Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.490
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476414

RESUMO

Isorhynchophylline (IRN) has been demonstrated to have distinct anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity in several animal models of AD. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the preventive effect of IRN on the cognitive deficits and amyloid pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Male TgCRND8 mice were administered with IRN (20 or 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 4 months, followed by assessing the spatial learning and memory functions with the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) test. Brain tissues were determined immunohistochemically or biochemically for changes in amyloid pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation. Our results revealed that IRN (40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated cognitive deficits in TgCRND8 mice. In addition, IRN (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the levels of Aß40, Aß42 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1ß, and modulated the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and phosphorylation by altering the protein expressions of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1), phosphorylated APP (Thr668), presenilin-1 (PS-1) and anterior pharynx-defective-1 (APH-1), as well as insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), a major Aß-degrading enzyme. IRN was also found to inhibit the phosphorylation of tau at the sites of Thr205 and Ser396. Immunofluorescence showed that IRN reduced the Aß deposition, and suppressed the activation of microglia (Iba-1) and astrocytes (GFAP) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of TgCRND8 mice. Furthermore, IRN was able to attenuate the ratios of p-c-Jun/c-Jun and p-JNK/JNK in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. IRN also showed marked inhibitory effect on JNK signaling pathway in the Aß-treated rat primary hippocampus neurons. We conclude that IRN improves cognitive impairment in TgCRND8 transgenic mice via reducing Aß generation and deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation through inhibiting the activation of JNK signaling pathway, and has good potential for further development into pharmacological treatment for AD.

2.
Mol Med Rep ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485640

RESUMO

Subsequently to the publication of this article, the authors have realized that Fig. 4 contained some incorrectly incorporated data panels; specifically, the A­d, B­b and B­c panels did not display the correct data. The revised version of Fig. 4 featuring the correct data for the A­d, B­b and B­c panels is shown on the next page. Note that these errors did not affect the overall conclusions reported in the paper. The authors apologize to the Editor of Molecular Medicine Reports and to readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in Molecular Medicine Reports 16: 703­709, 2017; DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6679].

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1329-1335, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of extreme ambient temperature on the risk of adverse birth outcomes are limited, and the results are inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the short-term effects of daily mean temperature on the risk of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in Xinxiang, China. METHODS: Daily hospitalization data for PROM, daily meteorological data, and ambient pollution data in Xinxiang from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 were collected. A quasi-Poisson generalized additive model (GAM) combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was applied to assess the short-term impact of temperature on PROM. The model was adjusted for relative humidity, air pollution, time trend, day of the week, and public holidays. RESULTS: The number of daily hospitalizations for PROM during the study period was 3255. With a reference median temperature of 17 °C, there were significant associations between the temperature deviation from the threshold temperature (2 °C, 12th percentile; 29 °C, 91st percentile) and PROM hospitalization at lag 0-2 days. Exposure to extreme cold (-2 °C, 1st percentile) or extreme heat (32 °C, 99th percentile) were associated with 0.528 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.278-0.986) and 2.161 (95% CI: 1.240-3.764) increased risks of PROM, respectively. Younger mothers with age <35 years were more sensitive to the impact of extreme temperature. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that heat temperature is associated with higher PROM risk, while cold temperature might be a protective factor against PROM in Xinxiang, China. Given the adverse consequences of PROM and concerns over global climate change, pregnant women should take special precautions in summer when there are sudden increases in temperature.

4.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431681

RESUMO

Poor sleep has been associated with risk of hypertension, but previous studies were limited by treating one or two sleep factors as predictor. Our previous study has developed a sleep factor questionnaire (SFQ) to comprehensively assess wide range of sleep characteristics including sleep duration, sleep quality, light at night (LAN) exposure, night/shift work, daytime napping, and frequency of nighttime waking, insomnia, and snoring. In this cross-sectional study we used the SFQ to evaluated the associations between these sleep domains and hypertension. Comparing with the subjects who slept 7-8 h, subjects with sleep duration 6-7 h (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.00), 8-9 h (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.40), and over 9 h (OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.60, 3.58) had an increased prevalence of hypertension. The associations were significant among individuals under 45 years sleeping 6-7 h and those over 45 years sleeping over 8 h. The OR of prevalent hypertension was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.97) for habitual daytime napping compared with never napping, and the association was also significant among individuals over 45 years old. Moreover, among subjects with sleep duration 7-8 h, habitual daytime napping may decrease prevalent hypertension (OR = 0.635, 95% CI: 0.437, 0.924). In conclusion, our data suggested a positive association between both short (6-7 h) and long sleep duration and hypertension, and a preventive pattern for habitual daytime napping among over 45 years old and hypertension. Moreover, interaction analysis indicated that habitual midday nap may decrease prevalent hypertension among subjects with sleep duration 7-8 h.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16539, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic stable angina (CSA) is a cardiovascular disease with high prevalence. At present, drug treatment is still the main measure of stable angina pectoris. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in the treatment of CSA. Qi stagnation and Blood stasis syndrome is a common syndrome of CSA. Xinnaoning (XNN) capsule is considered as an effective adjuvant treatment for CSA with the efficacy of promoting qi and blood circulation but lack of high-quality clinical evidence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of XNN capsule compared with placebo by clinical trial. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be conducted with a total of 240 participants diagnosed with chronic stable angina (qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome). The participants will be randomized (1:1) into groups receiving either XNN or placebo for 12 weeks. After a 2-week run-in period, they will receive either XNN or placebo (3 pills, 3 times daily) for 12 weeks on the basis of conventional therapy. The primary outcomes include changes in the integral scores of angina symptoms. The secondary outcome measures include changes in the total score of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome, severity grading of angina pectoris, the number of angina pectoris per week, nitroglycerin dosage, score of seattle angina scale, serum homocysteine, incidence of cardiovascular events. Safety outcomes will also be assessed. Adverse events will be monitored throughout the trial. RESULTS: This study will investigate whether XNN capsule can alleviate clinical symptoms, and improve quality of life of patients with chronic stable angina (qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome). The results of this study will provide clinical evidence for the application of XNN capsule in the treatment of chronic stable angina. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03914131.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Homocisteína/análise , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382605

RESUMO

Dihydromyricetin (DMY) has recently attracted increased interest due to its considerable health-promoting activities but there are few reports on its antibacterial activity and mechanism. In this paper, the activity and mechanisms of DMY from Ampelopsis grossedentata leaves against food-borne bacteria are investigated. Moreover, the effects of pH, thermal-processing, and metal ions on the antibacterial activity of DMY are also evaluated. The results show that DMY exhibits ideal antibacterial activity on five types of food-borne bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The activities of DMY against bacteria are extremely sensitive to pH, thermal-processing, and metal ions. The morphology of the tested bacteria is changed and damaged more seriously with the exposure time of DMY. Furthermore, the results of the oxidative respiratory metabolism assay and the integrity of the cell membrane and wall tests revealed that the death of bacteria caused by DMY might be due to lysis of the cell wall, leakage of intracellular ingredients, and inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) pathway.

7.
Complement Med Res ; : 1-8, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xiaoyaosan (XYS) has achieved definite curative effects in clinic. However, the mechanism is not clear. Previous studies of our team indicated XYS improved anxiety-like behaviors through inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway of hippocampus. OBJECTIVES: In the study, we explored whether the JNK signaling pathway is involved in the mechanism of XYS treating depression. METHOD: Forty-eight rats were divided randomly into 4 groups (n = 12): the control group (deionized water, p.o.), the model group (deionized water, p.o.), the fluoxetine group (2.08 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and the XYS group (3.9 g/kg/day, p.o.). All rats except for the control group were given continuous 21 days of chronic immobilization stress (CIS; 3 h/day). On day 29, the body weights and the behavioral tests, including the novelty suppressed feeding test, the open field test, and the elevated plus maze test, were measured. On day 30, all the rats were sacrificed, and three indices of the JNK signaling pathway were tested by Western blot. RESULTS: The body weight and behavioral tests of all groups indicated that 21 days of CIS induced depression-like behaviors. After 21 days of treatment with fluoxetine and XYS, changes were seen in body weight, behaviors, and JNK, phosphorylated JNK (P-JNK), and phosphorylated c-Jun (P-c-Jun) levels in the hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: XYS ameliorated the depression-like behaviors, potentially through affecting the JNK signaling pathway in the hippocampus.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 635, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the most important transcription factor families, GRAS proteins are involved in numerous regulatory processes, especially plant growth and development. However, they have not been systematically analyzed in Brachypodium distachyon, a new model grass. RESULTS: In this study, 48 BdGRAS genes were identified. Duplicated genes account for 41.7% of them and contribute to the expansion of this gene family. 33, 39, 35 and 35 BdGRAS genes were identified by synteny with their orthologs in rice, sorghum, maize and wheat genome, respectively, indicating close relationships among these species. Based on their phylogenic relationships to GRAS genes in rice and maize, BdGRAS genes can be divided into ten subfamilies in which members of the same subfamily showed similar protein sequences, conserved motifs and gene structures, suggesting possible conserved functions. Although expression variation is high, some BdGRAS genes are tissue-specific, phytohormones- or abiotic stresses-responsive, and they may play key roles in development, signal transduction pathways and stress responses. In addition, DELLA genes BdSLR1 and BdSLRL1 were functionally characterized to play a role in plant growth via the GA signal pathway, consistent with GO annotations and KEGG pathway analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic analyses of BdGRAS genes indicated that members of the same subfamily may play similar roles. This was supported by the conserved functions of BdSLR1 and BdSLRL1 in GA pathway. These results laid a foundation for further functional elucidation of BdGRAS genes, especially, BdSLR1 and BdSLRL1.

9.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 129, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin K2 (menaquinone, MK-n) is a lipid-soluble vitamin that functions as a carboxylase co-factor for maturation of proteins involved in many vital physiological processes in humans. Notably, long-chain vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria, including some species and strains belonging to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that play important roles in food fermentation processes. This study was performed to gain insights into the natural long-chain vitamin K2 production capacity of LAB and the factors influencing vitamin K2 production during cultivation, providing a basis for biotechnological production of vitamin K2 and in situ fortification of this vitamin in food products. RESULTS: We observed that six selected Lactococcus lactis strains produced MK-5 to MK-10, with MK-8 and MK-9 as the major MK variant. Significant diversities between strains were observed in terms of specific concentrations and titres of vitamin K2. L. lactis ssp. cremoris MG1363 was selected for more detailed studies of the impact of selected carbon sources tested under different growth conditions [i.e. static fermentation (oxygen absent, heme absent); aerobic fermentation (oxygen present, heme absent) and aerobic respiration (oxygen present, heme present)] on vitamin K2 production in M17 media. Aerobic fermentation with fructose as a carbon source resulted in the highest specific concentration of vitamin K2: 3.7-fold increase compared to static fermentation with glucose, whereas aerobic respiration with trehalose resulted in the highest titre: 5.2-fold increase compared to static fermentation with glucose. When the same strain was applied to quark fermentation, we consistently observed that altered carbon source (fructose) and aerobic cultivation of the pre-culture resulted in efficient vitamin K2 fortification in the quark product. CONCLUSIONS: With this study we demonstrate that certain LAB strains can be employed for efficient production of long-chain vitamin K2. Strain selection and optimisation of growth conditions offer a viable strategy towards natural vitamin K2 enrichment of fermented foods, and to improved biotechnological vitamin K2 production processes.

10.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 7405120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396539

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the association of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs11651270 and rs2670660) in the NLRP1 (NLR family pyrin domain containing 1) gene with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the Chinese Han population. We hypothesize that mutations in the NLRP1 gene may affect the susceptibility to T1D. Materials and Methods: A case control study was designed, and participants fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of classical T1D as well as nondiabetic controls were enrolled in the study. The polymorphisms rs11651270 and rs2670660 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. Chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the distributions of the allele and genotype between cases and controls. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was used to compare the characteristics of different genotypes in participants with T1D. Results: A total of 510 participants with classical T1D as well as 531 nondiabetic controls were enrolled in the study. The two groups were matched in sex (p = 0.418). The age (p < 0.001) and BMI (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in cases compared to controls. Significantly higher values were observed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p < 0.001) and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) (p < 0.001) in individuals with T1D. Regarding the allelic model, the minor allele C of rs11651270 was significantly associated with lower risk of T1D compared with the T allele (OR = 0.714, 95% CI = 0.579-0.882). Both rs11651270 and rs2670660 polymorphisms were associated with T1D in the Chinese Han population under a dominant model (OR = 0.648, 95% CI = 0.503-0.834 and OR = 0.716, 95% CI = 0.549-0.934, respectively) and an overdominant model (OR = 0.663, 95% CI = 0.511-0.860 and OR = 0.711, 95% CI = 0.541-0.935, respectively). Additionally, the polymorphism rs11651270 was also related to T1D in an additive model (OR = 0.719, 95% CI = 0.583-0.887). Most importantly, when we analyzed the clinical characteristics of T1D individuals with different genotypes, we found that the age of onset with the TT genotype at rs11651270 was younger than those with the other two genotypes (p = 0.001). Conclusions: SNPs in the NLRP1 gene were associated with T1D, as well as the age of onset in the Chinese Han T1D individuals. Our study indicated that the NLRP1 gene might play a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis of T1D and could be applied to genetic screening of T1D in the Chinese Han population.

11.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 70, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution and cardiovascular disease are increasing problems in China. However, the short-term association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well documented. The purpose of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of PM2.5 on CVD admissions in Beijing, China. METHODS: In total, 460,938 electronic hospitalization summary reports for CVD between 2013 and 2017 were obtained. A generalized additive model using a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to investigate the association between exposure to PM2.5 and hospitalizations for total and cause-specific CVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation (AF), and heart failure (HF) after controlling for the season, the day of the week, public holidays, and weather conditions. A stratified analysis was also conducted for age (18-64 and ≥ 65 years), sex and season. RESULTS: For every 10 µg/m3 increase in the PM2.5 concentration from the previous day to the current (lag 0-1) there was a significant increase in total CVD admissions (0.30, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.39%), with a strong association for older adults (aged ≥65 years), CHD (0.34, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.45%) and AF (0.29, 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.55%). However, the observed increased risk was not statistically significant for HF hospitalizations. The associations in the single-pollutant models were robust to the inclusion of other pollutants in a two-pollutant model. No differences were found after stratification by sex and season. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 increased the risk of hospitalizations from CVD, especially for CHD, and appeared to have more influence in the elderly. Precautions and protective measures and efforts to reduce exposure to PM2.5 should be strengthened, especially for the elderly.

12.
J Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in coronary artery disease (CAD). Few data from large-size studies are available on the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and severity of CAD. Our aim was to investigate their relationship as well as their impact on long-term outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: In 2013, 10,020 patients were consecutively included. Patients were divided into three groups based on hs-CRP on admission: 0-3mg/L (n=6978, 69.6%), 3.01-10mg/L (n=1997, 19.9%), >10mg/L (n=1045, 10.4%). Disease severity was determined by SYNTAX score (SS). Their differences were assessed in SS and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs, including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and in-stent thrombosis) among groups. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 874 days. Patients with elevated hs-CRP were older, had more risk factors such as hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cigarette smoking. Multivariate regression analysis showed that hs-CRP >10mg/L (OR 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.84, p<0.001), age, previous myocardial infarction, serum creatinine, and left ventricular ejection fraction were independent predictors of intermediate-high SS (>22). Subgroup analysis indicated that the relation between hs-CRP and SS was also consistent in acute coronary syndrome and its subtypes. Although elevated hs-CRP was positively associated with increased rates of MACEs (11.0% versus 12.1% versus 14.3%, p=0.006), death (1.0% versus 1.3% versus 3.0%, p<0.001), and revascularization (8.6% versus 10.4% versus 10.0%, p=0.032), it did not show any prognostic effect for adverse outcomes in multivariate regression analyses (all adjusted p> 0.05). While SS>22 remained independently predictive of MACEs and revascularization after adjusting confounders, the risks of which were increased by 56% and 68%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Serum hs-CRP could be a useful biomarker for indicating CAD severity and could aid in risk stratification.

13.
Nanoscale ; 11(32): 15010-15016, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368470

RESUMO

Mn-Doped CsPb(Cl/Br)3 quantum dots possess multi-functional optical, electronic and magnetic characteristics. However, they usually suffer from decomposition in air, and Mn2+ dopants will be gradually expelled from the perovskite host due to a radius mismatch between Pb2+ and Mn2+. To solve these crucial issues, the synthesis of glass stabilized Mn-doped quantum dots via an appropriate glass composition design and in situ glass crystallization is reported. Mn2+ dopants act as nucleating agents to promote the nucleation/growth of CsPb(Cl/Br)3 from B-P-Zn-Cs-Pb based oxyhalide glass and partition into the perovskite host to produce dual-color luminescence via efficient exciton-to-dopant energy transfer. Benefitting from the effective protection of robust glass, Mn-doped CsPb(Cl/Br)3 quantum dots exhibit superior water resistance and thermal stability. Particularly, almost 100% luminescence is retained after immersing the composite in water for 30 days. Interestingly, rapid thermal quenching for exciton recombination relative to Mn2+ d-d transition at cryogenic temperatures enables its promising applications as a ratiometric temperature sensing medium.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013107, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a liver disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Chronic hepatitis B requires long-term management aiming to reduce the risks of hepatocellular inflammatory necrosis, liver fibrosis, decompensated liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer, as well as to improve health-related quality of life. Acupuncture is being used to decrease discomfort and improve immune function in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, the benefits and harms of acupuncture still need to be established in a rigorous way. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of acupuncture versus no intervention or sham acupuncture in people with chronic hepatitis B. SEARCH METHODS: We undertook electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP (CQVIP), Wanfang Data, and SinoMed to 1 March 2019. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/), and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) for ongoing or unpublished trials until 1 March 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication status, language, and blinding, comparing acupuncture versus no intervention or sham acupuncture in people with chronic hepatitis B. We included participants of any sex and age, diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B as defined by the trialists or according to guidelines. We allowed co-interventions when the co-interventions were administered equally to all intervention groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors in pairs individually retrieved data from reports and through correspondence with investigators. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, proportion of participants with one or more serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes were hepatitis B-related mortality, hepatitis B-related morbidity, and adverse events considered not to be serious. We presented the pooled results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the risks of bias using risk of bias domains with predefined definitions. We put more weight on the estimate closest to zero effect when results with fixed-effect and random-effects models differed. We evaluated the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight randomised clinical trials with 555 randomised participants. All included trials compared acupuncture versus no intervention. These trials assessed heterogeneous acupuncture interventions. All trials used heterogeneous co-interventions applied equally in the compared groups. Seven trials included participants with chronic hepatitis B, and one trial included participants with chronic hepatitis B with comorbid tuberculosis. All trials were assessed at overall high risk of bias, and the certainty of evidence for all outcomes was very low due to high risk of bias for each outcome, imprecision of results (the confidence intervals were wide), and publication bias (small sample size of the trials, and all trials were conducted in China). Additionally, 79 trials lacked the necessary methodological information to ensure their inclusion in our review.None of the included trials aim to assess all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, and hepatitis B-related morbidity. We are uncertain whether acupuncture, compared with no intervention, has an effect regarding adverse events considered not to be serious (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.06; I² = 0%; 3 trials; 203 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or detectable hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.68; I² = 98%; 2 trials; 158 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Acupuncture showed a reduction in detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (a non-validated surrogate outcome; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.74; 1 trial, 58 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether acupuncture has an effect regarding the remaining separately reported adverse events considered not to be serious.Three of the eight included trials received academic funding from government or hospital. None of the remaining five trials reported information on funding. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of acupuncture for chronic hepatitis B remain unknown. The included trials lacked data on all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life, serious adverse events, hepatitis-B related mortality, and hepatitis-B related morbidity. The vast number of excluded trials lacked clear descriptions of their design and conduct. Whether acupuncture influences adverse events considered not to be serious is uncertain. It remains unclear if acupuncture affects HBeAg, and if it is associated with reduction in detectable HBV DNA. Based on available data from only one or two small trials on adverse events considered not to be serious and on the surrogate outcomes HBeAg and HBV DNA, the certainty of evidence is very low. In view of the wide usage of acupuncture, any conclusion that one might try to draw in the future should be based on data on patient and clinically relevant outcomes, assessed in large, high-quality randomised sham-controlled trials with homogeneous groups of participants and transparent funding.

15.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 183: 110443, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445358

RESUMO

The development of intelligent oral drug delivery carrier aiming at efficiently bring insulin to intestine is of great significance for diabetes mellitus therapy. In the present study, a series of amphiphilic pH-sensitive block copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylicacid)-b-poly(2-amino ethyl methacrylate) [P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PAEMA] was synthesized via activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP) and further self-assembled into pH-responsive cationic polymeric micelles (PCPMs) for oral insulin delivery. The structure and molecular weight were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of these copolymers were measured by fluorescent probe method at pH 1.2 (8-15 µg/mL) and pH 7.4 (22-42 µg/mL), respectively, demonstrating high stability at acidic environment. A decrease in the particle size of PCPMs was associated with an increased pH at beginning, which reached around 200 nm at neutral pH, while the particle size increased obviously with pH increase, indicating the pH-sensitivity of PCPMs. The insulin was entrapped into the core of PCPMs (Ins-loaded PCPMs) with high loading efficiency via diafiltration method. The in vitro experiments show Ins-loaded PCPMs have low toxicity and exhibit pH-triggered release profile with remitted initial burst release. The results indicate that the PCPMs self-assembled from P(MMA-co-MAA)-b-PAEMA may be potential carriers for efficient oral delivery of insulin with controlled release property.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16660, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, only 10% to 20% of HCC patients are surgically resectable as most of the patients are diagnosed at advanced stages at presentation. The efficiencies of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in patients with advanced HCC have been clinically confirmed. We here report a patient with HCC accompanied by venous tumor thrombus, who was treated with the combination of these 3 therapies. The patient survived for 16 months with good quality of life. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 72-year-old male with a primary multicentric HCC accompanied by tumor thrombus in the right hepatic vein. The patient had the symptoms of abdominal distention and liver pain. He refused sorafenib treatment because of personal reason. DIAGNOSIS: Primary multicentric HCC stage IIIB cT4N0M0, accompanied by tumor thrombus in the right hepatic vein; chronic viral hepatitis B; and hepatitis B virus-related decompensated liver cirrhosis. INTERVENTIONS: TACE + HIFU + 3D-CRT. OUTCOMES: The patient had an overall survival of 16 months with good quality of life. Compared with monotherapy, the combined therapy significantly prolonged patient survival time with improved clinical benefits. CONCLUSION: The combination of TACE, HIFU, and 3D-CRT is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced HCC, which provides a possible comprehensive treatment strategy for advanced HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 215, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that the cerebral cortex is an important physiological system of emotional activity, and its dysfunction may be the main cause of stress. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), which initiates rapid signal transmission in the synapse before its reuptake into the surrounding glia, specifically astrocytes (ASTs). The astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters 1 (EAAT1) and 2 (EAAT2) are the major transporters that take up synaptic glutamate to maintain optimal extracellular glutamic levels, thus preventing accumulation in the synaptic cleft and ensuing excitotoxicity. Growing evidence has shown that excitotoxicity is associated with depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the underlying antidepressant-like mechanism of Xiaoyaosan (XYS), a Chinese herbal formula, may be related to the regulation of astrocytic EAATs. Therefore, we studied the antidepressant mechanism of XYS on the basis of EAAT dysfunction in ASTs. METHODS: Eighty adult C57BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) group, a Xiaoyaosan (XYS) treatment group and a fluoxetine hydrochloride (Flu) treatment group. Except for the control group, mice in the other groups all received chronic unpredictable mild stress for 21 days. Mice in the control and CUMS groups received gavage administration with 0.5 mL of normal saline (NS) for 21 days, and mice in the XYS and Flu treatment groups were administered dosages of 0.25 g/kg/d and 2.6 mg/kg/d by gavage. The effects of XYS on the depressive-like behavioral tests, including the open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT), were examined. The glutamate (Glu) concentrations of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were detected with colorimetry. The morphology of neurons in the PFC was observed by Nissl staining. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NeuN, EAAT1 and EAAT2 proteins in the PFC of mice was detected by using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to detect the expression of the GFAP, NeuN, EAAT1 and EAAT2 genes in the PFC of mice. RESULTS: The results of behavioral tests showed that CUMS-induced mice exhibited depressive-like behavior, which could be improved in some tests with XYS and Flu treatment. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of GFAP, NeuN, EAAT1 and EAAT2 in the PFC of CUMS mice were significantly lower than those in the control group, and these changes could be reversed by XYS and Flu. The results of qPCR analysis showed that the expression of GFAP, NeuN, EAAT1 and EAAT2 mRNAs in the PFC of CUMS mice was not significantly changed, with the exception of EAAT2, compared with that of the control group, while the expression of the above mRNAs was significantly higher in the XYS and Flu groups than that in the CUMS group. CONCLUSION: XYS may exert antidepressant-like effects by improving the functions of AST and EAATs and attenuating glutamate-induced neuronal damage in the frontal cortex.

18.
Nature ; 572(7770): 493-496, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435059

RESUMO

In the quest to understand high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides, debate has been focused on the pseudogap-a partial energy gap that opens over portions of the Fermi surface in the 'normal' state above the bulk critical temperature1. The pseudogap has been attributed to precursor superconductivity, to the existence of preformed pairs and to competing orders such as charge-density waves1-4. A direct determination of the charge of carriers as a function of temperature and bias could help resolve among these alternatives. Here we report measurements of the shot noise of tunnelling current in high-quality La2-xSrxCuO4/La2CuO4/La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO/LCO/LSCO) heterostructures fabricated using atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy at several doping levels. The data delineate three distinct regions in the bias voltage-temperature space. Well outside the superconducting gap region, the shot noise agrees quantitatively with independent tunnelling of individual charge carriers. Deep within the superconducting gap, shot noise is greatly enhanced, reminiscent of multiple Andreev reflections5-7. Above the critical temperature and extending to biases much larger than the superconducting gap, there is a broad region in which the noise substantially exceeds theoretical expectations for single-charge tunnelling, indicating pairing of charge carriers. These pairs are detectable deep into the pseudogap region of temperature and bias. The presence of these pairs constrains current models of the pseudogap and broken symmetry states, while phase fluctuations limit the domain of superconductivity.

19.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Easily applicable, quantitative assessment of movement is widely needed in various clinical settings, especially in the evaluation of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We developed a highly repeatable tablet computer-based finger movement assessment system (FMAS) to record finger movement profile in a visual-motor task both in PD (n = 217) and healthy participants (n = 221). RESULTS: We found age-related declines in finger movement performance among the healthy participants but not in PD patients with the FMAS. Significant differences in movement time (MT) and latency/MT ratio but not in latency were observed in PD patients as compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.000). Meanwhile, we identified the latency/MT ratio as the optimal parameter to differentiate PD from age-matched healthy subjects in an age-independent manner (cut-off 1.08 with corresponding AUC = 0.861). In addition, a significant correlation was found between finger movement parameters and the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y scale), UPDRS III score and the duration of the disease in PD patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: It was suggested that the tablet computer-based evaluation of finger movement provided an easily applicable quantitative method to assess the conditions of PD patients.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451645

RESUMO

Graphene-based materials are being developed for a variety of wearable technologies to provide advanced functions that include sensing; temperature regulation; chemical, mechanical, or radiative protection; or energy storage. We hypothesized that graphene films may also offer an additional unanticipated function: mosquito bite protection for light, fiber-based fabrics. Here, we investigate the fundamental interactions between graphene-based films and the globally important mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, through a combination of live mosquito experiments, needle penetration force measurements, and mathematical modeling of mechanical puncture phenomena. The results show that graphene or graphene oxide nanosheet films in the dry state are highly effective at suppressing mosquito biting behavior on live human skin. Surprisingly, behavioral assays indicate that the primary mechanism is not mechanical puncture resistance, but rather interference with host chemosensing. This interference is proposed to be a molecular barrier effect that prevents Aedes from detecting skin-associated molecular attractants trapped beneath the graphene films and thus prevents the initiation of biting behavior. The molecular barrier effect can be circumvented by placing water or human sweat as molecular attractants on the top (external) film surface. In this scenario, pristine graphene films continue to protect through puncture resistance-a mechanical barrier effect-while graphene oxide films absorb the water and convert to mechanically soft hydrogels that become nonprotective.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA