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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e036107, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The S0226 trial demonstrated that the combination of half-dose fulvestrant (FUL) and anastrozole (ANA) (F&A) caused a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) versus ANA monotherapy for first-line treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer (PMW-MBC (HR+)). The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of F&A in the first-line treatment for PMW-MBC (HR+) in China. DESIGN: We constructed a Markov model over a life-time horizon. The clinical outcomes and utility data were obtained from published literature. Cost data were obtained from official Chinese websites. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test result uncertainty. SETTING: Chinese healthcare system perspective. POPULATION: A hypothetical cohort of adult patients presenting with PMW-MBC (HR+). INTERVENTIONS: F&A compared with full-dose FUL and ANAmonotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome of this study was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). RESULTS: ANA was estimated to have the lowest cost and minimum life-years. The ICER of F&A versus ANA was US$15 665.891/QALY with incremental cost and QALY of US$12 401.120 and 0.792, respectively, which was less than the willingness-to-pay of US$29 383/QALY. Compared with F&A, FUL yielded a higher cost and a shorter lifetime; hence, it was identified as a dominated strategy. The univariate sensitivity analysis indicated the price of FUL was the most influential factor in our study. The probability that F&A was cost-effective at a threshold of US$29 383/QALY in China was 86.5%. CONCLUSION: F&A is a cost-effective alternative to FUL and ANA monotherapy for the first-line treatment of PMW-MBC (HR+) in China. F&A is a promising first-line treatment for PMW-MBC (HR+), and more research is needed to evaluate the economy of using F&A in other countries.

2.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(9): 1315-1323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879205

RESUMO

Vascular dementia (VD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, and the cognitive dysfunction is a major manifestation of VD. Lots of evidences showed that beta-amyloid (Aß) deposition and neuroinflammation act as vital elements in the progress of VD. The previous studies showed that osthole (OST) can improve the cognitive function of VD and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effect of OST on Aß in VD brain is still unclear. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) of rats were used to investigate the effect of OST on Aß through nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in this study. Morris Water Maze and Y-maze were used to test the spatial learning, memory and working abilities. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining were used to observe the morphology and number of hippocampal neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the number of microglia activated. Western blot was used to detect the expression of proteins. The study results showed that OST obviously enhanced the spatial learning, memory and working abilities induced by modified bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in rats, improved the pathological damage of hippocampal neurons induced by BCCAO in rats, inhibited the activation of microglia induced by BCCAO in rats. Furthermore, this study also discovered that OST reduced Aß deposition in VD hippocampus via inhibition the NLRP3 inflammasome. Together, these results suggest that OST reduces Aß deposition via inhibition NLRP3 inflammasome in microglial in VD.

3.
Small ; : e2004096, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939984

RESUMO

Nowadays, Li-ion batteries have achieved great success and are widely used in various fields. However, the scarcity and uneven distribution of lithium resources together with the increasing cost may hamper the sustainable development of Li-ion batteries in the future. Hence, many researchers have turned to potassium ion batteries due to their abundant raw materials, low price, and high energy density. Although great progress has been made in recent years, there are still existing many challenges, especially the severe side reaction between electrolyte and K metal, which leads to an unstable solid-liquid interface and low coulombic efficiency. Hence, an excellent electrolyte may be the key to development of K-ion batteries in the future. Unfortunately, no systematic research has been conducted to study the electrolyte and its role on the performance yet. In order to compensate for this limitation, in this paper, the status and progress of electrolytes for K-ion batteries are reviewed, the issues and challenges existing in the development of electrolyte are clarified, and the future development is prospected.

5.
Biosaf Health ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838286

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV), named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid detection of viral nucleic acids is critical for the early identification of infected cases. We have developed two TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays to detect SARS-CoV-2. The designed primers target the nucleocapsid (N) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b gene regions, where the probes discriminate SARS-CoV-2 from other human and animal CoVs. The sensitivities are one genomic copy per reaction for the N gene assay and ten copies for the ORF 1b gene assay. The overall linear detection ranges are 1-106 and 10-106 copies per reaction for the N gene assay and the ORF 1b gene assay, respectively. Surveillance of 23 suspected COVID-19 patients demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected from 100% (23/23) and 62.5% (16/23) of clinical specimens by the N gene assay and the ORF 1b gene assay, respectively. All of the samples not detected by the ORF 1b gene assay were throat swabs, indicating a lower viral load in the upper respiratory tract and the relatively lower sensitivity of the ORF 1b gene assay. The assays developed in the present study offer alternative diagnostic tests for COVID-19.

6.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765356

RESUMO

Reaction-time variability is a critical index of sustained attention. However, researchers still lack effective measures to establish the association between neurophysiological activity and this behavioral variability. Here, the present study recorded reaction time (RT) and cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy subjects when they continuously performed an alternative responding task. The frontal theta activity and reaction-time variability were examined trial by trial using the measures of standard deviation (SD) in the time domain and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the frequency domain. Our results showed that the SD of reaction-time variability did not have any correlation with the SD of trial-by-trial frontal theta activity, and the ALFF of reaction-time variability has a significant correlation with the ALFF of trial-by-trial frontal theta activity in 0.01-0.027 Hz. These results suggested the methodological significance of ALFF in establishing the association between neurophysiological activity and reaction-time variability. Furthermore, these findings also support the low-frequency fluctuation as a potential feature of sustained attention.

7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 710, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pursuit of equity is one of the basic principles behind the strengthening of health care reform. China's new rural cooperative medical insurance (NRCMI) and urban residents' basic medical insurance (URBMI) are both "equalized" in terms of fundraising and reimbursement. This paper studies the benefits equity under this "equalized" system. METHODS: The data analysed in this paper are from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2014 to 2016, implemented by the Institute of Social Science Survey at Peking University. A two-part model and a binary choice model are used in the empirical test. RESULTS: The empirical test revealed that high-income people benefit more from basic medical insurance than low-income people. Mechanism analysis demonstrated that high-income people have higher medical insurance applicability and can utilize better health care. Since low-income people are unhealthier, inequity in benefits exacerbates health inequity. We also found that the benefits equity of URBMI is better than that of NRCMI. CONCLUSIONS: The government needs to pay more attention to the issue of medical insurance inequity. We should consider allowing different income groups to pay different premiums according to their medical expenses or applying different reimbursement policies for different income groups.

8.
World Neurosurg ; 142: 318-324, 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gene translocation in some mesenchymal tumors can be used as highly specific molecular diagnostic markers in clinic and pathology. EWSR1 is a partner gene in a large, diverse range of mesenchymal tumors. CASE DESCRIPTION: This paper describes the case of a 31-year-old man who was diagnosed with a primary intracranial mesenchymal tumor with EWSR1-CREM gene fusion and eventually returned to a normal live with no signs of tumor recurrence or metastasis after treatment, including surgery therapy, radiotherapy, and 6 cycles of vincristine-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, even though the classification and grade of the tumor are still controversial. CONCLUSIONS: This case is a novel entity of intracranial mesenchymal neoplasm with EWSR1-CREM gene fusion which was confirmed by histopathology, molecular pathology, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). The literature review shows only 5 cases of intracranial tumor harboring EWSR1-CREM gene fusion with similar features. With the further application of molecular pathology and NGS in clinical practice, there will be more intracranial mesenchymal tumor cases with EWSR1-CREM gene fusion found in the future, which may lead to further understanding of the diagnosis and clinical features of this neoplasm.

9.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655129

RESUMO

As one of the deadliest malignancies, gastric cancer (GC) is often accompanied by a low 5-year survival following initial diagnosis, which accounts for a substantial proportion of cancer-related deaths each year worldwide. Altered epigenetic modifications of cancer oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes emerge as novel mechanisms have been implicated the pathogenesis of GC. In the current study, we aim to elucidate whether histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) exerts oncogenic role in GC, and investigate the possible mechanism. Initially, we collected 64 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissues surgically resected from GC patients. Positive expression of HDAC3, FTO, and MYC in the tissues was measured using Immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, GC cell line BGC-823/AGS was selected and treated with lentivirus vectors for alteration of HDAC3, FTO, or FOXA2 expressions, followed by detection on mRNA and protein levels of HDAC3, FOXA2, FTO, and MYC using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot assays. The results demonstrated that the expressions of HDAC3, FTO and MYC were upregulated, while FOXA2 expression was downregulated in GC tissues and cells. After that, the cell viability, migration, and invasion of GC cells were assessed by CCK-8 and Transwell assays, revealing that HDAC3 accelerated GC cell viability, migration and invasion by degrading FOXA2. Subsequently, the binding relationship among HDAC3, FOXA2, FTO, and MYC was assessed by assays of immunoprecipitation, dual-luciferase reporter gene, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Methylation of m6A mRNA in GC cells was detected via gene-specific m6A qPCR and dot-blot assays. The transcription factor FOXA2 was found to bind to the FTO gene promoter and decreased its expression, while FTO stabilized MYC mRNA by reducing m6A methylation of MYC in GC cells. In addition, HDAC3 was observed to maintain the FTO/m6A/MYC signaling and regulated GC progression, which was also supported by in vivo animal study data of GC cell tumorigenesis in nude mice. These key observations uncover the tumor-initiating activities of HDAC3 in GC through its regulation on FOXA2-mediated FTO/m6A/MYC axis, highlighting the potential of therapeutically targeting epigenetic modifications to combat GC.

10.
Theranostics ; 10(17): 7710-7729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685015

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone cancer easily to metastasize. Much safer and more efficient strategies are still needed to suppress osteosarcoma growth and lung metastasis. We recently presented a pure physical method to fabricate Ångstrom-scale silver particles (AgÅPs) and determined the anti-tumor efficacy of fructose-coated AgÅPs (F-AgÅPs) against lung and pancreatic cancer. Our study utilized an optimized method to obtain smaller F-AgÅPs and aimed to assess whether F-AgÅPs can be used as an efficient and safe agent for osteosarcoma therapy. We also investigated whether the induction of apoptosis by altering glucose metabolic phenotype contributes to the F-AgÅPs-induced anti-osteosarcoma effects. Methods: A modified method was developed to prepare smaller F-AgÅPs. The anti-tumor, anti-metastatic and pro-survival efficacy of F-AgÅPs and their toxicities on healthy tissues were compared with that of cisplatin (a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for osteosarcoma therapy) in subcutaneous or orthotopic osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice. The pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and excretion of F-AgÅPs were evaluated by testing the levels of silver in serum, tissues, urine and feces of mice. A series of assays in vitro were conducted to assess whether the induction of apoptosis mediates the killing effects of F-AgÅPs on osteosarcoma cells and whether the alteration of glucose metabolic phenotype contributes to F-AgÅPs-induced apoptosis. Results: The newly obtained F-AgÅPs (9.38 ± 4.11 nm) had good stability in different biological media or aqueous solutions and were more effective than cisplatin in inhibiting tumor growth, improving survival, attenuating osteolysis and preventing lung metastasis in osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice after intravenous injection, but were well tolerated in normal tissues. One week after injection, about 68% of F-AgÅPs were excreted through feces. F-AgÅPs induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells but not normal cells, owing to their ability to selectively shift glucose metabolism of osteosarcoma cells from glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidation by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Conclusion: Our study suggests the promising prospect of F-AgÅPs as a powerful selective anticancer agent for osteosarcoma therapy.

11.
Acta Biomater ; 111: 208-220, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447063

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) frequently occurs after glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important nano-sized paracrine mediators of intercellular crosstalk. This study aimed to determine whether EVs from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-EVs) could protect against GC-induced ONFH and focused on the impacts of USC-EVs on angiogenesis and apoptosis to explore the mechanism by which USC-EVs attenuated GC-induced ONFH. The results in vivo showed that the intravenous administration of USC-EVs at the early stage of GC exposure could rescue angiogenesis impairment, reduce apoptosis of trabecular bone and marrow cells, prevent trabecular bone destruction and improve bone microarchitecture in the femoral heads of rats. In vitro, USC-EVs reversed the GC-induced suppression of endothelial angiogenesis and activation of apoptosis. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) proteins were enriched in USC-EVs and essential for the USC-EVs-induced pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects in GC-treated cells, respectively. Knockdown of TIMP1 attenuated the protective effects of USC-EVs against GC-induced ONFH. Our study suggests that USC-EVs are a promising nano-sized agent for the prevention of GC-induced ONFH by delivering pro-angiogenic DMBT1 and anti-apoptotic TIMP1. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that the intravenous injection of extracellular vesicles from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-EVs) at the early stage of glucocorticoid (GC) exposure efficiently protects the rats from the GC-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Moreover, this study identifies that the promotion of angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis by transferring pro-angiogenic DMBT1 and anti-apoptotic TIMP1 proteins contribute importantly to the USC-EVs-induced protective effects against GC-induced ONFH. This study suggests the promising prospect of USC-EVs as a new nano-sized agent for protecting against GC-induced ONFH, and the potential of DMBT1 and TIMP1 as the molecular targets for further augmenting the protective function of USC-EVs.

12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 189, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum species are the causal agents of anthracnose, a major disease affecting the yield and quality of pepper (Capsicum spp.). Colletotrichum scovillei is widespread in China, has strong pathogenicity and drug resistance, and causes anthracnose disease in pepper fruits that severely reduces production. Previously, an anti-anthracnose locus AnRGO5 was mapped to the P5 chromosome on the basis of analyses of fruit at the green mature stage. The aim of this study was to narrow down the interval of this locus and identify the gene responsible for conferring resistance. RESULTS: On the basis of results of re-sequencing of Capsicum chinense 'PBC932' and C. annuum '77013', we developed Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) markers and insertion-deletion (InDel) markers linked to AnRGO5 at the green mature fruit stage and used them to construct a genetic linkage map (42 markers, 24.4 cM in length). Using data obtained in phenotypic and genotypic analyses of BC4S1, BC4S2, and BC4S3 populations, AnRGO5 was located between the markers P5in-2266-404 and P5in-2268-978 within a physical distance of 164 kb. This region contained five genes, including CA05g17730. CA05g17730 encodes 'R1C-3-like' putative late blight resistance protein homologs. The transcript level of CA05g17730 differed between 'PBC932' and '77013'. The structure of the CA05g17730 gene also differed between 'PBC932' and '77013'. CONCLUSIONS: We narrowed down the QTL interval to a region containing five genes. These results will be useful for further research on the mechanisms of resistance to anthracnose, and for marker assisted selection for anthracnose-resistant capsicum lines.

13.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105320914364, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356463

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of the duration of childhood starvation experience on life satisfaction among Chinese people and examined whether and how socioeconomic and health statuses mediated this association. Data were derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationwide social survey project that was conducted among Chinese individuals aged 45 or older in 2014. The results show that the duration of childhood starvation experience was significantly negatively associated with life satisfaction, and socioeconomic and health statuses mediated this relationship. The findings suggested that more interventions should be conducted among people who have experienced childhood starvation.

14.
Artif Organs ; 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279354

RESUMO

In heart transplantation, time restriction is an unavoidable thorny problem during cardiac transport. Cold storage is an important organ preservation method in donor heart transport. Cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) has been proven to play a protective role under cold stress. In this study, we investigated the role of CIRBP in hypothermic cardioprotection during heart preservation in UW solution and explored a new approach to extend the heart preservation time. Cirbp-knockout (Cirbp-/- ), Cirbp-transgenic (Cirbp-Tg), and wild-type rats were, respectively, randomized into two groups based on various heart preservation times (6 or 12-hour group) (n = 8 per group). After preservation in UW solution, all hearts were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and underwent measurement of cardiac parameters, histological analysis, and molecular study. Within the 6-hour preservation group, no significant difference was found in cardiac functions and histological changes between different rat species. However, after 12 hours of preservation, Cirbp-/- rat hearts showed more apoptosis and worse cardiac function, but less apoptosis and better cardiac function were observed in Cirbp-Tg rat hearts. Furthermore, we found CIRBP-mediated cardiac ubiquinone (CoQ10 ) biosynthesis plays an important role in extending heart preservation, and ubiquinone biosynthesis protein COQ9 was an essential down-stream regulator during this process. Finally, we found that zr17-2, a CIRBP agonist, could enhance the expression of CIRBP, which further enhances the synthesis of CoQ10 and promotes scavenging of reactive oxygen species and ATP production to extend heart preservation. This study demonstrated that CIRBP-enhanced CoQ10 biosynthesis during hypothermic heart preservation and zr17-2-supplemented UW solution could be a promising approach to ameliorate heart damage and extend heart preservation during cardiac transport.

15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(7): e28244, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323890

RESUMO

It is unclear if dosing intervals for Erwinase can be extended with intramuscular (i.m.) versus intravenous (i.v.) dosing. Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia received Erwinase at 30 000-42 000 IU/m2 i.v. or i.m. I.m. Erwinase (n = 22) achieved activity above 0.1 IU/mL for longer than i.v. Erwinase (n = 33) (3.4 vs 2.9 days, P = 0.0007). With 30 000 IU/m2 Monday, Wednesday, Friday, more patients achieved adequate concentrations over the weekend with i.m. vs i.v. dosing (P = 5 × 10-36 ). A schedule with i.v. doses on Monday and Wednesday and i.m. doses on Friday of 30 000 IU/m2 maintained activity > 0.1 IU/mL over the weekend in 80% of patients.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Asparaginase/sangue , Erwinia/enzimologia , Injeções Intramusculares/métodos , Injeções Intravenosas/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/enzimologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(14): 6761-6768, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172565

RESUMO

Diagnostics and therapeutics are generally separate entities in medicine. Theranostics, agents that provide for both modalities, are being developed. However, they often require complex syntheses so as to incorporate within one molecular structure both diagnostic and therapeutic elements. Moreover, their use is often complicated by the disparate dosage requirements for diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we report that closely related porphyrinoid regioisomers produced from the same 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction give rise to products that as their corresponding ytterbium(III) complexes may be split and used for the separate biological functions that are required for theranostics. Specifically, the cis isomer is luminescent and suitable for NIR imaging, while the trans isomer produces singlet oxygen with a good quantum yield and is thus attractive for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments provide support for the complementary biological functions of the two regioisomers. The present study reveals how ostensibly related regioisomers may be used to switch between diagnosis and therapy. More broadly, it serves to highlight a new approach to creating paired sets of molecules that may be used in combination as effective theranostics.

17.
Theranostics ; 10(8): 3779-3792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206122

RESUMO

Healing of the chronic diabetic ulceration and large burns remains a clinical challenge. Therapeutic fasting has been shown to improve health. Our study tested whether fasting facilitates diabetic and burn wound healing and explored the underlying mechanism. Methods: The effects of fasting on diabetic and burn wound healing were evaluated by analyzing the rates of wound closure, re-epithelialization, scar formation, collagen deposition, skin cell proliferation and neovascularization using histological analyses and immunostaining. In vitro functional assays were conducted to assess fasting and refeeding on the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells. Transcriptome sequencing was employed to identify the differentially expressed genes in endothelial cells after fasting treatment and the role of the candidate genes in the fasting-induced promotion of angiogenesis was demonstrated. Results: Two times of 24-h fasting in a week after but especially before wound injury efficiently induced faster wound closure, better epidermal and dermal regeneration, less scar formation and higher level of angiogenesis in mice with diabetic or burn wounds. In vitro, fasting alone by serum deprivation did not increase, but rather reduced the abilities of endothelial cell to proliferate, migrate and form vessel-like tubes. However, subsequent refeeding did not merely rescue, but further augmented the angiogenic activities of endothelial cells. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that fasting itself, but not the following refeeding, induced a prominent upregulation of a variety of pro-angiogenic genes, including SMOC1 (SPARC related modular calcium binding 1) and SCG2 (secretogranin II). Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the increase of SMOC1 and SCG2 expression in both diabetic and burn wounds after fasting treatment. When the expression of SMOC1 or SCG2 was down-regulated, the fasting/refeeding-induced pro-angiogenic effects were markedly attenuated. Conclusion: This study suggests that fasting combined with refeeding, but not fasting solely, enhance endothelial angiogenesis through the activation of SMOC1 and SCG2, thus facilitating neovascularization and rapid wound healing.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tomografia por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043353

RESUMO

A stretchable electronic skin (e-skin) requires a durable elastomeric matrix to serve in various conditions. Therefore, excellent and balanced properties such as elasticity, water proof capability, toughness, and self-healing are demanded. However, it is very difficult and often contradictory to optimize them at one time. Here, a polyurethane (BS-PU-3) containing a polydisperse hard segment, hydrophobic soft segment, and a dynamic disulfide bond was prepared by one-pot synthesis. Unlike the normal two-pot reaction, BS-PU-3 obtained through the one-pot method owned a higher density of self-healing points along the main chain and a faster self-healing speed, which reached 1.11 µm/min in a cut-through sample and recovered more than 93% of virgin mechanical properties in 6 h at room temperature. Moreover, a remarkable toughness of 27.5 MJ/m3 assures its durability as an e-skin matrix. Even with a 1 mm notch (half of the total width) on a standard dumbbell specimen, it could still bear the tensile strain up to 324% without any crack propagation. With polybutadiene as the soft segment, the shape, microstructure, and conductivity in BS-PU-3 and BS-PU-3-based stretchable electronics kept very stable after soaking in water for 3 days, proving the super waterproof property. An e-skin demo was constructed, and self-healing in pressure sensitivity, mechanical, and electrical properties were verified.

20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tomografia por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
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