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1.
Heart ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of aggressive hydration compared with general hydration for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) prevention among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). METHODS: The Aggressive hydraTion in patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI to prevenT Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury study is an open-label, randomised controlled study at 15 teaching hospitals in China. A total of 560 adult patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive aggressive hydration or general hydration treatment. Aggressive hydration group received preprocedural loading dose of 125/250 mL normal saline within 30 min, followed by postprocedural hydration performed for 4 hours under left ventricular end-diastolic pressure guidance and additional hydration until 24 hours after pPCI. General hydration group received ≤500 mL 0.9% saline at 1 mL/kg/hour for 6 hours after randomisation. The primary end point is CI-AKI, defined as a >25% or 0.5 mg/dL increased in serum creatinine from baseline during the first 48-72 hours after primary angioplasty. The safety end point is acute heart failure. RESULTS: From July 2014 to May 2018, 469 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. CI-AKI occurred less frequently in aggressive hydration group than in general hydration group (21.8% vs 31.1%; risk ratio (RR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.96). Acute heart failure did not significantly differ between the aggressive hydration group and the general hydration group (8.1% vs 6.4%, RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.66 to 2.44). Several subgroup analysis showed the better effect of aggressive hydration in CI-AKI prevention in male, renal insufficient and non-anterior myocardial infarction participants. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing with general hydration, the peri-operative aggressive hydration seems to be safe and effective in preventing CI-AKI among patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI.

2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112738, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481352

RESUMO

Arsenic is a significant food safety and environmental concern due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic effect on living organism. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) is a global staple crop grown intensively in arsenic-contaminated regions of the world (e.g., Southern Province of China). Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether Se-NPs and/or ZnO-NPs could be used as an eco-friendly and efficient amendment to reduce arsenic uptake and toxicity in soybean. Ten-days-old seedling, grown in vermiculite, were transferred to hydroponic media and further grown till V2 growth stage appeared. AsV (25 µM Na2HAsO4) stressed plants were treated with ZnONP (25 µM ZnO) and SeNP (25 µM Se) separately and in combination, which were grown for another 10 d. The result demonstrated that arsenic-treated soybean plants displayed a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency, increased proline and glycine betaine accumulation in tissues, and altered antioxidant activity compared to an untreated control. The application of zinc oxide and selenium nanoparticles, both independently and in tandem, reduced arsenic stress in root and shoot tissues and rescued plant health. This was reflected through increased levels of reduced glutathione content, ascorbic acid, and various photosynthesis- and antioxidant-relevant enzymes. In addition, nanoparticle-treated soybean plants displayed higher expression of defense- and detoxification-related genes compared to controls. Cellular toxicants (i.e., oxidized glutathione, reactive oxygen species, and malondialdehyde) were reduced upon nanoparticle treatment. These data collectively suggest that selenium and zinc oxide nanoparticles may be a solution to ameliorate arsenic toxicity in agricultural soils and crop plants.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125931, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492861

RESUMO

Contamination characteristics, equilibrium partitioning and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) were investigated in seawater, sediment and biological samples collected from the Xiangshan Bay area during an annual investigation between January and November 2019. PAE concentrations detected in the mariculture environment in surface seawater, sediment, and biological samples were 172-3365 ng/L, 190-2430 µg/kg (dry weight [dw]), and 820-4926 µg/kg (dw), respectively. The dominant congeners in different media included di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The inner bay and the bay mouth were the gathering area of PAEs and heavily influenced by the mariculture activities, river inputs, and anthropogenic activities. The bioaccumulation of PAEs demonstrated benthic feeding fishes with relatively high trophic levels concentrated high levels of phthalates. The mobility of PAEs in sediment-seawater showed that the transfer tendency of low-molecular weight species was from the sediment to the water, which was in contrast with those of high-molecular weight PAEs. DEHP, DiBP and DnBP had various degrees of ecological risks in the aquatic environment, whereas only the DiBP posed potential risks in sediments. The current assessment of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks posed by fish consumption were within acceptable limits for humans.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e26220, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation (LCS) is considered an effective surgical procedure for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. However, varying degrees of loss of the cervical curvature were noted in some patients postoperatively. The aim of this study was to observe the relationship between cervical curvature and spinal drift distance after LCS and to determine its effect on neurological function, axial symptoms, and C5 palsy. METHODS: A total of 117 consecutive cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients with normal cervical curvature underwent LCS from April 2015 to May 2017 in our institution. Of these patients, 90 patients who accepted to undergo an integrated follow-up were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on their postoperative cervical curvature. In group A (28 patients), the cervical curvature became straight postoperatively (0°≤cervical spine angle≤5°); in group B (36 patients), the cervical curvature decreased (5°16.5°). Spinal drift distance, neurological recovery, axial symptoms, and C5 palsy in the patients were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Postoperative measurements showed that there was no significant difference in laminectomy width between the groups (P > .05). The cervical spine angle was 2.7°â€Š±â€Š0.5° in group A, 11.2°â€Š±â€Š2.6° in group B, and 20.8°â€Š±â€Š4.1° in group C (P < .05), while the spinal drift distance was 1.2 ±â€Š0.2 mm, 1.8 ±â€Š0.4 mm, and 3.0 ±â€Š0.5 mm, respectively (P < .05). The postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association score was significantly increased in all groups (P < .05), and there was no significant difference between the groups at different time points (P > .05). However, significant differences were noted between the groups in axial symptoms (P < .05), which were analyzed via the visual analog scale score. The occurrence of C5 palsy in groups A, B, and C was 7.1% (2/28), 8.3% (3/36), and 11.5% (3/26), respectively (P > .05). CONCLUSION: In LCS, the cervical curvature should be maintained at the normal angle to obtain a good spinal cord drift distance and a lower incidence of axial symptoms.

5.
Cell Rep ; 36(11): 109718, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525361

RESUMO

Scant understanding of the glioblastoma microenvironment and molecular bases hampers development of efficient treatment strategies. Analyses of gene signatures of human gliomas demonstrate that the SETD2 mutation is correlated with poor prognosis of IDH1/2 wild-type (IDH-WT) adult glioblastoma patients. To better understand the crosstalk between SETD2 mutant (SETD2-mut) glioblastoma cells and the tumor microenvironment, we leverage single-cell transcriptomics to comprehensively map cellular populations in glioblastoma. In this study, we identify a specific subtype of high-grade glioma-associated microglia (HGG-AM). Further analysis shows that transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 derived from SETD2-mut/IDH-WT tumor cells activates HGG-AM, exhibiting pro-inflammation and proliferation signatures. Particularly, HGG-AM secretes interleukin (IL)-1ß via the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-mediated NLRP1 inflammasome, thereby promoting tumor progression. HGG-AM present extensive proliferation and infiltration to supplement the activated microglia pool. Notably, TGF-ß1/TßRI depletion dramatically reduces HGG-AM density and suppresses tumor growth. Altogether, our studies identify a specific microglia subpopulation and establish the cellular basis of interactions between HGG-AM and glioblastoma cells.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 476, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526483

RESUMO

Progressive loss of neurons in a specific brain area is one of the manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much effort has been devoted to investigating brain atrophy and AD. However, the causal relationship between cortical structure and AD is not clear. We conducted a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between cortical structure (surface area and thickness of the whole cortex and 34 cortical regions) and AD risk. Genetic variants used as instruments came from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of cortical structure (33,992 participants of European ancestry) and AD (AD and AD-by-proxy, 71,880 cases, 383,378 controls). We found suggestive associations of the decreased surface area of the temporal pole (OR (95% CI): 0.95 (0.9, 0.997), p = 0.04), and decreased thickness of cuneus (OR (95% CI): 0.93 (0.89, 0.98), p = 0.006) with higher AD risk. We also found a suggestive association of vulnerability to AD with the decreased surface area of precentral (ß (SE): -43.4 (21.3), p = 0.042) and isthmus cingulate (ß (SE): -18.5 (7.3), p = 0.011). However, none of the Bonferroni-corrected p values of the causal relationship between cortical structure and AD met the threshold. We show suggestive evidence of an association of the atrophy of the temporal pole and cuneus with higher AD risk. In the other direction, there was a suggestive causal relationship between vulnerability to AD and the decreased surface area of the precentral and isthmus cingulate. Our findings shed light on the associations of cortical structure with the occurrence of AD.

7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 5436729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512742

RESUMO

The prevention and control of navel orange pests and diseases is an important measure to ensure the yield of navel oranges. Aiming at the problems of slow speed, strong subjectivity, high requirements for professional knowledge required, and high identification costs in the identification methods of navel orange pests and diseases, this paper proposes a method based on DenseNet and attention. The power mechanism fusion (DCPSNET) identification method of navel orange diseases and pests improves the traditional deep dense network DenseNet model to realize accurate and efficient identification of navel orange diseases and pests. Due to the difficulty in collecting data of navel orange pests and diseases, this article uses image enhancement technology to expand. The experimental results show that, in the case of small samples, compared with the traditional model, the DCPSNET model can accurately identify different types of navel orange diseases and pests images and the accuracy of identifying six types of navel orange diseases and pests on the test set is as high as 96.90%. The method proposed in this paper has high recognition accuracy, realizes the intelligent recognition of navel orange diseases and pests, and also provides a way for high-precision recognition of small sample data sets.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 109652, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 80-85% of total lung cancer cases. Identifying the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor drugs is essential for improving therapeutic effects. Herein, we aim to investigate the role of thalidomide in the tumorigenicity of NSCLC. METHODS: The A549 xenograft nude mouse model was established to explore therapeutic effects of thalidomide. The expression of FGD5-AS1 was evaluated in carcinomatous and paracarcinomatous tissues from NSCLC patients as well as NSCLC cell lines. CCK-8 assay was performed to assess cell viability. The invasive capacity was examined using transwell assay. The tube formation assay was applied to determine cell angiogenesis. Flow cytometry was subjected to validate CD8+ T cell activity. The FGD5-AS1/miR-454-3p/ZEB1 regulatory network was analyzed using luciferase reporter, RIP and ChIP assays. RESULTS: Thalidomide reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis and increased CD8+ T cell ratio in a mouse model. Enhanced expression of FGD5-AS1 was positively correlated with the poor survival of NSCLC patients. Knockdown of FGD5-AS1 notably suppressed the proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of cancer cells as well as the apoptosis of CD8+ T cells. Thalidomide targeted FGD5-AS1 to exert its anti-tumor activity in NSCLC. FGD5-AS1 acted as a sponge of miR-454-3p to upregulate ZEB1, thus increasing the expression of PD-L1 and VEGFA. Simultaneous overexpression of FGD5-AS1 and silencing of miR-454-3p reversed thalidomide-mediated anti-tumor effects in NSCLC. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide inhibits NSCLC angiogenesis and immune evasion via FGD5-AS1/miR-454-3p/ZEB1 axis-mediated regulation of VEGFA expression and PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint.

9.
Head Neck ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To establish a radiomics nomogram for survival prediction and determine if genomic data were related to radiomics signature in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Radiomics features were extracted from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1WI) in 316 patients. A progression-free survival (PFS) nomogram was developed and validated by the combination of the radiomics signature and clinicopathologic factors. Whole transcriptomics sequencing was performed in pretreatment tumor samples; correlation of gene expression and radiomics signature was further investigated. RESULTS: A 24-feature-combined radiomics signature was highly correlated with PFS; its integration with clinical predictors showed good prediction performance in the training and the validation cohort (C-index: 0.80 and 0.73). A significant correlation was observed between certain gene expression and Rad-score, especially the mRNA expression of CDKL2, PLIN5, and SPAG1. CONCLUSION: As a noninvasive method, the MRI-based radiomics signature might enable the pretreatment prediction of prognosis and gene expressions profile in advanced NPC.

10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520078

RESUMO

Exploring typical and atypical brain developmental trajectories is very important for understanding the normal pace of brain development and the mechanisms by which mental disorders deviate from normal development. A precise and sex-specific brain age prediction model is desirable for investigating the systematic deviation and individual heterogeneity of disorders associated with atypical brain development, such as autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we used partial least squares regression and the stacking algorithm to establish a sex-specific brain age prediction model based on T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The model showed good generalization and high robustness on four independent datasets with different ethnic information and age ranges. A predictor weights analysis showed the differences and similarities in changes in structure and function during brain development. At the group level, the brain age gap estimation for autistic patients was significantly smaller than that for healthy controls in both the ABIDE dataset and the healthy brain network dataset, which suggested that autistic patients as a whole exhibited the characteristics of delayed development. However, within the ABIDE dataset, the premature development group had significantly higher Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores than those of the delayed development group, implying that individuals with premature development had greater severity. Using these findings, we built an accurate typical brain development trajectory and developed a method of atypical trajectory analysis that considers sex differences and individual heterogeneity. This strategy may provide valuable clues for understanding the relationship between brain development and mental disorders.

11.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 142: 107934, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474206

RESUMO

A novel competitive-type electrochemical immunosensor based on square wave voltammetry (SWV) response was developed for the quantitative detection of 1-Aminohydantoin (AHD). To improve the conductivity of this immunosensor nanocomposites with good electrical conductivity were prepared as a signal amplification platform for the immunosensor by growing Au nanoparticles on the surface of Ce-based metal-organic framework (Ce-MOF). In addition, methylene blue (MB)-loaded Au@Pt and coating antigen (OVA-AHD) connected as a signal label. When the target was introduced, it competed with the coating antigen for the Ab, which led to a reduction in the number of signal probes bound to the Ab. The concentration of AHD can be determined by SWV detection of the MB signal loaded on the signal labels. Under optimal conditions, the wide linear range of 0.001-1000 µg /L and a low detection limit of 1.35 × 10-7 µg/L were achieved. Ultimately, the developed method displayed excellent specificity in practical applications, providing a promising probability to detect nitrofuran metabolites residues to guarantee food safety.

12.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491317

RESUMO

A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid analogues (C3AA) in rat plasma and a preliminary study on pharmacokinetics. Ferulic acid (FA) was used as the internal standard substance, and coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (C3A) was used as a substitute for quantitative C3AA. After protein precipitation with methanol, the satisfactory separation was achieved on an ODS2 column when the temperature was maintained at 30 ± 2°C. The correlation coefficient r in the C3A linear equation is equal to 0.9990. Pharmacokinetic parameters for t1/2, Tmax, Cmax, area under the curve (AUC)0-t, average residence time (MRT), apparent volume of distribution (V z/F) and clearance (Cl/F) were 1.89 ± 0.03 h, 0.39 ± 0.14 h, 1.81 ± 0.10 g· mL-1 ·h, 7.88 ± 0.24 g·mL-1·h, 3.23 ± 0.14 h, 0.43 ± 0.03 (mg·kg-1)·(g·mL-1)-1·h-1, respectively. The high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) method established in this study can be used to separate and determine the content of C3AA in plasma of rats after 60% ethanol extraction by gavage. The plasma concentration-time curve and pharmacokinetic parameters reflect the absorption of C3AA in rat blood after oral administration to some extent.

13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 421, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is prevalent among patients with aortic dissection, its prognostic impact is not yet determined in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. We aimed to investigate the association of OSA with hypoxaemia and with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay after type A aortic dissection (TAAD) repair. METHODS: This retrospective study continuously enrolled 83 patients who underwent TAAD repair from January 1 to December 31, 2018. OSA was diagnosed by sleep test and defined as an apnoea hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥ 15/h, while an AHI of > 30/h was defined severe OSA. Hypoxaemia was defined as an oxygenation index (OI) of < 200 mmHg. Prolonged ICU stay referred to an ICU stay of > 72 h. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of postoperative OI for prolonged ICU stay. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association of OSA with hypoxaemia and prolonged ICU stay. RESULTS: A total of 41 (49.4%) patients were diagnosed with OSA using the sleep test. Hypoxaemia occurred postoperatively in 56 patients (67.5%). Postoperatively hypoxaemia developed mostly in patients with OSA (52.4% vs. 83.0%, p = 0.003), and particularly in those with severe OSA (52.4% vs. 90.5%, p = 0.003). The postoperative OI could fairly predict a prolonged ICU stay (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.72; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.60-0.84; p = 0.002). Severe OSA was associated with both postoperative hypoxaemia (odds ratio [OR] 6.65; 95% CI 1.56-46.26, p = 0.008) and prolonged ICU stay (OR 5.58; 95% CI 1.54-20.24, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was common in patients with TAAD. Severe OSA was associated with postoperative hypoxaemia and prolonged ICU stay following TAAD repair.

14.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492212

RESUMO

G (1-5)-NH2, G (1-7)-NH2, and G (1-9) are the active fragments of ghrelin. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effects, their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and the receptor mechanism(s) of these fragments using the tail withdrawal test in male Kunming mice. The antinociceptive effects of these fragments (2, 6, 20, and 60 nmol/mouse) were tested at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after intravenous (i.v.) injection. These fragments induced dose- and time-related antinociceptive effects relative to saline. Using the near infrared fluorescence imaging experiments, our results showed that these fragments could cross the brain-blood barrier and enter the brain. The antinociceptive effects of these fragments were completely antagonized by naloxone (intracerebroventricular, i.c.v.); however, naloxone methiodide (intraperitoneal, i.p.), which is the peripheral restricted opioid receptor antagonist, did not antagonize these antinociceptive effects. Furthermore, the GHS-R1α antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (i.c.v.) completely antagonized these antinociceptive effects, too. These results suggested that these fragments induced antinociceptive effects through central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α. In conclusion, our studies indicated that these active fragments of ghrelin could cross the brain-blood barrier and enter the brain and induce antinociceptive effects through central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α after intravenous injection.

15.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; : 1-23, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the relationship between hypertension (HT) and contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) is not clear. We apply a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between HT and CA-AKI. METHODS: We searched for articles on the study of risk factors for CA-AKI in the Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (by March 25, 2021). Two authors independently performed quality assessment and extracted data such as the studies' clinical setting, the definition of CA-AKI, and the number of patients. The CA-AKI was defined as a serum creatinine (SCr) increase ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dL from baseline within 72 h. We used fixed or random models to pool adjusted OR (aOR) by STATA. RESULTS: A total of 45 studies (2,830,338 patients) were identified, and the average incidence of CA-AKI was 6.48%. There was an increased risk of CA-AKI associated with HT (aOR: 1.378, 95% CI: 1.211-1.567, I2 = 67.9%). In CA-AKI with a SCr increase ≥50% or ≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline within 72 h, an increased risk of CA-AKI was associated with HT (aOR: 1.414, 95% CI: 1.152-1.736, I2 = 0%). In CA-AKI with a Scr increase ≥50% or ≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline within 7 days, HT increases the risk of CA-AKI (aOR: 1.317, 95% CI: 1.049-1.654, I2 = 51.5%). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis confirmed that HT is an independent risk factor for CA-AKI and can be used to identify risk stratification. Physicians should pay more attention toward prevention and treatment of patients with HT in clinical practice.

16.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487278

RESUMO

Obesity was found to be related with the changes of brain functions in human beings. There were several brain areas that were verified to be correlated with the obesity, including the parietal cortex, frontal cortex and so on. However, the cortical regions found from different studies were discrepant due to the different ages, gender distribution and satiation degree of participants. We found that the regional homogeneity of right angular gyrus were smaller in obese undergraduates than that in normal-weight undergraduates. Moreover, functional connectivity of the left middle temporal cortex and the right angular gyrus were found to be smaller in obese group than that in normal-weight group by setting the right angular gyrus as seed region. In addition, multiple regression analysis suggested that the right superior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus were significantly correlated with their body mass index for normal-weight undergraduates, but no significant correlation was found for obese group. In summary, these findings indicated the functional changes of the cortex in obese undergraduates, which might be significant for providing imaging-based biomarkers for intervention and therapy of obesity.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492040

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis a contagious and chronic disease in domestic and wild ruminants, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Typical clinical signs include intractable diarrhea, progressive emaciation, proliferative enteropathy, and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Paratuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world and responsible for considerable economic losses. In this study, different types of paratuberculosis and MAP in sheep and goats were investigated in Inner Mongolia, a northern province in China contiguous with two countries and eight other provinces. A total of 4434 serum samples were collected from six cities in the western, central, and eastern regions of Inner Mongolia and analyzed using the ELISA test. In addition, tissue samples were collected from seven animals that were suspected to be infected with MAP. Finally, these tissues samples were analyzed by histopathological examination followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), and a sequence analysis of five genes. Among all 4434 ruminant serum samples collected from the six cities in the western, central, and eastern regions of Inner Mongolia, 7.60% (337/4434) measured positive for the MAP antibody. The proportions of positive MAP antibody results for serum samples collected in the western, central, and eastern regions were 5.10% (105/2058), 6.63% (85/1282), and 13.44% (147/1094), respectively. For the seven suspected infected animals selected from the herd with the highest rate of positivity, the gross pathology and histopathology of the necropsied animals were found to be consistent with the pathological features of paratuberculosis. The PCR analysis further confirmed the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. The rest of the results demonstrated that herds of sheep and goats in Inner Mongolia were infected with both MAP type II and type III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the two subtypes of MAP strains in sheep and goats in Inner Mongolia.

18.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498859

RESUMO

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an energy-efficient desalination technique. However, the maximum desalination capacity of conventional carbon-based CDI systems is approximately 20 mg g-1, which is too low for practical applications. Therefore, the focus of research on CDI has shifted to the development of faradic electrochemical deionization systems using electrodes based on faradic materials which have a significantly higher ion-storage capacity than carbon-based electrodes. In addition to the common symmetrical CDI system, there has also been extensive research on innovative systems to maximize the performance of faradic electrode materials. Research has focused primarily on faradic reactions and faradic electrode materials. However, the correlation between faradic electrode materials and the various electrochemical deionization system architectures, i.e., hybrid capacitive deionization, rocking-chair capacitive deionization, and dual-ion intercalation electrochemical desalination, remains relatively unexplored. This has inhibited the design of specific faradic electrode materials based on the characteristics of individual faradic electrochemical desalination systems. In this review, we have characterized faradic electrode materials based on both their material category and the electrochemical desalination system in which they were utilized. We expect that the detailed analysis of the properties, advantages, and challenges of the individual systems will establish a fundamental correlation between CDI systems and electrode materials that will facilitate future developments in this field.

19.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498972

RESUMO

A new indole diketopiperazine alkaloid, named penilline D (1), together with five known indole alkaloid analogues (2-5, 11), two meroterpenoids (6 and 12), and four butenolide derivatives (7-10), were isolated from the Antarctic fungus Penicillium sp. SCSIO 05705. Extensive spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation were used to elucidate the structure of penilline D (1), including its absolute configuration. All isolated compounds (1-12) were evaluated for their cytotoxic, antibacterial and enzyme inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and pancreatic lipase (PL). Among them, compound 5 exhibited moderate in vitro cytotoxic activity against the 143B cell line with IC50 value of 12.64 ± 0.78 µM. Compound 6 showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE with IC50 value of 0.36 nM (IC50 18.7 nM for Tacrine), while compounds 6 and 11 showed weak PL enzyme inhibitory activity. Furthermore, an in silico molecular docking study was also performed between 6 and AChE.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487502

RESUMO

Filter pruning is a significant feature selection technique to shrink the existing feature fusion schemes (especially on convolution calculation and model size), which helps to develop more efficient feature fusion models while maintaining state-of-the-art performance. In addition, it reduces the storage and computation requirements of deep neural networks (DNNs) and accelerates the inference process dramatically. Existing methods mainly rely on manual constraints such as normalization to select the filters. A typical pipeline comprises two stages: first pruning the original neural network and then fine-tuning the pruned model. However, choosing a manual criterion can be somehow tricky and stochastic. Moreover, directly regularizing and modifying filters in the pipeline suffer from being sensitive to the choice of hyperparameters, thus making the pruning procedure less robust. To address these challenges, we propose to handle the filter pruning issue through one stage: using an attention-based architecture that adaptively fuses the filter selection with filter learning in a unified network. Specifically, we present a pruning method named adding before pruning (ABP) to make the model focus on the filters of higher significance by training instead of man-made criteria such as norm, rank, etc. First, we add an auxiliary attention layer into the original model and set the significance scores in this layer to be binary. Furthermore, to propagate the gradients in the auxiliary attention layer, we design a specific gradient estimator and prove its effectiveness for convergence in the graph flow through mathematical derivation. In the end, to relieve the dependence on the complicated prior knowledge for designing the thresholding criterion, we simultaneously prune and train the filters to automatically eliminate network redundancy with recoverability. Extensive experimental results on the two typical image classification benchmarks, CIFAR-10 and ILSVRC-2012, illustrate that the proposed approach performs favorably against previous state-of-the-art filter pruning algorithms.

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