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1.
Soft Matter ; 14(16): 3003-3011, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485649

RESUMO

The main-chain liquid crystal (LC) copolyethers in which the nematic-nematic phase transition was first experimentally observed were revisited and re-characterised. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering revealed that the low-T nematic (Ntb) phase could be highly aligned by shearing, more so than in previously studied bent LC dimers. This was evidenced by a four-point wide-angle X-ray scattering pattern, which originates from convolution of two tilt distributions. Through intensity simulation the orientational order parameter associated with each of the distributions, as well as the conical angle of the Ntb phase, was calculated. Information regarding the polymer chain conformation was obtained using polarised infrared spectroscopy. The findings suggest the average conformation of the chains is a helix, and that the bend angle between mesogenic units is inversely related to temperature. All experimental evidence, including a jump in birefringence at the Ntb-nematic (N) phase transition, shows that copolyether samples mirror the behaviour of bent LC dimers over the transition. This confirms that the low-T nematic phase in copolyethers is indeed the same as that in LC dimers, now known to be the Ntb. The unusual broadening of transition peaks in complex heat capacity, obtained by modulated DSC experiments, is discussed.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(35): 22533-7, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26268892

RESUMO

Flattened polymer chain decorated crystals of nanoparticles (NPs) are observed for polymer-NP mixtures confined between two parallel substrates. In order to minimize the entropy loss, polymer chains instead of NPs aggregate at the substrate surfaces when the number of NPs is high enough to have the conformation of chains significantly disturbed. Increasing NP concentration to be much higher than that of polymer chains leads to an ordered arrangement of NPs in the central region, which are sandwiched between two thin layers of polymer chains. A scaling model regarding polymer chains consisting of packed correlation blobs is provided to clarify the physics mechanism behind the formation of thin polymer layer and the crystallization of NPs. The order structure of the crystallized NPs is shown to be switchable through an adjustment of the bulk concentrations of polymer chains and NPs.

3.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 48(2): 148-52, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22490951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the opsin expression in form-deprived and defocus myopia in guinea pig and to study the relationship between the opsin expression and the experimental myopia. METHODS: Fifty guinea pigs were randomized into form-deprived group, defocus group (n = 20 in each group) and normal group (n = 10). Guinea pigs in form-deprived group wore a diffuser RGP on one eye since one week after birth. Those in defocus group wore -4.00 D RGP on one eye. The contralateral eyes wore 0 D RGP were used as the control. Refraction, axial length and depth of vitreous cavity were measured after 1 and 2 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and the retina were dissected at 10:00 - 12:00 AM. The level of opsin and its mRNA were measured by Western-blot and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: Two weeks after the experiment, the refraction in form-deprived group and defocus group were (-4.00 ± 0.87) and (-2.00 ± 1.17) D respectively, which were significant different compared with contralateral eyes or normal control group (F = 203.98, 88.66, P < 0.05). These also accompany with increase of axial length and depth of vitreous cavity in form-deprived group and defocus group. Expression of S-opsin mRNA were increased both in form-deprived and defocus groups and the ratios of S-opsin mRNA/ß-actin expression were 0.752 ± 0.05 and 1.117 ± 0.13 in two weeks treatment, which were significant different from contralateral eyes (the ratios of S-opsin mRNA/ß-actin expression were 0.536 ± 0.04 and 0.772 ± 0.10.t = 6.10, 6.28, P < 0.05). Similar findings were also demonstrated in the expression of L-opsin mRNA, which were increased in form-deprived group and defocus group (the ratios of L-opsin mRNA/ß-actin expression were 0.42 ± 0.01) compared with contralateral eyes (the ratios were 0.24 ± 0.0 and 0.34 ± 0.04. t = 6.30, 4.93, P < 0.05) after two weeks experiment. The western-blot results also indicated the high expression of S-opsin and L-opsin level compared to contralateral eyes in form-deprived and defocus groups. CONCLUSIONS: Cone might be the detector receiving the signal of form-deprivation and defocus. Changes of opsin expression might play a role in the occurrence of experimental myopia in guinea pig.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Miopia/metabolismo , Opsinas/metabolismo , Animais , Percepção de Forma , Cobaias , Privação Sensorial
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