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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 30847-30856, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446596

RESUMO

Widespread contamination of agricultural soil with Cd and As has resulted in substantial transfer and accumulation of these toxicants in rice grains. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicken manure application on Cd and As concentrations and As speciation in the rice grains grown under different water conditions by pot experiment. Under aerobic condition, the application of chicken manure increased soil pH and soil Eh during most of the growth period of rice. Consequently, the application of chicken manure has little effect on total Cd, slightly decreased total As and inorganic As of rice grains when applied at rate of 2.0%. Under intermittent irrigation condition, the application of chicken manure increased soil pH and decreased soil Eh during most of the growth period of rice. Thus, chicken manure decreased total Cd, As, and inorganic As of rice grains. Besides, there was increased reduction of Cd and As with increase in the amount of chicken manure applied. Under flooded condition, the application of chicken manure increased soil pH before heading but decreased soil pH after heading. The application of chicken manure dramatically decreased total and inorganic As in rice grains, and slightly decreased Cd of rice grains. There was increased reduction of total As concentration with the increase in the amount of chicken manure applied. Meanwhile, the inorganic As concentration was the lowest when the concentration of chicken manure was 1.0%.

3.
Cytokine ; 123: 154786, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352174

RESUMO

Adherens junction protein p120 is thought to be crucial for maintaining vascular integrity, which is important in many pathologies and diseases including atherosclerosis, vascular malformations, hemorrhagic stroke, sepsis and others. However, the mechanisms responsible for this is not completely understood. In this study, using an unbiased proteomics approach, followed by other experimental techniques, we identified that in HUVECs p120 overexpression inhibits LPS/TNFα-induced angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) expression, a key switch of endothelial destabilization. Interestingly, p120 overexpression did not inhibit LPS/TNFα-induced expression of adhesion molecules/cytokines including VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 in our experimental system. Furthermore, this p120-mediated repression of Ang2 is in an NF-κB independent manner, possibly via transcription factor Ets1. Our results demonstrate that p120 influences vascular integrity by secreted signals, providing new insights into the mechanisms of p120-mediated vascular stability.

4.
Inflamm Res ; 68(10): 877-887, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin-mediated adherens junction is critical to maintain endothelial integrity. Besides its role of homophilic intercellular adhesion, VE-cadherin also has a role of outside-in signaling with functional consequences for vascular physiology. However, the nature of these signals remains not completely understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in cell culture experiments. Confluent HUVECs were treated with VE-cadherin function-blocking antibodies BV9 (50 µg/ml) or IgG control. Antibody array was used to screen for cytokine/chemokine in supernatant. For VE-cadherin knockdown, siRNA transfection was used. ELISA, Western blot, and qRT-PCR were used to confirm the expression of screened cytokine/chemokine. To explore the possible mechanisms, Scr phosphorylation was detected and Scr inhibitor PP2 (1 µM) was used. To investigate in vivo relevance of the findings, BV9 and the indicated neutralizing antibodies were injected into mice and then lung vascular leak and inflammation were examined by Evans blue assay and lung tissue H&E, respectively. RESULTS: Using a non-biased, high-throughout human cytokine/chemokine antibody array, we first found that disruption of VE-cadherin-mediated adhesion by function-blocking antibody BV9 triggered the release of migration inhibitory factor (MIF). This VE-cadherin-mediated release of MIF further confirmed by ELISA with both VE-cadherin blocking antibody and siRNA technique was due to enhanced expression of MIF mRNA, which was mediated by Src kinase activation. In addition, in vivo lung vascular leak induced by VE-cadherin function-blocking antibody was partly alleviated by neutralizing MIF. CONCLUSIONS: VE-cadherin regulates MIF synthesis and release via Src kinase. Our data provide additional evidence to the concept that VE-cadherin transfers intracellular signals to coordinate the state of cell-cell adhesion with gene expression.

5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 309: 108686, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152735

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (EC3.1.1.7; AChE) is a key enzyme in the cholinergic system. Emerging evidence has shown that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a typical persistent organic pollutant, suppressed neuronal AChE activity via dysregulation of different biosynthesis processes in human and rat neuronal cells. In the nervous system, astrocytes protect neurons from environmental pollutants. As a known target cell of TCDD, the astrocyte might be involved in TCDD effects on neuronal AChE. Therefore, in the present study, we found astrocyte-derived conditioned medium (ACM) could induce AChE activity preferentially in mature neurons in the absence of TCDD. The enzymatic activity of AChE was generally decreased in cultured cortical neurons upon direct treatment with TCDD (0.003-0.01 nM). This trend of changes in AChE activity was not significantly altered in immature neurons exposed to ACM produced in the presence of TCDD (TACM group), but reversed in mature neurons. Compared with effects of treatment with ACM plus TCDD (ACMT), a significant differential effect on AChE activity was found in the TACM group in response to TCDD treatment specifically in immature neurons, suggesting the presence of a TCDD-specific active component derived from the astrocyte. Inconsistent alterations in expression and enzymatic activities of the AChE T subunit (AChET) and the proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA) were found, suggesting that a mechanism of action beyond the transcriptional level might be involved. These data indicate that the astrocyte might play a protective role in TCDD-induced alterations of neuronal AChE in certain stages of differentiation.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Psychol Health Med ; 24(8): 1015-1027, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179736

RESUMO

High workloads and heavy academic pressure can have significant implications for the risk for depression and poor quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to investigate QoL and depressive symptoms in medical students undergoing postgraduate neurology specialty training in China. The survey covered demographic characteristics, the 8-itemMedical Outcomes Study Short-Formquestionnaire (SF-8), and the 2-itemPrimary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders depression screening tool. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the determinants of QoL and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,814 postgraduates from 249 hospitals in 27 Chinese provinces. The mean SF-8 physical and mental component summary scores were 78.17 (standard deviation [SD] 15.20) and 68.33 (SD 17.15), respectively. One-third of respondents had depressive symptoms, and those without depressive symptoms had significantly higher QoL scores. The multivariate regression analysis showed that factors independently associated with depressive symptoms were being in the second year of study, a lower household income, and less sleep  time. Although QoL among our sample of Chinese medical students undergoing postgraduate neurology specialty training was favorable relative to other comparable populations, one-third of respondents had depressive symptoms. Accurate measures should be taken to change this situation.

7.
Brief Bioinform ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157825

RESUMO

Depression is a seriously disabling psychiatric disorder with a significant burden of disease. Metabolic abnormalities have been widely reported in depressed patients and animal models. However, there are few systematic efforts that integrate meaningful biological insights from these studies. Herein, available metabolic knowledge in the context of depression was integrated to provide a systematic and panoramic view of metabolic characterization. After screening more than 10 000 citations from five electronic literature databases and five metabolomics databases, we manually curated 5675 metabolite entries from 464 studies, including human, rat, mouse and non-human primate, to develop a new metabolite-disease association database, called MENDA (http://menda.cqmu.edu.cn:8080/index.php). The standardized data extraction process was used for data collection, a multi-faceted annotation scheme was developed, and a user-friendly search engine and web interface were integrated for database access. To facilitate data analysis and interpretation based on MENDA, we also proposed a systematic analytical framework, including data integration and biological function analysis. Case studies were provided that identified the consistently altered metabolites using the vote-counting method, and that captured the underlying molecular mechanism using pathway and network analyses. Collectively, we provided a comprehensive curation of metabolic characterization in depression. Our model of a specific psychiatry disorder may be replicated to study other complex diseases.

8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 164-169, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100272

RESUMO

Emerging data indicate that prenatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could interfere with myogenic differentiation in vivo. Acetylcholinesterase (EC3.1.1.7; AChE), an enzyme critical for cholinergic neurotransmission, is abundantly expressed in neurons and mature myotubes, and we recently found that muscle AChE expression was suppressed in parallel with the inhibition of myogenic differentiation upon TCDD treatment in mouse C2C12 cells. This TCDD-induced suppression of muscle AChE was proposed to involve an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-independent mechanism, but the precise underlying mechanism remains unclear. Considering the widely recognized role of muscular activity in AChE expression and its potential crosstalk with the AhR signaling pathway, we sought to investigate the effect of TCDD on muscle AChE expression in the presence of muscular activity. Therefore, we employed a highly contractile rat primary skeletal muscle culture system in which AChE activity and the expression of genes related to it (AChE T subunit and collagen Q (ColQ)) were increased during the myogenic differentiation process. Although TCDD treatment successfully induced the expression of genes regulated by AhR activation, the treatment exerted no notable effects on myogenic differentiation. Moreover, muscle AChE enzymatic activity and mRNA level remained unchanged following TCDD treatment, and only ColQ mRNA expression was slightly increased after 4-day treatment with TCDD (10-10 M). The compensatory role of muscle-contraction-related signaling pathways in this newly identified unresponsiveness of muscle AChE to TCDD warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/citologia , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18256-18266, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041705

RESUMO

Landfill leachate is generally transferred to in situ facilities for advanced treatment by using a pipe system. Because of its harmful and complex compounds, leachate may react with pipe materials, leading to corrosion and scaling. This experimental study uses typical PVC pipe material and investigates its anti-corrosion performance by placing the material samples into different aged leachates. By evaluating the changes in different experimental parameters, including calcium, magnesium, and chloride ion concentration, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, and pH, combined with a characterization of the material properties, we infer the main causes of pipe scaling-corrosion. Results show that the scaling is more intense in the younger leachate, and the concentration of calcium ions is the dominant influencing factor. The scaling might be resulted from joint actions of chemical precipitation and microbial metabolic activities. It is expected the study to provide useful insights into taking effective actions on anti-clogging, and enhance pipes design by selection of appropriate materials for future modification.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Precipitação Química , Corrosão , Oxigênio , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 162, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, the shortage of doctors leads to stressful clinical work and increasing turnover. Medical students undergoing postgraduate specialty training will be the country's medical workforce in the coming decades, but are also subject to high workloads and academic pressure. This may have significant implications for burnout and career choice regret. Despite the importance of burnout and career choice regret, the status and relationship of these aspects in Chinese neurology postgraduates are largely unexplored, and associated factors remain unknown. METHODS: This study investigated the prevalence of and factors influencing burnout and career choice regret among neurology postgraduates in China. We conducted a national cross-sectional study of Chinese neurology postgraduates. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that covered demographic information, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and additional item to assess career choice regret. RESULTS: Of 4902 neurology postgraduates, 2008 returned completed questionnaires (response rate 41%). After excluding incomplete questionnaires, data for 1814 participants were analyzed. In total, 83.6% of participants had experienced symptoms of burnout, and 46.6% reported career choice regret. Binary logistic regression analysis showed postgraduate entrance examination scores, marital status, and having children were associated with burnout (all P <  0.05). Career choice regret was the strongest risk factor for burnout (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33-4.32). Multiple logistic regression showed postgraduates with shorter work or study hours per week (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.88) had a low risk for career choice regret, whereas married participants (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.20) had a high risk for career choice regret. No symptoms of burnout (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.24-0.45) was also associated with a low risk for career choice regret. CONCLUSIONS: Burnout symptoms and career choice regret are prevalent among neurology postgraduates in China. Career choice regret is an important predictor of burnout. Further research on reducing burnout and career choice regret among neurology postgraduates is needed.

11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(6): 1701-1712, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002870

RESUMO

Exaggerated endothelial pro-inflammatory response is a hallmark in the early stage of sepsis and contributes to the subsequent tissue injury and organ failure. The anti-inflammatory effects of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator metformin in sepsis has been revealed. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. In the present study, the potential roles of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) in the effects of metformin on endothelial pro-inflammatory responses were investigated. The results showed that metformin pretreatment increased the phosphorylation of HDAC5 at serine 498, leading to the upregulation of KLF2, and eliminated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor ⍺ (TNF⍺)-induced upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1). Furthermore, the adhesion of HL60 leukocytes to endothelial monolayer was effectively inhibited by metformin. In addition, the in vivo data confirmed that AMPK activation attenuated local and systemic inflammation in endotoxic mice induced by LPS via mediating phosphorylating HDAC5 and restoring KLF2 expression. Our findings revealed that AMPK activation-mediated HDAC5 phosphorylation and KLF2 restoration is, at least partially, responsible to the anti-inflammatory effects of metformin in endotoxemia-induced endothelial cells, which has important implications for the future development of interfering therapies of sepsis.

12.
Sci Adv ; 5(2): eaau8317, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775438

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a devastating mental disorder with poorly defined underlying molecular mechanisms. The gut microbiome can modulate brain function and behaviors through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Here, we found that unmedicated and medicated patients with SCZ had a decreased microbiome α-diversity index and marked disturbances of gut microbial composition versus healthy controls (HCs). Several unique bacterial taxa (e.g., Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae) were associated with SCZ severity. A specific microbial panel (Aerococcaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Brucellaceae, Pasteurellaceae, and Rikenellaceae) enabled discriminating patients with SCZ from HCs with 0.769 area under the curve. Compared to HCs, germ-free mice receiving SCZ microbiome fecal transplants had lower glutamate and higher glutamine and GABA in the hippocampus and displayed SCZ-relevant behaviors similar to other mouse models of SCZ involving glutamatergic hypofunction. Together, our findings suggest that the SCZ microbiome itself can alter neurochemistry and neurologic function in ways that may be relevant to SCZ pathology.

13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 76: 368-376, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528028

RESUMO

Emerging evidence showed that 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could induce expression of certain reactivation-associated genes in astrocytes, however, the consequent cellular effects and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. During the process of astrocyte reactivation, migration is a critical cellular event. In the present study, we employed wound-healing assay and Transwell® motility assay to explore the effects of TCDD on cell migration in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes. We found that upon TCDD treatments at relative low concentrations (10-10 and/or 10-9 mol/L), the ability of primary astrocytes to migrate horizontally and vertically was promoted. In line with this cellular effect, the mRNA expression of two pro-migratory genes, including cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was induced by TCDD treatment. Dioxin exerts its toxic effects mainly through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. So the role of AhR pathway in the pro-migratory effects of TCDD was examined using an AhR antagonist, CH223191. We found that application of CH223191 significantly reversed the pro-migratory effects of TCDD. Interestingly, the basal ability of horizontal migration as well as basal levels of CDC42 and MMP2 expression were dramatically reduced suggesting a possible physiological role of AhR in maintaining the endogenous migration ability of the primary astrocytes. These findings support the notion that dioxin promotes astrocyte reactivation at molecular and cellular levels.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 200: 10-15, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance the understanding of dry eye (DE) in diabetes by evaluating the ocular surface characteristics and the levels of tear inflammatory cytokines. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Subjects were divided into 4 groups: 32 patients in the diabetes with DE group; 24 patients in the diabetes without DE group; 28 patients in the nondiabetes with DE group; and 29 volunteers in the normal group. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI) was self-answered and ocular surface characteristics including tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), and corneal sensitivity were evaluated. Concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), IL-17A, IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured by mutiplex bead analysis. Spearman correlations between cytokines and ocular surface parameters were calculated. RESULTS: The level of EGF in tears significantly increased in the diabetes with DE group and positively correlated with the CFS and negatively correlated with the Schirmer I test in this group (P < .05). No differences were found in the levels of IL-17A, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in the diabetes with DE and diabetes without DE groups compared to the normal group (P > .05). The nondiabetes with DE group showed increased levels of IL-17A, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in tears compared to the normal group and the levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α in tears positively correlated with CFS (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that levels of EGF in tears have potential to be the diagnostic biomarker of DE in diabetes. No differences of IL-17A, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in tears were found between the diabetes with DE and normal group, suggesting different pathogenesis of diabetes DE vs nondiabetes DE.

15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(18): 3618-3623, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384523

RESUMO

To study the suitable arousal modes of hibernating Whitmania pigra, the biological characteristics, activity of amylase, lipase, and protease as well as morphologic structure of digestive tract were investigated by direct observational method and 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetry, p-nitrophenyl palmitate ester(p-NPP)colorimetry, folin-phenol and histological methods. The results revealed that Wh. pigra activity was increased with increases of the water temperature and prolonging treating duration. Except for the feeding groups of direct arousal mode at 24 h and 48 h, none of the other Wh. pigra groups died. Compared with that of normal groups, the digestive tract structure of hibernating Wh. pigra was looser and the mucosal folds of craw were more sparse. No obvious recovery was observed for the structure of the digestive tract before 48 h of direct arousal mode or the 5th day of 15 °C gradient arousal mode. The mucosal folds of craw increased and the muscularis were incrassated after 72 h of direct arousal mode or the 8th day of 20 °C gradient arousal mode, that indicated the tissue structure was approximately restored to the normal state. The digestive enzyme activities were increased with prolonging treating duration. And the feeding groups recovered faster than that of the no feeding groups. Additionally, the enzyme activities of feeding groups were significantly higher than that of no feeding groups (P<0.05) and approximately restored to the normal level after 48 h in the direct arousal mode or 20 °C in the gradient arousal mode. In conclusion, both of the two modes can be applied to the arouse of hibernating Wh. pigra, and it should be fed when the temperature is recovered to 15 °C or 20 °C at 2 °C·d⁻¹ in the gradient arousal mode after 72 h in the direct arousal mode to reduce the death ratio and improve effectively the economic profit of Wh. pigra aquaculture.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443657

RESUMO

The in-situ immobilization effect of sepiolite and biochar on the compound pollution of cadmium (Cd) and atrazine in acid red soil of south China was studied. Results showed that in a certain concentration range, sepiolite and biochar can improve the germination rate, ensure normal growth and increase biomass of pakchoi, reduce the content of Cd in edible parts of pakchoi in different degrees and meet international standards, and restrain absorption of atrazine in pakchoi completely. Sepiolite was more effective than biochar for the immobilization of Cd, while biochar was more effective than sepiolite for the immobilization of atrazine. Combined application of sepiolite and biochar in soil contaminated by Cd and atrazine was better than individual applications of sepiolite or biochar. The remediation method applied in this research can effectively repair the acid red soil with combined pollution of Cd and atrazine in south China, while also providing ideas for in-situ remediation of farmland soil with combined pollution of pesticides and metals.

17.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 906-915, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347373

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged as a major public health concern due to its fast-growing prevalence in recent decades. Environmental factors are thought to contribute substantially to the variance in ASD. Interest in environmental toxins as causes of ASD has arisen due to the high sensitivity of the developing human brain to toxic chemicals, particularly to dioxin and certain dioxin-like compounds (dioxins). As a group of typical persistent organic pollutants, dioxins have been found to exert adverse effects on human brain development. In this paper, we review the evidence for association of exposure to dioxins with neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to ASD based on both human epidemiological and animal studies. It has been documented that exposure to dioxins during critical developmental periods increased risk for ASD. This notion has been demonstrated in different populations exposed to high or background level of dioxins. Furthermore, the effects and mechanisms of action of dioxins relevant to the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of ASD are summarized, describing potential underlying mechanisms linking dioxin exposure with ASD onset. Further studies focusing on effects of prenatal/perinatal exposure to individual dioxin congeners or to mixtures of dioxins on ASD-associated behavioral and neurobiological consequences in animal models, and on the mechanisms of actions of dioxins, are needed in order to better understand how dioxin exposure might contribute to increased risk for ASD.

18.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223615

RESUMO

Tomato juice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei to produce an innovative high-bioactivity probiotic beverage. The levels of lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, total phenolic and volatile compounds, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Escherichia coli flora, as well as the inhibition of copper-induced human low-density lipoproteins (LDL)-cholesterol oxidation assays, were measured. The results revealed that the ABTS and DPPH inhibition values, as well as the FRAP and total phenolic content, were significantly increased. LDL-cholesterol oxidation was markedly delayed after the addition of the fermented juice. The in vitro inhibitory effects of Escherichia coli flora were substantially increased after being fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei. The results associated with the volatile compounds indicated that fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei is a meaningful strategy for modifying flavors.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(31): 31175-31182, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187416

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) alleviates cadmium (Cd) accumulation in several plants. Nevertheless, it is still unclear why it has such effect. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Se on soil Cd bioavailability, and Cd accumulation in flooded rice plants, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. Concentration of Cd and Se in different rice tissues was determined along Cd and Se concentrations in the soil solution and soil Cd fractions. Results showed that exogenous selenite and selenate treatments significantly increased rice grain Se by 4.25- and 2.39-fold and decreased Cd by 36.5% and 25.3% relative to control treatment, respectively. The addition of Se to Cd-contaminated soil significantly decreased total Cd concentration in the soil solution by 11.2-13.0%, increased soil pH by 0.06-0.32 units, and enhanced soil Cd immobilization in relation to control. Exogenous Se also reduced diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Cd, exchangeable, and residual Cd but increased the levels of Cd bound to carbonate and iron and manganese oxides. Thus, amending Cd-contaminated soil with Se may help decrease Cd content as well as increase Se levels in rice grain, as Se may mitigate Cd accumulation in rice plants by increasing soil pH, reducing Cd bioavailability, and inhibiting Cd translocation from roots to shoots.

20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 192, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232320

RESUMO

Available data indicate that patients with depression and anxiety disorders are likely to be at greater risk for suicide. Therefore, it is important to correctly diagnose patients with depression and anxiety disorders. However, there are still no empirical laboratory methods to objectively diagnose these patients. In this study, the multiple metabolomics platforms were used to profile the urine samples from 32 healthy controls and 32 patients with depression and anxiety disorders for identifying differential metabolites and potential biomarkers. Then, 16 healthy controls and 16 patients with depression and anxiety disorders were used to independently validate the diagnostic performance of the identified biomarkers. Finally, a panel consisting of four biomarkers-N-methylnicotinamide, aminomalonic acid, azelaic acid and hippuric acid-was identified. This panel was capable of distinguishing patients with depression and anxiety disorders from healthy controls with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.977 in the training set and 0.934 in the testing set. Meanwhile, we found that these identified differential metabolites were mainly involved in three metabolic pathways and five molecular and cellular functions. Our results could lay the groundwork for future developing a urine-based diagnostic method for patients with depression and anxiety disorders.

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