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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e27178, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Massive, easily accessible online health information empowers users to cope with health problems better. Most patients search for relevant online health information before seeing a doctor to alleviate information asymmetry. However, the mechanism of how online health information affects health empowerment is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To study how online health information processing affects health empowerment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study that included 343 samples from participants who had searched online health information before the consultation. Respondents' perceptions of online information cues, benefits, health literacy, and health empowerment were assessed. RESULTS: Perceived argument quality and perceived source credibility have significant and positive effects on perceived information benefits, but only perceived argument quality has a significant effect on perceived decision-making benefits. Two types of perceived benefits, in turn, affect health empowerment. The effects of perceived argument quality on perceived informational benefits and perceived decision-making benefits on health empowerment are significantly stronger for the high health literacy group than the low health literacy group (t269=7.156, P<.001; t269=23.240, P<.001). While, the effects of perceived source credibility on perceived informational benefits and perceived informational benefits on health empowerment are significantly weaker for the high health literacy group than the low health literacy group (t269=-10.497, P<.001; t269=-6.344, P<.001). The effect of perceived argument quality on perceived informational benefits shows no significant difference between high and low health literacy groups. CONCLUSIONS:  In the context of online health information, perceived information benefits and perceived decision-making benefits are the antecedents of health empowerment, which in turn will be affected by perceived argument quality and perceived source credibility. Health literacy plays a moderating role in the relationship of some variables. To maximize health empowerment, online health information providers should strengthen information quality and provide differentiated information services based on users' health literacy.

2.
J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat ; 70(5): 1391-1412, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887595

RESUMO

Causal mediation analysis aims to characterize an exposure's effect on an outcome and quantify the indirect effect that acts through a given mediator or a group of mediators of interest. With the increasing availability of measurements on a large number of potential mediators, like the epigenome or the microbiome, new statistical methods are needed to simultaneously accommodate high-dimensional mediators while directly target penalization of the natural indirect effect (NIE) for active mediator identification. Here, we develop two novel prior models for identification of active mediators in high-dimensional mediation analysis through penalizing NIEs in a Bayesian paradigm. Both methods specify a joint prior distribution on the exposure-mediator effect and mediator-outcome effect with either (a) a four-component Gaussian mixture prior or (b) a product threshold Gaussian prior. By jointly modeling the two parameters that contribute to the NIE, the proposed methods enable penalization on their product in a targeted way. Resultant inference can take into account the four-component composite structure underlying the NIE. We show through simulations that the proposed methods improve both selection and estimation accuracy compared to other competing methods. We applied our methods for an in-depth analysis of two ongoing epidemiologic studies: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the LIFECODES birth cohort. The identified active mediators in both studies reveal important biological pathways for understanding disease mechanisms.

3.
Front Genet ; 12: 780431, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868268

RESUMO

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a global health concern with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study aimed to identify the possible long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) biomarkers of CHD. The lncRNA- and mRNA-related data of patients with CHD were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE113079). The limma package was used to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs (DElncRNAs and DEmRNAs, respectively). Then, miRcode, TargetScan, miRDB, and miRTarBase databases were used to form the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. Furthermore, SPSS Modeler 18.0 was used to construct a logistic stepwise regression prediction model for CHD diagnosis based on DElncRNAs. Of the microarray data, 70% was used as a training set and 30% as a test set. Moreover, a validation cohort including 30 patients with CHD and 30 healthy controls was used to verify the hub lncRNA expression through real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). A total of 185 DElncRNAs (114 upregulated and 71 downregulated) and 382 DEmRNAs (162 upregulated and 220 downregulated) between CHD and healthy controls were identified from the microarray data. Furthermore, through bioinformatics prediction, a 38 lncRNA-21miRNA-40 mRNA ceRNA network was constructed. Next, by constructing a logistic stepwise regression prediction model for 38 DElncRNAs, we screened two hub lncRNAs AC010082.1 and AC011443.1 (p < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were 98.41%, 100%, and 0.995, respectively, for the training set and 93.33%, 91.67%, and 0.983, respectively, for the test set. We further verified the significant upregulation of AC010082.1 (p < 0.01) and AC011443.1 (p < 0.05) in patients with CHD using RT-qPCR in the validation cohort. Our results suggest that lncRNA AC010082.1 and AC011443.1 are potential biomarkers of CHD. Their pathological mechanism in CHD requires further validation.

4.
Circulation ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913723

RESUMO

Background: While several interventions can effectively lower lipid levels in people at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), cardiovascular event (CVE) risks remain, suggesting an unmet medical need to identify factors contributing to CVE risk. Monocytes and macrophages play central roles in atherosclerosis, but previous work has yet to provide a detailed view of macrophage populations involved in increased ASCVD risk. Methods: A novel macrophage foaming analytics tool, AtheroSpectrum, was developed using two quantitative indices depicting lipid metabolism and the inflammatory status of macrophages. Next, a machine-learning algorithm was developed to analyze gene expression patterns in the peripheral monocyte transcriptome of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants (MESA-set1, n=911). A list of 30 genes was generated and integrated with traditional risk factors to create an ASCVD risk prediction model (CR-30), which was subsequently validated in the remaining MESA-set2 (n=228); performance of CR-30 was also tested in two independent human atherosclerotic tissue transcriptome datasets (GTEx and GSE43292). Results: Using single-cell transcriptomic profiles (GSE97310, GSE116240, GSE97941, FR-FCM-Z23S), AtheroSpectrum detected two distinct programs in plaque macrophages: homeostatic-foaming and inflammatory pathogenic-foaming, the latter was positively associated with severity of atherosclerosis in multiple studies. A pool of 2209 pathogenic foaming genes was extracted and screened to select a subset of 30 genes correlated with CVE in MESA-set1. A CVD risk score model (CR-30) was then developed by incorporating this gene-set with traditional variables sensitive to CVE in MESA-set1 after cross-validation generalizability analysis. The performance of CR-30 was then tested in MESA-set2 (p=2.60×10-4, AUC=0.742), and two independent datasets (GTEx, p=7.32×10-17, AUC=0.664; GSE43292, p=7.04×10-2, AUC=0.633). Model sensitivity tests confirmed the contribution of the 30-gene panel to the prediction model (likelihood ratio test, df=31, p=0.03). Conclusions: Our novel computational program (AtheroSpectrum) identified a specific gene expression profile associated with inflammatory macrophage foam cells. A subset of 30 genes expressed in circulating monocytes jointly contributed to prediction of symptomatic atherosclerotic vascular disease. Incorporating a pathogenic foaming gene-set with known risk factors can significantly strengthen the power to predict ASCVD risk. Our programs may facilitate both mechanistic investigations and development of therapeutic and prognostic strategies for ASCVD risk.

5.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 230, 2021 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), a well-known risk factor for poor cardiovascular outcomes, is associated with differential DNA methylation (DNAm). Similarly, metabolic health has also been associated with changes in DNAm. It is unclear how overall metabolic health outside of BMI may modify the relationship between BMI and methylation profiles, and what consequences this may have on downstream cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites at which the association between BMI and DNAm could be modified by overall metabolic health. RESULTS: The discovery study population was derived from three Women's Health Initiative (WHI) ancillary studies (n = 3977) and two Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) ancillary studies (n = 3520). Findings were validated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort (n = 1200). Generalized linear models regressed methylation ß values on the interaction between BMI and metabolic health Z score (BMI × MHZ) adjusted for BMI, MHZ, cell composition, chip number and location, study characteristics, top three ancestry principal components, smoking, age, ethnicity (WHI), and sex (ARIC). Among the 429,566 sites examined, differential associations between BMI × MHZ and DNAm were identified at 22 CpG sites (FDR q < 0.05), with one site replicated in MESA (cg18989722, in the TRAPPC9 gene). Three of the 22 sites were associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in WHI. For each 0.01 unit increase in DNAm ß value, the risk of incident CHD increased by 9% in one site and decreased by 6-10% in two sites over 25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Differential associations between DNAm and BMI by MHZ were identified at 22 sites, one of which was validated (cg18989722) and three of which were predictive of incident CHD. These sites are located in several genes related to NF-kappa-B signaling, suggesting a potential role for inflammation between DNA methylation and BMI-associated metabolic health.

6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 6908-6926, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the key effector cells mediating the occurrence and development of liver fibrosis, while aerobic glycolysis is an important metabolic characteristic of HSC activation. Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) induces aerobic glycolysis and is a driving factor for metabolic reprogramming. The occurrence of glycolysis depends on a high glucose uptake level. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is the most widely distributed glucose transporter in the body and mainly participates in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, thus affecting cell proliferation and growth. However, little is known about the relationship between TGF-ß1 and GLUT1 in the process of liver fibrosis and the molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of aerobic glycolysis in HSCs. AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of action of GLUT1, TGF-ß1 and aerobic glycolysis in the process of HSC activation during liver fibrosis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence assays were used to examine GLUT1 expression in fibrotic liver tissue. A Seahorse extracellular flux (XF) analyzer was used to examine changes in aerobic glycolytic flux, lactate production levels and glucose consumption levels in HSCs upon TGF-ß1 stimulation. The mechanism by which TGF-ß1 induces GLUT1 protein expression in HSCs was further explored by inhibiting/promoting the TGF-ß1/mothers-against-decapentaplegic-homolog 2/3 (Smad2/3) signaling pathway and inhibiting the p38 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. In addition, GLUT1 expression was silenced to observe changes in the growth and proliferation of HSCs. Finally, a GLUT1 inhibitor was used to verify the in vivo effects of GLUT1 on a mouse model of liver fibrosis. RESULTS: GLUT1 protein expression was increased in both mouse and human fibrotic liver tissues. In addition, immunofluorescence staining revealed colocalization of GLUT1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin proteins, indicating that GLUT1 expression was related to the development of liver fibrosis. TGF-ß1 caused an increase in aerobic glycolysis in HSCs and induced GLUT1 expression in HSCs by activating the Smad, p38 MAPK and P13K/AKT signaling pathways. The p38 MAPK and Smad pathways synergistically affected the induction of GLUT1 expression. GLUT1 inhibition eliminated the effect of TGF-ß1 on HSC proliferation and migration. A GLUT1 inhibitor was administered in a mouse model of liver fibrosis, and GLUT1 inhibition reduced the degree of liver inflammation and liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: TGF-ß1 induces GLUT1 expression in HSCs, a process related to liver fibrosis progression. In vitro experiments revealed that TGF-ß1-induced GLUT1 expression might be one of the mechanisms mediating the metabolic reprogramming of HSCs. In addition, in vivo experiments also indicated that the GLUT1 protein promotes the occurrence and development of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Animais , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1 , Glicólise , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
7.
HGG Adv ; 2(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734193

RESUMO

Psychological and social factors are known to influence blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. To identify novel BP loci, we carried out genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial BP taking into account the interaction effects of genetic variants with three psychosocial factors: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and social support. Analyses were performed using a two-stage design in a sample of up to 128,894 adults from 5 ancestry groups. In the combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 59 loci (p value <5e-8), including nine novel BP loci. The novel associations were observed mostly with pulse pressure, with fewer observed with mean arterial pressure. Five novel loci were identified in African ancestry, and all but one showed patterns of interaction with at least one psychosocial factor. Functional annotation of the novel loci supports a major role for genes implicated in the immune response (PLCL2), synaptic function and neurotransmission (LIN7A, PFIA2), as well as genes previously implicated in neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders (FSTL5, CHODL). These findings underscore the importance of considering psychological and social factors in gene discovery for BP, especially in non-European populations.

8.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814699

RESUMO

Background: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. Methods: Proteomic profiling of 1,301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan®). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥ 5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink®) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study. Results: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8 × 10-11. These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, ß = 0.61±0.05, p-value = 3.27 × 10-30) and MMP-3 (ß = -0.60±0.05, p = 1.67 × 10-32), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with nine proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1 associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, ß = 0.34±0.04, p = 1.34 × 10-17) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community dwelling individuals without heart failure. Conclusions: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation and myocardial function.

9.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anlotinib hydrochloride is an oral small molecule inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases, and it has been approved as a third-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. This dose-exploration study was designed to investigate the feasibility of anlotinib in combination with other chemotherapy regimens in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. METHODS: This phase I study followed a 3 + 3 dose reduction design with three doses of anlotinib (12 mg, 10 mg, and 8 mg). Anlotinib was given at an initial dose of 12 mg with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m2) or carboplatin (AUC = 5) on 21-day cycles for 4 cycles. The primary goal of the study was to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of eight participants were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed in two patients (pts) at anlotinib 12 mg (grade 3 hand-foot syndrome and grade 3 appetite loss). No DLTs occurred with 10 mg anlotinib, and the MTD was 10 mg. Among seven evaluable pts, four achieved a confirmed partial response (PR), and three had stable disease (SD). With a median follow-up of 10.05 months, the median PFS was 7.00 months (95% CI: 2.76 to NE). Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) included appetite loss (n = 2), hypertension (n = 2), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), diarrhea (n = 1) and hand-foot syndrome (n = 1). No grade 4 or grade 5 TRAEs were observed during the treatment. CONCLUSION: The feasible dose of anlotinib in combination with platinum/pemetrexed-based chemotherapy as a first-line regimen was 10 mg, which was well tolerated and showed promising antitumor activity in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21854, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750395

RESUMO

Exploring the expression of miR-571 in patients with liver fibrosis and its role in the progression of liver fibrosis. A total of 74 patients with liver fibrosis in our institution from September to December 2018 were collected for study, and the expression of miR-571, Notch3 and Jagged1 in patients with different progressions of liver fibrosis was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Set up Notch3 up group and Notch3 down regulated group, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to determine the effect of Notch signaling on the expression of fibrogenic factors. CCK-8, cell scratch assays, Transwell assays, flow cytometry were used to determine the effect of miR-571 on LX-2 proliferation, migration, apoptosis in human stem stellate cells, and RT-PCR, Western blot assays were performed to determine the effect of miR-571 on the Notch3 signaling pathway and the expression of profibrogenic factors. miR-571, Notch3 and Jagged1 are up-regulated in patients with liver fibrosis and is associated with the progression of liver fibrosis. Notch3 signaling pathway can promote the expression of fibroblast in human hepatic stellate cells; miR-571 can inhibit the apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cells, promote cell proliferation and migration; up regulation of miR-571 can promote the expression of Notch3 and Jagged1, and up-regulation of miR-571 also promoted the expression of related fibroblasts. MiR-571 can promote the activation of human stem cell stellate cells and the expression of fibroblast related factors through Notch3 signaling pathway.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complexity of physical activity (PA) and DNA methylation interaction in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rarely simultaneously investigated in one study. We examined the role of DNA methylation on the association between PA and CVD. RESULTS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort Exam 5 data with 1065 participants free of CVD were used for final analysis. The quartile categorical total PA variable was created by activity intensity (METs/week). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 69 participants developed CVD. Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to provide genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in purified human monocytes (CD14+). We identified 23 candidate DNA methylation loci to be associated with both PA and CVD. We used the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to test the complex relationships among multiple variables and the roles of mediators. Three of the 23 identified loci (corresponding to genes VPS13D, PIK3CD and VPS45) remained as significant mediators in the final SEM model along with other covariates. Bridged by the three genes, the 2nd PA quartile (ß = - 0.959; 95%CI: - 1.554 to - 0.449) and the 3rd PA quartile (ß = - 0.944; 95%CI: - 1.628 to - 0.413) showed the greatest inverse associations with CVD development, while the 4th PA quartile had a relatively weaker inverse association (ß = - 0.355; 95%CI: - 0.713 to - 0.124). CONCLUSIONS: The current study is among the first to simultaneously examine the relationships among PA, DNA methylation, and CVD in a large cohort with long-term exposure. We identified three DNA methylation loci bridged the association between PA and CVD. The function of the identified genes warrants further investigation in the pathogenesis of CVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilação de DNA , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4053-4069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611395

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Two Chinese herbal medicines Huang Qi (HQ, Astragalus mongholicus) and Dan Shen (DS, Salvia miltiorrhiza) are often combined to treat coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying synergistic effects and mechanisms of HQ and DS against CHD. Methods: The active components and targets of HQ and DS, CHD-related genes, and the biological progression were analysed by network pharmacology. The myocardial infarction (MI) rat model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cardiac function was detected by ultrasonic electrocardiography. The MI size, fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, lipid metabolism, blood viscosity, and coagulation indexes were analysed by histological staining or chemical methods, respectively. Results: A total of 170 shared and specific seed genes of HQ and DS against CHD were identified. The shared and specific biological processes of HQ and DS against CHD were obtained. The LVEF and LVFS values significantly increased, the myocardium infarct size and fibrosis significantly decreased, the values of lipid metabolism indexes and blood viscosity indexes significantly reduced in the HQ + DS treatment group vs HQ or DS single treatment (P < 0.05); the LVEDd, LVEDs, and the CSA values significantly reduced in HQ single and HQ + DS treatment groups vs MI group (P < 0.05); the coagulation index (APTT, PT, TT, and FIB) values decreased significantly in the DS single and HQ + DS treatment groups vs MI group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In MI rats, HQ and DS exhibited synergistic effects on improving cardiac function, reducing MI size, fibrosis, regulating hyperlipidaemia, and maintaining circulatory system homeostasis; HQ had the specific advantage of alleviating cardiac remodelling; DS had the specific advantage of regulating hypercoagulability. This study revealed that HQ and DS not only exerted synergistic effects but also exhibited complementary effects on CHD.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669037

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the clinical value of SBRT for primary lung lesions of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with non-oligometastatic disease during first-line EGFR-TKI treatment. METHODS: We identified patients with stage IV EGFR-mutant non-oligometastatic NSCLC who were suitable to receive SBRT for the primary tumors after EGFR-TKI treatment. All selected patients were treated with first-line EGFR-TKIs and SBRT for their primary lesions. The primary endpoints were the progression-free survival 1 (PFS1, time of first TKI dose relative to disease progression based on RECIST) and PFS2 (time of first TKI dose relative to disease progression after SBRT). The secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients were enrolled, including 45 patients who received SBRT for their primary tumor at the maximal response of EGFR-TKI (the preemptive RT group) and 34 patients who received SBRT for their primary tumor after the occurrence of oligoprogression (the delayed RT group). The preemptive RT group had a significantly better median PFS1 than the delayed RT group (22.3 months vs. 12.9 months, P = 0.0031). The median PFS2 in the preemptive RT and delayed RT groups were 22.3 and 28.9 months, respectively (P = 0.17). The median OS did not differ significantly between the preemptive RT group and the delayed RT group (46.6 versus 51.3 months, P = 0.54). No severe toxicities (≥ grade 3) were recorded. CONCLUSION: This real-world study showed that preemptive RT to primary lung tumors is a feasible option for selected patients with EGFR-mutant non-oligometastatic NSCLC who had stable disease during first-line EGFR-TKI treatment, and that it significantly improved PFS.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19365, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588469

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV1. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.

15.
Elife ; 102021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338633

RESUMO

Dietary changes associated with industrialization increase the prevalence of chronic diseases, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This relationship is often attributed to an 'evolutionary mismatch' between human physiology and modern nutritional environments. Western diets enriched with foods that were scarce throughout human evolutionary history (e.g. simple sugars and saturated fats) promote inflammation and disease relative to diets more akin to ancestral human hunter-gatherer diets, such as a Mediterranean diet. Peripheral blood monocytes, precursors to macrophages and important mediators of innate immunity and inflammation, are sensitive to the environment and may represent a critical intermediate in the pathway linking diet to disease. We evaluated the effects of 15 months of whole diet manipulations mimicking Western or Mediterranean diet patterns on monocyte polarization in a well-established model of human health, the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Monocyte transcriptional profiles differed markedly between diets, with 40% of transcripts showing differential expression (FDR < 0.05). Monocytes from Western diet consumers were polarized toward a more proinflammatory phenotype. The Western diet shifted the co-expression of 445 gene pairs, including small RNAs and transcription factors associated with metabolism and adiposity in humans, and dramatically altered behavior. For example, Western-fed individuals were more anxious and less socially integrated. These behavioral changes were also associated with some of the effects of diet on gene expression, suggesting an interaction between diet, central nervous system activity, and monocyte gene expression. This study provides new molecular insights into an evolutionary mismatch and uncovers new pathways through which Western diets alter monocyte polarization toward a proinflammatory phenotype.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Macaca fascicularis , Monócitos/patologia
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thousands of genetic variants have been associated with hematological traits, though target genes remain unknown at most loci. Moreover, limited analyses have been conducted in African ancestry and Hispanic/Latino populations; hematological trait associated variants more common in these populations have likely been missed. METHODS: To derive gene expression prediction models, we used ancestry-stratified datasets from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, including n = 229 African American and n = 381 Hispanic/Latino participants, monocytes) and the Depression Genes and Networks study (DGN, n = 922 European ancestry participants, whole blood). We then performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for platelet count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count in African (n = 27,955) and Hispanic/Latino (n = 28,324) ancestry participants. RESULTS: Our results revealed 24 suggestive signals (p < 1 × 10-4) that were conditionally distinct from known GWAS identified variants and successfully replicated these signals in European ancestry subjects from UK Biobank. We found modestly improved correlation of predicted and measured gene expression in an independent African American cohort (the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study (n = 802), lymphoblastoid cell lines) using the larger DGN reference panel; however, some genes were well predicted using MESA but not DGN. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses demonstrate the importance of performing TWAS and other genetic analyses across diverse populations and of balancing sample size and ancestry background matching when selecting a TWAS reference panel.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418467

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess pathogen distributions and antimicrobial sensitivity characteristics in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with severe radiation pneumonitis (SRP) and secondary infections. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data from 1746 patients with NSCLC and SRP after thoracic radiation therapy from January 2009 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Pneumonia incidence, causative pathogens, and antibiotic resistance characteristics in patients with secondary lung infections were analyzed. Risk factors associated with mortality were identified through univariate and multivariate analyses. Antifungal drug efficacy and duration-related effects were assessed with Forest plots and receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Overall, 44.5% of patients with NSCLC and SRP (777 of 1746 patients) were diagnosed with secondary lung infections. In total, 899 bacterial strains were isolated from these patients, with Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 206; 27%), Klebsiella pneumonia (n = 200; 26.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 104; 13.6%) being the most common. Carbapenems and cefoperazone-sulbactam resistance rates of 52.7% and 32.2%, 28.8% and 26.4%, and 23.7% and 20.2% were observed for these isolates, respectively. Infection-related deaths occurred in 22.4% of patients with SRP. Independent risk factors for infection-related death included poor performance status scores, inappropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment, bacteria/fungal coinfection, and lack of empirical antifungal treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the cutoff value of empirical antifungal treatment duration was 9 (area under the curve: 0.819). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with SRP and secondary lung infections, appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment could decrease infection-related mortality, and cefoperazone-sulbactam may be an appropriate antibacterial drug. Empirical antifungal treatment for a minimum of 9 days might contribute to better outcomes. Although this represents a promising treatment approach for patients with SRP and secondary lung infections before antibacterial susceptibility testing, further prospective validation is essential.

18.
Stat Med ; 40(27): 6038-6056, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404112

RESUMO

We consider Bayesian high-dimensional mediation analysis to identify among a large set of correlated potential mediators the active ones that mediate the effect from an exposure variable to an outcome of interest. Correlations among mediators are commonly observed in modern data analysis; examples include the activated voxels within connected regions in brain image data, regulatory signals driven by gene networks in genome data, and correlated exposure data from the same source. When correlations are present among active mediators, mediation analysis that fails to account for such correlation can be suboptimal and may lead to a loss of power in identifying active mediators. Building upon a recent high-dimensional mediation analysis framework, we propose two Bayesian hierarchical models, one with a Gaussian mixture prior that enables correlated mediator selection and the other with a Potts mixture prior that accounts for the correlation among active mediators in mediation analysis. We develop efficient sampling algorithms for both methods. Various simulations demonstrate that our methods enable effective identification of correlated active mediators, which could be missed by using existing methods that assume prior independence among active mediators. The proposed methods are applied to the LIFECODES birth cohort and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and identified new active mediators with important biological implications.

19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415308

RESUMO

We conducted cohort- and race-specific epigenome-wide association analyses of mtDNA copy number (mtDNA CN) measured in whole blood from participants of African and European origins in five cohorts (n = 6182, mean age 57-67 years, 65% women). In the meta-analysis of all the participants, we discovered 21 mtDNA CN-associated CpG sites (p < 1 x 10-7), with a 0.7 to 3.0 standard deviation increase (3 CpGs) or decrease (18 CpGs) in mtDNA CN corresponding to a 1% increase in DNA methylation. Several significant CpGs have been reported to be associated with at least two risk factors (e.g. chronological age or smoking) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Five genes (PRDM16, NR1H3, XRCC3, POLK, and PDSS2), which harbor nine significant CpGs, are known to be involved in mitochondrial biosynthesis and functions. For example, NR1H3 encodes a transcription factor that is differentially expressed during an adipose tissue transition. The methylation level of cg09548275 in NR1H3 was negatively associated with mtDNA CN (effect size = -1.71, p = 4 x 10-8) and positively associated with the NR1H3 expression level (effect size = 0.43, p = 0.0003), which indicates that the methylation level in NR1H3 may underlie the relationship between mtDNA CN, the NR1H3 transcription factor, and energy expenditure. In summary, the study results suggest that mtDNA CN variation in whole blood is associated with DNA methylation levels in genes that are involved in a wide range of mitochondrial activities. These findings will help reveal molecular mechanisms between mtDNA CN and CVD.

20.
Front Oncol ; 11: 651915, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249688

RESUMO

Although the importance of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in cancer has recently been recognized, studies on the role and functional mechanism of piRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) development and progression are limited. In this study, we identified 10 differently expressed piRNAs in LUAD tissues compared to normal tissues, among which, piR-hsa-211106 expression levels were downregulated in LUAD tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of piR-hsa-211106 on the malignant phenotypes and chemosensitivity of LUAD cells were detected by gain- and loss-of-function analyses in vitro and in vivo, which showed that piR-hsa-211106 inhibited LUAD cell proliferation, tumor growth, and migration, but promoted apoptosis. Moreover, our finding indicated that piR-hsa-211106 is a potential therapeutic target that synergistically imparts anticancer effects with a chemotherapeutic agent for LUAD-cisplatin. Further mechanistic investigation indicated that piR-hsa-211106 could bind to pyruvate carboxylase (PC) by RNA pull down and RNA immunoprecipitation assays and inhibited PC mRNA and protein expression. Our study demonstrates that piR-hsa-211106 inhibits LUAD progression by hindering the expression and function of PC and enhances chemotherapy sensitivity, suggesting that piR-hsa-211106 is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for LUAD.

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