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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(1): 013908, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012592

RESUMO

Revealing interfacial structure and dynamics has been one of the essential thematic topics in material science and condensed matter physics. Synchrotron-based x-ray scattering techniques can deliver unique and insightful probing of interfacial structures and dynamics, in particular, in reflection geometries with higher surface and interfacial sensitivity than transmission geometries. We demonstrate the design and implementation of an in situ shearing x-ray measurement system, equipped with both inline parallel-plate and cone-and-plate shearing setups and operated at the advanced photon source at Argonne National Laboratory, to investigate the structures and dynamics of end-tethered polymers at the solid-liquid interface. With a precise lifting motor, a micrometer-scale gap can be produced by aligning two surfaces of a rotating upper shaft and a lower sample substrate. A torsional shear flow forms in the gap and applies tangential shear forces on the sample surface. The technical combination with nanoscale rheology and the utilization of in situ x-ray scattering allow us to gain fundamental insights into the complex dynamics in soft interfaces under shearing. In this work, we demonstrate the technical scope and experimental capability of the in situ shearing x-ray system through the measurements of charged polymers at both flat and curved interfaces upon shearing. Through the in situ shearing x-ray scattering experiments integrated with theoretical simulations, we aim to develop a detailed understanding of the short-range molecular structure and mesoscale ionic aggregate morphology, as well as ion transport and dynamics in soft interfaces, thereby providing fundamental insight into a long-standing challenge in ionic polymer brushes with a significant technological impact.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 124: 109883, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004938

RESUMO

Intestinal mucositis causes great suffering to cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Owing to the uncertain side effects of anticancer drugs to attenuate patients' intestinal mucositis, many studies focused on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Patchouli alcohol (PA) is an active compound extracted from Pogostemon cablin, and has potent gastrointestinal protective effect. However, whether PA has an effect on intestinal mucositis is still unknown. Therefore, we established a rat model of intestinal mucositis via intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil, and intragastrically administrated PA (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) to evaluate the effect of PA on intestinal mucositis. The routine observation (body weight, food intake, and diarrhea) in rats was used to detect whether PA had an effect on intestinal mucositis. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and MPO), mucosal barrier proteins (zonula occludens -1 (ZO-1), claudin-1, occludin, myosin light chain (MLC), and mucin-2) and intestinal microbiota were determined to elucidate the underlying mechanism of PA action on intestinal mucositis in rats. The results showed that PA could effectively improve body weight, food intake, and diarrhea in intestinal mucositis rats, preliminary confirming PA efficacy. Further experiments revealed that PA not only decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MPO but also increased the level of IL-10 significantly. In addition, the expression of mucosal barrier proteins and microbiota community were also improved after PA treatment in diseased rats. Hence, PA may prevent the development and progression of intestinal mucositis by improving inflammation, protecting mucosal barrier, and regulating intestinal microbiota.

3.
Planta Med ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975362

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. Nevertheless, no first-line therapy exists. Hepatic steatosis is the earliest stage of NAFLD, which is characterized by an accumulation of hepatic lipids. Patchouli oil (PO), which is isolated from the well-known Chinese herb named Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae), inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation effectively. However, its potential ability for the treatment of NAFLD had not been reported before. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of PO against hepatic steatosis and its underlying mechanisms. We used a high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis model of rats to estimate the effect of PO against NAFLD. Hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining were used to analyze the hepatic histopathological changes. ELISA, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting analysis were applied to evaluate the parameters for hepatic steatosis. Our results showed that PO significantly attenuated the lipid profiles and the serum enzymes, evidenced by quantitative and histopathological analyses. It also markedly down-regulated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREPB-1c) with its downstream factors in de novo lipogenesis. And, likewise, in lipid export by very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), related molecules were dramatically improved. Furthermore, PO observably normalized the aberrant peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) signal in fatty acids oxidation. In conclusion, PO exerted a preventing effect against HFD-induced steatosis and might be due to decrease de novo lipogenesis, promote export of lipids, as well as owing to improve fatty acids oxidation.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 251: 112554, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923541

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is tightly associated with inflammation response and oxidative stress. As a folk medicine applied in treatment of diarrhea, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza also possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities, which indicated that B. gymnorrhiza may exert anti-colitis effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate effect and mechanism of B. gymnorrhiza on experimental UC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extract of B. gymnorrhiza leaves (ABL) was used for investigation in the present study. Murine UC was established through access to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days. Meanwhile, mice accepted treatment with ABL (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (200 mg/kg) once daily. On the last day, disease activity index (DAI) including body weight loss, fecal character and degree of bloody diarrhea was evaluated, colon segments were obtained for length measurement and further analysis and feces were collected for intestinal microbiota analysis. RESULTS: ABL ameliorated DAI scores, colon length shortening and histopathological damage in DSS-induced colitis mice obviously. SOD activity, levels of MDA and GSH altered by colitis were restored remarkably after ABL treatment. ABL inhibited increases in levels of colonic COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-11 in colitis mice. Moreover, ABL prominently suppressed NF-κB p65 and IκB phosphorylation and down-regulated mRNA levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß elevated by colitis. As shown in microbiota analysis, ABL modulated composition of intestinal microbiota of colitis mice. CONCLUSION: ABL exhibited protective effect against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis through suppressing NF-κB activation and modulating intestinal microbiota.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898799

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) among the tuberculosis (TB)-specialized hospitals in China. A total of 40 hospitals participated in the external quality assurance program for assessment of DST results from each hospital. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DST were analyzed. The mean accuracy was 96.5% for isoniazid (INH), 95.8% for rifampin (RIF), 97.0% for ethambutol (EMB), 96.8% for ofloxacin (OFX), 97.1% for kanamycin (KAN), 96.1% for amikacin (AMK), and 93.6% for capreomycin (CAP), respectively. Of the 40 participating laboratories, 4 (10.0%) and 6 (15%) failed to achieve 90% accuracy for INH and RIF, respectively. In addition, six hospitals (15%) were confirmed as certified to provide reliable DST results for both first-line and second-line drugs. The certified proportion for DST dropped from 73.9% in the non-western region to 59.2% in the western region. The significant difference was observed in the certified proportion for first-line drugs between the western and non-western region (P = 0.013). Our results demonstrate that the quality of phenotypical DST is frequently unsatisfactory, with approximately one-third of participated laboratories failing to produce certified phenotypical DST results. In addition, the uncertified laboratories majorly come from the western region in China.

6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(2): 339-343, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901114

RESUMO

The roll-out of molecular diagnostic tools continues to be the most important shift in the tuberculosis diagnostic landscape. The aim of this study was to develop a novel external quality assessment (EQA) panels for molecular TB diagnostics. In addition, we also assessed the performance of the laboratories with the EQA panels in China. Dried Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA in the chelex resin was designed as part of an EQA program. The storage of genomic DNA in the chelex resin layer had no effect on the stability of genomic DNA, even after 12 weeks of storage. Seventy-one laboratories have participated in EQA of molecular diagnostics for TB diagnosis in 2018. GeneXpert (74.6%, 53/71) was the most predominant molecular method, followed by GeneChip (32.3%, 23/71), MeltPro (22.5%, 16/71), and TB-LAMP (7.0%, 5/71). Out of 105 EQA panels, 103 EQA results (98.1%) achieved perfect scores, whereas the other two (1.9%) had satisfactory scores. There were a total of two false-negative results reported from two laboratories with local LAMP, respectively. In conclusion, we firstly develop feasible EQA panels for molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis in China. Our data demonstrate that a majority of participating laboratories are able to produce perfect results with molecular diagnostics in China, giving us important hints for the implementation of molecular diagnostics.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(1): 113-120, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823614

RESUMO

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have lately been hailed as robust lubricant additives for improving tribological properties and as ideal catalysts for synthesizing carbon-based nanomaterials. In this paper, in situ analytical tools are used to track the evolution of the crystal structure and chemical composition of LDHs during calcination. Nickel oxide and elemental nickel can be produced by calcining NiAl-LDH in air (LDH-C-Air) and argon (LDH-C-Ar), respectively. For the base oil with 1 wt % LDH-C-Air, negligible wear can be detected even after a 2 h friction test under a severe contact pressure (∼637 MPa). A relatively thick tribofilm (∼60 nm) with a better mechanical property is formed, which protects the solid surface from severe wear. In addition, the possible formed carbon debris may also prevent the direct collision of asperities and effectively improve the wear resistance. This work provides a unique vision for the application of calcined LDHs with the combination of catalysis and tribology.

8.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(2): 343-352, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789424

RESUMO

Oxidative and inflammatory damage has been suggested to play important roles in the pathogenesis of skin photoaging. Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB) is a soluble derivative of andrographolide and has known antioxidant and anti­inflammatory properties. In the present study, cellular experiments were designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ASB in relieving ultraviolet (UV)­induced photo­damage. Following ASB pretreatment and UV irradiation, the apoptosis and necrosis of HaCaT cells were investigated by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated using a DCFH­DA fluorescence probe. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of p65, NF­κB inhibitor­α, nuclear factor E2­related factor 2 (Nrf2) and kelch­like ECH­associated protein 1 (keap1) were measured via western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Furthermore, NF­κB­mediated cytokines were assessed by ELISA, and Nrf2­mediated genes were detected by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR. Pretreatment with ASB markedly increased cell viability, decreased cell apoptosis and decreased UV­induced excess ROS levels. In addition, ASB activated the production of Nrf2 and increased the mRNA expression levels of glutamate­cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, while ASB downregulated the protein expression of p65 and decreased the production of interleukin (IL)­1ß, IL­6 and tumor necrosis factor­α. These results suggested that ASB attenuates UV­induced photo­damage by activating the keap1/Nrf2 pathway and downregulating the NF­κB pathway in HaCaT keratinocytes.

9.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 108(3): 426-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657523

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, among which coronary artery diseases (CAD) are the most common type of CVD. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using autologous vein and artery grafts is the typical surgical intervention for CAD patients. However, for patients whose autologous grafts are not available, there are no appropriate substitutes for vascular grafts. Investigation of tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) has persisted over decades with significant advancement, utilizing different types of biomaterials. In the past two decades, a great number of studies based on cell-seeding strategies were reported. However, limitations of cell-based strategies made clinical application difficult. With the understanding of stem cells and tissue remodeling process, strategies without cell-seeding emerged as potential methods to achieve in situ regeneration. A cell-free graft may recruit host cells and guide their participation in vascular remodeling. The grafts modified by bio-active molecules showed good results in promoting in situ regeneration and exhibited potential to make the vascular grafts off-the-shelf. In this review, the strategies for cell-free TEVG manufacturing were discussed, including the materials for fabricating TEVGs, the methods of functionalization to promote in situ regeneration, the challenges researchers faced in TEVG investigation, and finally the prospects in TEVG design.

10.
Surgery ; 167(2): 493-498, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass are associated with alterations in blood pressure in the perioperative period, which, if uncontrolled, can result in end organ damage or dysfunction. Microvessels, significant contributors to blood pressure, both in the myocardium and peripheral skeletal muscle, have diminished responsiveness to major mediators of vascular tone, including thromboxane and serotonin after cardiopulmonary bypass. Responsiveness of these vessels to ß-adrenergic stimulation, a major mediator of vascular tone, has not yet been studied. In this report, we investigated the role of ß-adrenergic receptors in vascular tone regulation in human skeletal muscle microvessels before and after ß-adrenergic stimulation. METHODS: Skeletal muscle microvessels were isolated from patients undergoing cardiac surgery before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Vessels were exposed in an ex vivo model to the ß-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, or the direct adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, and the selective ß-receptor antagonist ICI18.551 hydrochloride plus isoproterenol. Immunofluorescence of ß receptors and Western blotting were also performed. RESULTS: Microvessels showed diminished responsiveness to isoproterenol (10-6 to 10-4M) after cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 8/group, P = .01). Pretreatment with the selective ß-2 blocker ICI18.551 (10-6M) prevented isoproterenol-induced microvascular relaxation (P = .001). Forskolin-induced relaxation response was also significantly diminished after cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 4/group, P < .05 versus before cardiopulmonary bypass). No significant changes in the total protein expression of ß-1, ß-2, and ß-3 receptors were detected by western blotting or immunofluorescence. CONCLUSION: Microvessels isolated from human skeletal muscle show diminished responsiveness to isoproterenol and its downstream activator forskolin after cardiopulmonary bypass, suggesting there is an alteration in ß-adrenergic receptor responsive in adenylate cyclase. The relaxation response to isoproterenol was via activation ß-2 receptors without changes in ß-adrenergic receptor abundance.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112519, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883475

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pogostemon cablin, commonly named "Guang-Huo-Xiang" in China, has long been renowned for its ability to dispel dampness and regulate gastrointestinal functions. Patchouli oil (P.oil), the major active fraction of Pogostemon cablin, has been traditionally used as the principal component of Chinese medicinal formulae to treat exterior syndrome and diarrhea. However, the effects of P.oil in treating 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis have not yet been reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective effects of P.oil against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis and the mechanisms underlying these effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5-FU (30 mg/kg) to establish an intestinal mucositis model. Meanwhile, rats with intestinal mucositis were orally administered with P.oil (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Histological analysis, ELISA (for detecting inflammatory cytokines and aquaporins), immunohistochemistry analysis (for examining caspases), qRT-PCR analysis (for assessment tight junctions), and western blotting analysis (for the assessment of TLR2/TLR4-MyD88 and VIP-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway-related proteins) were performed to estimate the protective effects of P.oil against intestinal mucositis and the mechanisms underlying these effects. RESULTS: The histopathological assessment preliminarily exhibited that P.oil alleviated the 5-FU-induced damage to the intestinal structure. After P.oil administration, the elevation of the expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-13) decreased markedly and the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling was significantly inhibited. P.oil also increased the mRNA expression of ZO-1 and Occludin, thereby stabilizing intestinal barrier. In addition, P.oil decreased the expressions of caspase-8, caspase-3, and Bax, and increased the expression of Bcl-2, thereby reducing the apoptosis of the intestinal mucosa. These results were closely related to the regulation of the TLR2/TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway. It has been indicated that P.oil possibly protected the intestinal barrier by reducing inflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, this study showed that P.oil inhibited the abnormal expression of AQP3, AQP7, and AQP11 by regulating the VIP-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. Furthermore, it restored the intestinal water absorption, thereby alleviating diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: P.oil ameliorated 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in rats via protecting intestinal barrier and regulating water transport.

12.
Pharmacol Res ; 152: 104603, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863867

RESUMO

Berberine (BBR), a naturally-occurring isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several Chinese herbal medicines, has been widely used for the treatment of dysentery and colitis. However, its blood concentration was less than 1 %, and intestinal microflora-mediated metabolites of BBR were considered to be the important material basis for the bioactivities of BBR. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis activity and potential mechanism of oxyberberine (OBB), a novel gut microbiota metabolite of BBR, in DSS-induced colitis mice. Balb/C mice treated with 3 % DSS in drinking water to induce acute colitis were orally administrated with OBB once daily for 8 days. Clinical symptoms were analyzed, and biological samples were collected for microscopic, immune-inflammation, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota analysis. Results showed that OBB significantly attenuated DSS-induced clinical manifestations, colon shortening and histological injury in the mice with colitis, which achieved similar therapeutic effect to azathioprine (AZA) and was superior to BBR. Furthermore, OBB remarkably ameliorated colonic inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. OBB appreciably inhibited TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway through down-regulating the protein expressions of TLR4 and MyD88, inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα, and the translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. Moreover, OBB markedly modulated the gut dysbiosis induced by DSS and restored the dysbacteria to normal level. Taken together, the result for the first time revealed that OBB effectively improved DSS-induced experimental colitis, at least partly through maintaining the colonic integrity, inhibiting inflammation response, and modulating gut microflora profile.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4098-4104, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854873

RESUMO

Adsorption is an economical and effective method for recovering phosphate from wastewater. In order to improve the adsorption capacity of Fe3O4 for phosphate and for easy separation from water under the action of an external magnetic field, CaO2 was used in this study as an oxidant to partially oxidize Fe2+. A phosphorus recovery adsorbent, Ca doped Fe3O4 (CMIO), was prepared and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The results showed that CMIO had a Ca2+ doped Fe3O4 crystal structure with a saturation magnetization of 38.82 emu·g-1, which was easily separated from water by using an external magnetic field. The phosphorus adsorption capacity of the CMIO decreased with an increase of pH value. When pH=2 and T=25℃, the maximum adsorption capacity was 24.10 mg·g-1, which is almost five times the adsorption capacity of pure Fe3O4. The phosphorus adsorption of CMIO was in accord with the Langmuir isotherm adsorption model, and the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The complexation of phosphate occurred on the inner surface of the CMIO to form a ≡Fe-Ca-P ternary complex, which can adsorb phosphorus. Compared with other anions in the aqueous solution, CMIO had good adsorption selectivity to PO43-, and the adsorbed PO43- could be desorbed by NaOH solution.The quality loss of the CMIO was less than 4% once, and multiple recycling was possible.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4634-4640, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872658

RESUMO

There is no consensus on the drying methods of Salvia miltiorrhiza in ancient and modern times,especially on the content of phenolic acid in fresh S. miltiorrhiza. In order to further explore the content of main components in fresh S. miltiorrhiza and study the dynamic changes during the drying process,the content of main components was used as the index in this study to evaluate the processing method,drying method,correlation between dehydration rate and component content for fresh S. miltiorrhiza. In addition,the sealed and unsealed parallel control groups were set to carry out verification test during the drying process. UPLC method was used for determination of seven main components including rosmarinic acid,lithosperic acid,salvianolic acid B,cryptotanshinone,tanshinoneⅠ,methylene salianolate and tanshinone ⅡAin S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that the fresh S. miltiorrhiza contained low levels of phenolic acid,and the content of phenolic acid increased significantly with the increase of dehydration rate during drying process,while the change of tanshinone was not obvious. In the comparison of three drying methods,we found that drying at 50 ℃ was better than drying in the sun,and drying in the sun was superior to drying in the shade. So,drying at 50 ℃ was the best drying method. The correlation between dehydration and phenolic acid content of S. miltiorrhiza was analyzed by verification test and SPSS software,which further proved that the dehydration rate was significantly positively correlated with the content of phenolic acid components. This study provides reference for the production processing and drying methods of S. miltiorrhiza medicinal materials,which is of great significance for improving the quality of S. miltiorrhiza.


Assuntos
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Dessecação , Raízes de Plantas
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680986

RESUMO

Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth (PC) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms. To investigate the prebiotic effect of patchouli essential oil (PEO) and its derived compounds through the modulation of gut microbiota (GM). C57BL/6J mice were treated with the PEO and three active components of PEO, i.e. patchouli alcohol (PA), pogostone (PO) and ß-patchoulene (ß-PAE) for 15 consecutive days. Fecal samples and mucosa were collected for GM biomarkers studies. PEO, PA, PO, and ß-PAE improve the gut epithelial barrier by altering the status of E-cadherin vs. N-cadherin expressions, and increasing the mucosal p-lysozyme and Muc 2. Moreover, the treatments also facilitate the polarization of M1 to M2 macrophage phenotypes, meanwhile, suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Fecal microbial DNAs were analyzed and evaluated for GM composition by ERIC-PCR and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The GM diversity was increased with the treated groups compared to the control. Further analysis showed that some known short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria, e.g. Anaerostipes butyraticus, Butytivibrio fibrisolvens, Clostridium jejuense, Eubacterium uniforme, and Lactobacillus lactis were significantly enriched in the treated groups. In addition, the key SCFAs receptors, GPR 41, 43 and 109a, were significantly stimulated in the gut epithelial layer of the treated mice. By contract, the relative abundance of pathogens Sutterlla spp., Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Helicobacter spp. were distinctly reduced by the treatments with PEO and ß-PAE. Our findings provide insightful information that the microbiota/host dynamic interaction may play a key role for the pharmacological activities of PEO, PA, PO, and ß-PAE.

16.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 30552-30562, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684300

RESUMO

Balanced homodyne detection relies on a beam splitter to superpose the weak signal input and strong local oscillator. However, recent investigation shows that a high gain phase sensitive amplifier (PSA) can be viewed as homodyne detector, in which the strong pump of PSA serves as the local oscillator [1]. Here, we analyze a new method of measuring the continuous variable entanglement by assisting a balanced homodyne detector with the PSA and implement it experimentally. Before measuring quadrature amplitude with the balanced homodyne detectors, two entangled fields generated from a pulse pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier are simultaneously coupled into the PSA. We find that the normalized noise for both the difference and sum of the quadrature amplitudes of the two entangled fields fall below the shot noise limit by about 4.6 dB, which is the record degree of entanglement measured in optical fiber systems. The experimental results illustrate that the advantages of the new measurement method include but not limit to tolerance to detection loss and characterizing entanglement with only one homodyne detector. The influence of mode-mismatching due to multi-mode property of entanglement on the measured noise reduction can also be greatly mitigated, indicating the new method is advantageous over the traditional measurement in multi-mode case.

17.
Hum Resour Health ; 17(1): 83, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China's TB control system has been transforming its service delivery model from CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)-led model to the designated hospital-led model to combat the high disease burden of TB. The implications of the new service model on TB health workforce development remained unclear. This study aims to identify implications of the new service model on TB health workforce development and to analyze whether the new service model has been well equipped with appropriate health workforce. METHODS: The study applied mixed methods in Zhejiang, Jilin, and Ningxia provinces of China. Institutional survey on designated hospitals and CDC was conducted to measure the number of TB health workers. Individual questionnaire survey was conducted to measure the composition, income, and knowledge of health workers. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were organized to explore policies in terms of recruitment, training, and motivation. RESULTS: Zhejiang, Jilin, and Ningxia provinces had 0.33, 0.95, and 0.47 TB health professionals per 10 000 population respectively. They met the national staffing standard at the provincial level but with great variety at the county level. County-designated hospitals recruited TB health professionals from other departments of the same hospital, existing TB health professionals who used to work in CDC, and from township health centers. County-designated hospitals recruited new TB health professionals from three different sources: other departments of the same hospital, CDC, and township health centers. Most newly recruited professionals had limited competence and put on fixed posts to only provide outpatient services. TB doctors got 67/100 scores from a TB knowledge test, while public health doctors got 77/100. TB professionals had an average monthly income of 4587 RMB (667 USD). Although the designated hospital had special financial incentives to support, they still had lower income than other health professionals due to their limited capacity to generate revenue through service provision. CONCLUSIONS: The financing mechanism in designated hospitals and the job design need to be improved to provide sufficient incentive to attract qualified health professionals and motivate them to provide high-quality TB services.

19.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632274

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic hepatic disorder worldwide. The earliest stage of NAFLD is simple steatosis, which is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. Inhibition of steatosis is a potential treatment for NAFLD. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is an active component of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Labiatae), which is a medicinal food in Asia countries and proved to possess hepatoprotective effect. This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PA against high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a HFD for 4 weeks to induce NAFLD. Oral administration with PA significantly reduced pathological severity of steatosis in HFD-fed rats. It was associated with suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and regulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. Our data showed that PA treatment effectively attenuated ER stress by inhibiting the activation of protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Moreover, PA decreased hepatic VLDL uptake by suppressing very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression. It also restored VLDL synthesis and export by increasing apolipoprotein B100 (apoB 100) secretion and microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP) activity. Taken together, PA exerted a protective effect on the treatment of NAFLD in HFD-fed rats and may be potential therapeutic agent acting on hepatic steatosis.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17607, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to provide the best possible evidence-based information on the efficacy and safety of sifalimumab for treatment of skin injury (SI) caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: In this study, electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, WHO Global Index Medicus, Virtual Health Library, Social Care Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure will be searched comprehensively from inceptions to June 30, 2019 without language restrictions. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on evaluating the efficacy and safety of sifalimumab for SI caused by SLE. Two investigators will conduct study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment independently. We will use RevMan 5.3 Software to perform statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will lie in the exhaustive and systematic nature of the literature search and its methods for evaluating quality and analyzing RCTs data. Considering the controversial efficacy of the treatment for sifalimumab, this study is responsible for improving the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of sifalimumab for SI caused by SLE. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will provide latest evidence for judging whether sifalimumab is an effective intervention for patients with SI caused by SLE or not. STUDY REGISTRATION: CRD42019148225.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/lesões , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
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