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1.
Chemosphere ; : 133419, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982966

RESUMO

Odor problems are challenging issues in water treatment. Advanced oxidation has a significant degradation effect on these odors; however, some issues, such as oxidant residues and disinfection byproducts, exist in the use of advanced oxidation in actual water treatment. Because of the above issues, a combined advanced oxidation process has emerged-the UV/H2O2 -biological activated carbon (BAC) process can play a strong oxidizing role in advanced oxidation and uses the physical adsorption and biological effects of activated carbon. However, there have been few studies on the odor degradation mechanism and characteristics of activated carbon biofilms in actual water treatment. This paper systematically studied the organic and odor substances removal effects and mechanism of a pilot combined UV/H2O2-BAC process. The results showed that UV/H2O2-BAC technology had a good removal effect on odor substances under long-term stable operation. The concentrations of geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) after systemic treatment were below 5 ng/L. The removal rates of DOC, UV254 and H2O2 by the combined process were 53.60%, 73.08% and 60.20%, respectively. The results of full-scan determination of GSM and 2-MIB degradation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were consistent with those of front-track analysis. The diversity, richness and evenness of microorganisms in the lower activated carbon layer were higher than those in the middle and upper activated carbon layers. The greater the difference in the carbon layer height was, the greater the difference in the biological community structure.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150385, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610565

RESUMO

Variations in iodinated aromatic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the presence of I- and organic compounds as a function of reaction time in different molar ratios (MRs) of HOCl:NH3-N were investigated. Up to 17 kinds of iodinated aromatic DBPs were identified in the breakpoint chlorination of iodide (I-)/organic (phenol, bisphenol S (BPS) and p-nitrophenol (p-NP)) systems, and the possible pathways for the formation of iodinated aromatic DBPs were proposed. The reaction pathways include HOCl/HOI electrophilic substitution and oxidation, while the dominant iodinated DBPs were quantified. In the I-/phenol system (pH = 7.0), the sum of the concentrations of four iodinated aliphatic DBPs ranged from 0.32 to 1.04 µM (triiodomethane (TIM), dichloroiodomethane (DCIM), diiodochloromethane (DICM) and monoiodoacetic acid (MIAA)), while the concentration of 4-iodophenol ranged from 2.99 to 12.87 µM. The concentration of iodinated aromatic DBPs remained stable with an MR = 1:1. When the MR was 6:1, iodinated aromatic DBPs decreased with increasing reaction time, in which the main disinfectant in the system was active chlorine. This study proposed the formation mechanism of iodinated aromatic DBPs during the breakpoint chlorination of iodide-containing water. These results can be used to control the formation of hazardous iodinated aromatic DBPs in the disinfection of iodine containing water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iodetos , Nitrogênio , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211062244, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of tendinopathy due to subacromial supraspinatus tendon (SST) impingement and the response to subsequent removal of impingement remain unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the involvement of Indian hedgehog (IHH) signaling in the development of SST tendinopathy and the subsequent healing process after the relief of subacromial impingement in a novel mouse shoulder impingement model. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 48 male wild-type C57BL/6 mice were used in this study. Supraspinatus tendinopathy was induced by inserting a microsurgical clip into the subacromial space bilaterally. Eleven mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks after surgery to establish impingement baseline; 24 mice underwent clip removal at 4 weeks after surgery and then were euthanized at 2 or 4 weeks after clip removal. Thirteen mice without surgical intervention were utilized as the control group. All SSTs were evaluated with biomechanical testing; quantitative histomorphometry after staining with hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue, and picrosirius red; and immunohistochemical staining (factor VIII, IHH, Patched1 [PTCH1], and glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 [GLI1]). RESULTS: The mean failure force and stiffness in the 4-week impingement group decreased significantly compared with the control group (P < .001) and gradually increased at 2 and 4 weeks after clip removal. Histological analysis demonstrated increased cellularity and disorganized collagen fibers in the SST, with higher modified Bonar scores at 4 weeks, followed by gradual improvement after clip removal. The IHH-positive area and PTCH1- and GLI1-positive cell percentages significantly increased after 4 weeks of clip impingement (20.64% vs 2.06%, P < .001; 53.9% vs 28.03%, P = .016; and 30% vs 12.19%, P = .036, respectively) and continuously increased after clip removal. CONCLUSION: The authors' findings suggest that the hedgehog signaling pathway and its downstream signaling mediator and target GLI1 may play a role in the development and healing process of rotator cuff tendinopathy due to extrinsic rotator cuff impingement. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study suggests the potential for the hedgehog pathway, together with its downstream targets, as candidates for further study as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 719599, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803940

RESUMO

Increasing evidences suggest that the gut microbiota have their contributions to the hypertension, but the metagenomic characteristics and potential regulating mechanisms in primary hypertension patients taking antihypertension drugs are not clear yet. We carried out a metagenomic analysis in 30 primary hypertension patients taking antihypertension medications and eight healthy adults without any medication. We found that bacterial strains from species, such as Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus vestibularis, were highly increased in patients; and these strains were reported to generate glycan, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and trimethylamine (TMA) or be opportunistic pathogens. Meanwhile, Dorea longicatena, Eubacterium hallii, Clostridium leptum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and some other strains were greatly decreased in the patient group. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis found that ortholog groups and pathways related to glycan biosynthesis and multidrug resistance were significantly increased in the patient group, and some of the hub genes related to N-glycan biosynthesis were increased in the patient group, while those related to TMA precursor metabolism and amino acid metabolism both increased and decreased in the patient group. Metabolites tested by untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proved the decrease of acetic acid, choline, betaine, and several amino acids in patients' fecal samples. Moreover, meta-analysis of recent studies found that almost all patients were taking at least one kind of drugs that were reported to regulate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, so we further investigated if AMPK regulated the metagenomic changes by using angiotensin II-induced mouse hypertensive model on wild-type and macrophage-specific AMPK-knockout mice. We found that the changes in E. coli and Dorea and glycan biosynthesis-related orthologs and pathways were similar in our cohort and hypertensive wild-type mice but reversed after AMPK knockout. These results suggest that the gut microbiota-derived glycan, SCFA, TMA, and some other metabolites change in medication-taking primary hypertension patients and that medications might promote gut microbiota glycan biosynthesis through activating macrophage-AMPK.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126128, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492922

RESUMO

This study demonstrated that As(III) was appreciably removed by ferrate in the presence of straw biochar. Removal efficiency of As in ferrate/biochar system was over 91%, increased by 34% compared with ferrate alone ([biochar]0 = 10 mg/L, [ferrate]0 = 6 mg/L, [As(III)]0 = 200 µg/L). In the reaction process, As(III) was oxidized to As(V) mainly by ferrate, while ferrate was reduced into ferric (hydr)oxides and coated on the biochar. Biochar was oxidized in the reaction and its surface area, pore volume and the amount of Lewis acid functional groups were substantially improved, which provided interaction sites for As adsorption. Analysis of hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential revealed that biochar interacted with the ferrate resulted ferric oxides and enlarged the Fe-C-As particle/floc, which promoted their settlement and thus the liquid-solid separation of As. As(V) was adsorbed on the surface of biochar and ferric (hydr)oxides through hydrogen bond, electrostatic attraction and As-(OFe) bond. Ferrate/biochar was not only effective for As removal, but removed 73.31% of As, 50.38% of Cd, and 75.27% of Tl when these hazardous species synchronously existed in polluted water (initial content: As, 100 µg/L; Cd, 50 µg/L; Tl, 1 µg/L). The combination of ferrate with biochar has potential for the remediation of hazardous species polluted water.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11612-11623, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415770

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine draws increasing attention for the abatement of recalcitrant organic pollutants. Herein, it was found that TiO2 would significantly promote the degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in the UV/chlorine system (from 19 to 84%). Hydroxyl radicals (HO•) and chlorine radicals (Cl•) were the dominant reactive species for DMP degradation in the UV/chlorine/TiO2 system. Chlorine decayed much faster in UV/chlorine/TiO2 compared with UV/chlorine, which is possibly because photogenerated electrons (ecb-) and superoxide radicals (O2•-) have high reactivity with chlorine. As a result, the recombination of photogenerated holes (hvb+) and ecb- was inhibited and the accumulation of HO• and Cl• was facilitated. A kinetic model was established to simulate the reaction process, and it was found that the concentrations of HO• and Cl• were several times to dozens of times higher in UV/chlorine/TiO2 than that in UV/chlorine. The contributions of HO• and Cl• to DMP degradation were 70.3 and 29.7% by model simulation, respectively, and were close to the probe experiment result. In the UV/chlorine/TiO2 system, the degradation of DMP did not follow pseudo-first-order kinetics but the degradation of benzoate fitted well with pseudo-first-order kinetics. This phenomenon was elucidated by the structure of the pollutant and TiO2 and further tested by calculating the adsorption energy (Eads)/binding energy (Eb) with density functional theory. Due to faster decay of chlorine, lower amounts of disinfection byproducts formed in UV/chlorine/TiO2 compared with UV/chlorine. Adding TiO2 into the UV/chlorine system can promote the degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants in an aqueous environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Cinética , Oxirredução , Titânio , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 418, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by impairment of ovarian function on a continuum before the age of 40 years. POI is affected by multiple factors. Considering new insights from recent gut microbiome studies, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between gut microbial community structure and POI. METHODS: Subjects were recruited at the Shenzhen Maternity & Child Healthcare Hospital. Fecal microbial community profiles of healthy women (n = 18), women with POI (n = 35) were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing based on Illumina NovaSeq platform. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, the serum levels of FSH, LH, T and FSH/LH ratio significantly increased in women with POI, whereas E2 and AMH decreased significantly. Higher weighted UniFrac value was observed in POI women compared with healthy women. Phylum Firmicutes, genera Bulleidia and Faecalibacterium were more abundant in healthy women, while phylum Bacteroidetes, genera Butyricimonas, Dorea, Lachnobacterium and Sutterella enriched significantly in women with POI. Moreover, these alterations of the gut microbiome in women with POI were closely related to FSH, LH, E2, AMH level and FSH/LH ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Women with POI had altered microbial profiles in their gut microbiome, which were associated with serum hormones levels. These results will shed a new light on the pathogenesis and treatment for POI.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Adulto Jovem
8.
Langmuir ; 37(18): 5673-5681, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929870

RESUMO

Excellent stability of a catalytic center would facilitate the prolongation of the cycle of a chemical plating bath and the reduction of environmental pollution. In this study, silane (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) and γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propytrimethoxysilane (KH560)) was incorporated in AgNO3 solution to rationally prepare a Ag nanoparticle/polymer brush (Ag/PB) catalytic solution. The effects of the KH560 relative content on the Ag/PB structure and stability were studied. The epoxy group in the KH560 could react with an amino group in the KH550 through direct ring-opening reaction to form a secondary amino group and hydroxyl, which could coadsorb Ag nanoparticles by means of a chelating structure; hence, Ag/PB with superior Ag-adsorbed intensity was established on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. Ag particles on PB with 75% KH560 revealed the best stability of those measured, and the relative Ag surplus was 56.7% after stability testing. The generated Ag/PB that served as catalytic centers to catalyze the electroless copper plating resulted in a facile technology for preparing Cu/PET composite material. This means that the technology has potential application in a green process for preparing metal/polymer composite materials.

9.
Water Res ; 197: 117094, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836297

RESUMO

To reveal the role of ferrate self-decomposition and the fates of intermediate iron species [Fe(V)/Fe(IV) species] during ferrate oxidation, the reaction between ferrate and methyl phenyl sulfoxide (PMSO) at pH 7.0 was investigated as a model system in this study. Interestingly, the apparent second-order rate constants (kapp) between ferrate and PMSO was found to increase with ferrate dosage in the condition of excess ferrate in borate buffer. This ferrate dosage effect was diminished greatly in the condition of excess PMSO where ferrate self-decomposition was lessened largely, or counterbalanced by adding a strong complexing ligand (e.g. pyrophosphate) to sequester Fe(V) oxidation, demonstrating that the Fe(V) species derived from ferrate self-decomposition plays an important role in PMSO oxidation. A mechanistic kinetics model involving the ferrate self-decomposition and PMSO oxidation by Fe(VI), Fe(V) and Fe(IV) species was then developed and validated. The modeling results show that up to 99% of the PMSO oxidation was contributed by the ferrate self-decomposition resultant Fe(V) species in borate buffer, revealing that ferrate self-decomposition is also a self-activation process. The direct Fe(VI) oxidation of PMSO was impervious to presence of phosphate or Fe(III), while the Fe(V) oxidation pathway was strongly inhibited by phosphate complexation or enhanced with Fe(III). Similar ferrate dosage effect and its counterbalance by pyrophosphate as well as the Fe(III) enhancement were also observed in ferrate oxidation of micropollutants like carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, implying the general role of Fe(V) and promising Fe(III) enhancement during ferrate oxidation of micropollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Cinética , Oxirredução , Sulfóxidos , Água
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 608352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680989

RESUMO

Listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a severe food-borne infection. The nationwide surveillance in China concerning listeriosis is urgently needed. In the present study, 144 L. monocytogenes isolates were collected from the samples of blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and fetal membrane/placenta in China for 12 years from 2008 to 2019. We summarized these listeriosis patients' demographical and clinical features and outcomes. The susceptibility profile for 12 antibiotics was also determined by the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and serogroups of these listeria isolates were analyzed to designate epidemiological types. We enrolled 144 cases from 29 healthcare centers, including 96 maternal-neonatal infections, 33 cases of bacteremia, 13 cases of neurolisteriosis, and two cutaneous listeriosis. There were 31 (59.6%) fetal loss in 52 pregnant women and four (9.8%) neonatal death in 41 newborns. Among the 48 nonmaternal-neonatal cases, 12.5% (6/48) died, 41.7% (20/48) were female, and 64.6% (31/48) occurred in those with significant comorbidities. By MLST, the strains were distinguished into 23 individual sequence types (STs). The most prevalent ST was ST87 (49 isolates, 34.0%), followed by ST1 (18, 12.5%), ST8 (10, 6.9%), ST619 (9, 6.3%), ST7 (7, 4.9%) and ST3 (7, 4.9%). Furthermore, all L. monocytogenes isolates were uniformly susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, and meropenem. In summary, our study highlights a high genotypic diversity of L. monocytogenes strains causing clinical listeriosis in China. Furthermore, a high prevalence of ST87 and ST1 in the listeriosis should be noted.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Gravidez
11.
Water Res ; 195: 116973, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677242

RESUMO

Though hydroxylamine (NH2OH) is effective for accelerating pollutants degradation in Fenton and Fenton-like systems, the effect of anions simultaneously introduced by the hydroxylamine salts have always been ignored. Herein, effect of two commonly used hydroxylamine salts, hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OH·HCl) and hydroxylamine sulfate [(NH2OH)2·H2SO4], for the degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in peroxymonosulfate (PMS)/Fe(II) system was comparatively investigated. Degradation efficiency of DMP with NH2OH·HCl was 1.6 times of that with same dosages of (NH2OH)2·H2SO4. SO4·-, Fe(IV) and ·OH formed in the PMS/Fe(II)/NH2OH system, but ·OH was the major species for DMP degradation. Addition of Cl- significantly improved the production of ·OH and Cl·, and the exposure dose of ·OH (CT·OH) was more than 10 times that of CTCl· as the concentration of Cl- increased to 1 mM. Calculations based on branching ratios of Cl· and ·OH indicated that the reactions of Cl- with SO4·- and Cl· with H2O were not the only production sources of ·OH in the system. Further experiments with methyl phenyl sulfoxide (PMSO) as the probe indicated that Cl- would facilitate the shift of reactive species from Fe(IV) to radicals (SO4·- or ·OH) in the system. Both hydroxylation and nitration intermediate products were detected in the oxidation of DMP. Cl- promoted the formation of hydroxylation intermediates and reduced the formation of nitration intermediates. This study revealed for the first time that Cl- could shift reactive species from Fe(IV) to radicals in PMS/Fe(II) system, raising attention to the influence of the coexisting anions (especially Cl-) for pollutants oxidation in iron-related oxidation processes.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Peróxidos , Compostos Ferrosos , Ferro , Oxirredução
12.
Water Res ; 194: 116951, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640749

RESUMO

Highly toxic iodinated phenolic by-products were frequently detected in the oxidative treatment and disinfection of iodine-containing water. Herein, it was found that three model iodinated phenolic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), 2-iodophenol, 4-iodophenol and 2,4,6-triiodophenol, were reactive with HOCl, and the reaction rate constants (at pH 7.0 and 25℃) were 1.86 ×102, 1.62 ×102 and 7.5 ×101 M-1s-1, respectively. When HOCl was in excess (HOCl/iodophenol = 40/1, [iodophenol]0 = 20 µM), acute toxicity of water sample containing iodophenols could be largely eliminated (> 85%), with the conversion of iodophenols into stable and non-toxic iodate (IO3-) and iodinated and chlorinated aliphatic DBPs. Besides IO3-, seven kinds of aromatic intermediate products including iodophenols, chloroiodophenols, iodoquinones, chloroiodoquinones, chloroquinones, chlorophenols, and coupling products were detected. C-I bond of iodophenols was cleaved in the reaction and the resulted aromatic products were further transformed into chlorinated aliphatic DBPs [trichloromethane (TCM), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), and chloral hydrate (CH)] (mg/L level) and iodinated trihalomethanes (µg/L level). HOCl was effective for converting iodophenols into IO3- and less toxic chlorinated aliphatic DBPs. Considering that chlorine was widely used as disinfectant, transformation and toxicity alteration of emerging DBPs during chlorination/booster chlorination warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iodatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Water Res ; 193: 116860, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540342

RESUMO

After reaction with permanganate or ferrate, the resulted Mn-loaded and Fe-loaded biochar (MnOx/biochar and FeOx/biochar) exhibited excellent catalytic ozonation activity. O3 (2.5 mg/L) eliminated 48% of atrazine (ATZ, 5 µM) within 30 min at pH 7.0, while under identical conditions, ozonation efficiency of ATZ increased to 83% and 100% in MnOx/biochar and FeOx/biochar (20 mg/L) heterogeneous catalytic systems, respectively. Radical scavenger experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis confirmed that hydroxyl radical (•OH) was the dominant oxidant. Total Lewis acid sites on MnOx/biochar and FeOx/biochar were 3.5 and 4.1 times of that on the raw biochar, which induced enhanced adsorption of O3 and its subsequent decomposition into •OH. Electron transfer via redox pairs on MnOx/biochar and FeOx/biochar was observed by cyclic voltammetry scans, which also functioned in the improved catalytic capacity. Degradation pathways of ATZ in MnOx/biochar and FeOx/biochar ozonation systems were proposed, with 34.6% and 44.8% of dechlorination effect accomplished within 30 min of reaction, which was improved by 4.1 and 5.3 times compared to pure ozonation. After 12-hour treatment, acute toxicity of ATZ oxidation products was reduced from 38.3% of pure ozonation system to 14.5% and 6.3% of activated ozonation systems with MnOx/biochar and FeOx/biochar, respectively. Mn-loaded biochar and Fe-loaded biochar have great potential for heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of polluted water.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Catálise , Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(3): 2037-2047, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435681

RESUMO

Roxarsone (ROX) has been widely used as an organoarsenic additive in animal feeding operations and poses a risk to the environment. Here, we first report the efficient degradation of ROX by UV/chlorine, where the kinetics, removal of total arsenic (As), and cytotoxicity were investigated. The kinetics study presented that reactive chlorine species (RCS) and HO• were the dominant species to react with ROX. Furthermore, the degradation rate of ROX can reach the maximum value at pH 7.5 due to the formation of more RCS. The degradation of ROX was affected by the amount of chlorine, pH, and water matrix. Through product analysis and Gauss theoretical calculation, two possible ROX degradation pathways were proposed. The free radicals attacked the As-C bond of ROX and resulted in releasing arsenate (As(V)). It was the reason that for an enhancement of the removal of total As by ferrous appeared after UV/chlorine, and over 98% of the total As was removed. In addition, cytotoxicity studies indicated that the cytotoxicity significantly enhanced during the degradation of ROX by UV/chlorine. However, by combination of UV/chlorine and adsorption, cytotoxicity can be greatly eliminated, probably due to the removal of As(V) and chlorinated products. These results further demonstrated that UV/chlorine treatment could be an effective method for the control of the potential environmental risks posed by organoarsenic.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Roxarsona , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Animais , Cloro , Cinética , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Water Environ Res ; 93(5): 727-737, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713095

RESUMO

To simultaneously improve the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater with a low C/N ratio and reduce excess sludge production, in this paper, excess sludge ultrasound-hydrolysis acidification (UHA) pretreatment was coupled with the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) process to provide carbon source and enhance biological nitrogen removal performance, and the experimental results can be summarized as follows. First, the total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the effluent of the system decreased from 16.94 mg/L to 5.74 mg/L, and the removal rate of TN increased by 25.5%. In addition, the concentrations for ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) in the system decreased 12.59 mg/L, and the removal rate of this index increased by 29.0%. Furthermore, the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) in the anoxic zone increased significantly because the application of UHA products enhanced the microbial activity, and the addition of UHA products had an effect on the microbial community structure in the system. The amounts of denitrifying bacteria such as Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria also increased, which enhanced the nitrogen removal efficiency of wastewater biological treatment. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Treatment of excess sludge in UHA device as an additional carbon source. Nitrogen removal efficiency was greatly improved after adding UHA products. Input of UHA products enhanced microbial activity in AAO system. Denitrifying bacteria increased with the addition of UHA products.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
16.
Water Res ; 190: 116690, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285456

RESUMO

Effect of ferrate [Fe(VI)] pre-oxidation on improving FeCl3/ultrafiltration (UF) of algae-laden source water was investigated. Fe(VI) disrupted algae cells and the in situ formed ferric (hydr)oxides aggregated with cell debris. Particle size and zeta potential of algae increased by 20% and 55% on average, respectively, after treatment with 0.02 mM of Fe(VI). These variations facilitated the formation of algae-ferric floc. Fe(VI) degraded algal extracellular organic matter into lower molecular weight products (fulvic-like and humic-like substances). Membrane flux, reversible membrane resistance (Rr) and irreversible membrane resistance (Rir) were improved by 51%, 61%, and 52% in Fe(VI) (0.02 mM)/FeCl3/UF treatment group compared with FeCl3/UF treatment after three filtration cycles. Fe(VI)/FeCl3/UF removed more than 10% ~ 34% of the dissolved organic compounds (DOC) and 6% ~ 17% of the total nitrogen (TN) compared with FeCl3/UF. Due to the enhanced removal of DOC and TN, formation potential of 12 kinds of carbonaceous-disinfection byproducts (C-DBPs) and 7 kinds of nitrogenous-disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) decreased by 32.5% and 22.5%, respectively. Fe(VI) pre-oxidant was effective for alleviating membrane fouling and reducing formation potential of DBPs in algal laden water treatment.


Assuntos
Ultrafiltração , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Ferro , Água
17.
Water Environ Res ; 93(5): 693-702, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363675

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are widely distributed in freshwater and have the following characteristics: small size, strong hydrophobicity, difficult degradation, and easy adsorption of toxic substances. These characteristics pose a potential threat to the environment and human health. In this paper, three common MPs in freshwater were removed by conventional dissolved air flotation (DAF) and positive modification DAF (Posi-DAF). The results showed that the optimal removal efficiency of MPs by conventional DAF was 32%-38% at 0.4-0.5 MPa. This indicated that the adhesion between microbubbles (MBs) and MPs was not ideal when the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction was the dominant mechanism. However, the removal efficiency of MPs was increased by 13.6%-33.7% compared with that of conventional DAF after two surface modifiers were used on MBs. This result indicated that in addition to the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction, both charge attraction and sweeping had positive effects. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The removal efficiency and mechanism of MPs by posi-DAF were investigated. The characteristics, particle number, and adhesion of microplastics were measured. Conventional DAF was dominated by hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions. CTAB Posi-DAF was dominated by charge attraction. PDADMAC Posi-DAF was dominated by charge attraction and sweeping.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Água Doce , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
JSES Int ; 4(4): 913-918, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345234

RESUMO

Hypothesis: The purpose was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes and tendon structural integrity after repair of isolated subscapularis (SSC) tendon tears. Methods: Sixty-one patients who underwent repair of isolated SSC tears were evaluated. The mean interval from symptom onset to surgery was 5.3 months. Shoulder function was investigated using the Constant score and Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Structural integrity of the repair and quality of the repaired tendon were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Independent preoperative factors affecting clinical outcomes, including patient sex, age, smoking habits, injections, dominant shoulder, profession, and tear onset (chronic vs. traumatic), were evaluated. Results: A total of 35 patients (9 women and 26 men; mean age, 54 years) were included at the final 10-year follow-up because 21 patients were lost to follow-up and 5 underwent reoperations. The mean Constant score improved from 55.1 points preoperatively to 75.4 points postoperatively (P = .001). The postoperative SSV was 80.9, and the retear rate was 12.9%. Postoperative fatty infiltration increased in 26% of the patients with grades 3-4, but it was not related to lower clinical outcomes. Multivariable regression analysis revealed no correlation among the preoperative factors, including sex, age, smoking habits, injections, dominant shoulder, profession, and tear onset, and the postoperative Constant score, SSV, and tendon healing. Conclusion: At a mean of 10 years after repair of isolated SSC tears, clinical results were satisfactory and functional improvement was maintained in the long term. Severe fatty infiltration increased with time, but it was not related to clinical outcomes and the retear rate.

19.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 2443-2452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765018

RESUMO

Objective: Invasive candidiasis (IC), a life-threatening fungal infection prevalent among hospitalized patients, has highly variable regional epidemiology. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study to investigate recent trends in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns among IC-associated Candida spp. in Beijing, China, from 2016 to 2017. Materials and Methods: A total of 1496 non-duplicate Candida isolates, recovered from blood and other sterile body fluids of IC patients, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry combined with ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. Broth microdilution-based susceptibility testing using six antifungal agents was also conducted. Results: Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (49.9%), followed by Candida tropicalis (15.5%), Candida glabrata (14.7%) and Candida parapsilosis (14.2%). No significant differences in species distribution were observed when compared with a 2012-2013 dataset. Overall, the rates of susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole were high among C. albicans (98% and 97.2%, respectively) and C. parapsilosis species complex (91.1% and 92%, respectively) isolates but low among C. tropicalis (81.5% and 81.1%, respectively) isolates. In addition, the rate of azole resistance among C. tropicalis isolates increased significantly (1.8-fold, P<0.05) compared with that observed in 2012-2013, while micafungin resistance rates were <5% for all tested Candida species. Conclusion: Our results suggest that species distribution has remained stable among IC-associated Candida isolates in Beijing. Resistance to micafungin was rare, but increased azole resistance among C. tropicalis isolates was noted. Our study provides information on local epidemiology that will be important for the selection of empirical antifungal agents and contributes to global assessments of antifungal resistance.

20.
Water Res ; 183: 116054, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668351

RESUMO

Biochar draws increasing attention as soil amendment, carbon sink, slow-release fertilizer, and adsorbent. Herein, it was interesting to find out that among 11 kinds of commercial biochar, 3 of them facilitated ferrate oxidation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). With the addition of biochar, oxidation rates of 5 kinds of organic pollutants (including antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and personal care product) increased by 3-14 times, and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal ratio increased by 2.4-8 times. Radical scavenging experiment, electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis, and probe compound (sulfoxide) oxidation experiment showed that no radical but intermediate iron species [Fe(IV) and Fe(V)] participated in the oxidation reactions. Redox-active moieties (phenolic hydroxyl) on biochar interact with ferrate as electron shuttle and enhance the formation of intermediate iron species through electron transfer. The intermediate iron species not only interacted with organic pollutants and accelerated their transformation, but also corrupted (oxidized) the physical structure of biochar and expanded its surface area and pore volume. Increase of surface area and pore volume of the spent biochar in turn resulted in the improved adsorption capacity. In addition to eliminating emerging organic pollutants, ferrate/biochar removed 8.7%-31.6% of TOC in authentic water and decreased the formation potential of 20 kinds of chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs) by 9.2%-23.9%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Ferro , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
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