which exhibited high MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin and retapamulin, were investigated for pleuromutilin resistance genes and mutations. They were characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Plasmid DNA was extracted from the lsa(E)-positive strains and transferred to S. aureus RN4220 for selection of resistance plasmids. The plasmid-borne lsa(E) gene region was sequenced and 10 overlapping PCR assays for the analysis of the genetic environment of lsa(E) were developed. RESULTS: All 70 MRSA isolates were ST9 (MLST)-t899 (spa)-IVa (SCCmec). Sixteen isolates carried the lsa(E) gene; all others were negative for known pleuromutilin resistance mechanisms. An lsa(E)-carrying plasmid of ∼41 kb was detected in a single isolate. Sequence analysis revealed that the lsa(E) gene was located in a multiresistance gene cluster, which showed partial homology to clusters identified in MRSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and Enterococcus faecalis. PCR analysis of the remaining isolates revealed a partly deleted multiresistance gene cluster in 6/15 isolates and solely the lsa(E) gene without the known flanking regions in 9/15 isolates. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance gene lsa(E) in porcine MRSA isolates. The multiresistance gene cluster in which lsa(E) was located differed from the previously described ones found in human MRSA/MSSA or in E. faecalis. The location of lsa(E) on a multiresistance plasmid facilitates its persistence and dissemination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Lincosamidas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Estreptogramina A/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , China , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Plasmídeos/genética , Compostos Policíclicos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Transformação Bacteriana
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