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1.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 8, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astronauts undergo significant microgravity-induced bone loss during space missions, which has become one of the three major medical problems hindering human's long-term space flight. A risk-free and antiresorptive drug is urgently needed to prevent bone loss during space missions. D-mannose is a natural C-2 epimer of D-glucose and is abundant in cranberries. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and potential mechanisms of D-mannose against bone loss under weightlessness. METHODS: The hind legs of tail-suspended (TS) rats were used to mimic weightlessness on Earth. Rats were administered D-mannose intragastrically. The osteoclastogenic and osteogenic capacity of D-mannose in vitro and in vivo was analyzed by micro-computed tomography, biomechanical assessment, bone histology, serum markers of bone metabolism, cell proliferation assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting. RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed to detect the underlying mechanisms of D-mannose in bone protection. RESULTS: The TS rats showed lower bone mineral density (BMD) and poorer bone morphological indices. D-mannose could improve BMD in TS rats. D-mannose inhibited osteoclast proliferation and fusion in vitro, without apparent effects on osteoblasts. RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis showed that D-mannose administration significantly inhibited the cell fusion molecule dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and two indispensable transcription factors for osteoclast fusion (c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 [NFATc1]). Finally, TS rats tended to experience dysuria-related urinary tract infections (UTIs), which were suppressed by treatment with D-mannose. CONCLUSION: D-mannose protected against bone loss and UTIs in rats under weightlessness. The bone protective effects of D-mannose were mediated by inhibiting osteoclast cell fusion. Our findings provide a potential strategy to protect against bone loss and UTIs during space missions.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Reabsorção Óssea , Ausência de Peso , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos , Manose/farmacologia , Manose/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Osteoclastos , Densidade Óssea , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo
2.
Small ; : e2205813, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670083

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in the treatment of diseases. After their in vivo application, MSCs undergo apoptosis and release apoptotic vesicles (apoVs). This study investigates the role of apoVs derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) in bone metabolism and the molecular mechanism of the observed effects. The results show that apoVs can promote osteogenesis and inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo. ApoVs may therefore attenuate the bone loss caused by primary and secondary osteoporosis and stimulate bone regeneration in areas of bone defect. The mechanisms responsible for apoV-induced bone regeneration include the release of miR1324, which inhibit expression of the target gene Sorting Nexin 14 (SNX14) and thus activate the SMAD1/5 pathway in target cells. Given that MSC-derived apoVs are easily obtained and stored, with low risks of immunological rejection and neoplastic transformation, The findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to treat bone loss, including via cell-free approaches to bone tissue engineering.

3.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 517, 2022 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of intraoral photographs, acquired with a household intraoral camera operating in conventional, calibrated, and polarized modes, with clinical examinations for assessing the marginal adaptation and gingival status of full-crown restorations. METHODS: Clinical examinations were performed by a prosthodontist who classified the marginal adaptation of full-crown restorations according to FDI World Dental Federation criteria, and a periodontal expert who classified gingival status according to the Modified Gingival Index (MGI). The margins and gingival status of the conventional, calibration, and polarization groups of full-crown restorations were independently assessed by three evaluators who obtained photographs using an intraoral camera. Cases where at least two of three assessors were in agreement were analyzed using Cohen's kappa coefficient and the chi-square test, and the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. RESULTS: The conventional, calibration, and polarization groups differed significantly in marginal and gingival status of full-crown restorations. In the calibration group, there was good agreement between the camera-based and oral clinical examinations in terms of the gingival status of full-crown restorations (kappa = 0.945), with 100% sensitivity and 91.67% specificity; this was also the case in the polarization group with respect to the margins of full-crown restorations (kappa = 0.917, sensitivity = 97.22%, specificity = 94.44%). CONCLUSIONS: An intraoral camera with black and white calibrated images is useful to assess the gingival status of full-crown restorations. Polarization mode can be used to assess the marginal adaptation of full-crown restorations. The camera is a feasible and valid diagnostic aid.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Gengiva , Humanos , Fotografia Dentária , Índice Periodontal , Coroas
4.
Int J Oral Sci ; 14(1): 54, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376276

RESUMO

As an important enzyme for gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2) has further complex functions beyond regulation of glucose metabolism. Here, we report that conditional knockout of Pck2 in osteoblasts results in a pathological phenotype manifested as craniofacial malformation, long bone loss, and marrow adipocyte accumulation. Ablation of Pck2 alters the metabolic pathways of developing bone, particularly fatty acid metabolism. However, metformin treatment can mitigate skeletal dysplasia of embryonic and postnatal heterozygous knockout mice, at least partly via the AMPK signaling pathway. Collectively, these data illustrate that PCK2 is pivotal for bone development and metabolic homeostasis, and suggest that regulation of metformin-mediated signaling could provide a novel and practical strategy for treating metabolic skeletal dysfunction.


Assuntos
Metformina , Camundongos , Animais , Metformina/farmacologia , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/genética , Camundongos Knockout
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1039020, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439117

RESUMO

Background: Therapies based on the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) are transforming the treatment landscape of esophageal cancer. Nevertheless, the available data on adverse events (AEs) mainly stemmed from several prospective clinical trials and retrospective studies, in which, AE data are often handled and reported with less rigor than the primary beneficial outcomes of the study. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to investigate the toxicity spectrum of these novel regimens. Method: We searched for all prospective clinical trials investigating the role of ICIs combined with TRT published between January 2010 and August 2022. Study articles and conference proceedings involving esophageal cancers and reporting the overall incidence or details of treatment-related AEs (trAEs) were synthesized to determine the toxicity profile of combination treatment. We compared trAEs between cancer type, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, and between sequential and concurrent administration of ICIs and TRT to identify potentially high-risk patients. Results: We obtained toxicity data from 14 clinical trials involving 863 patients. The pooled overall incidence was 88.97% for any-grade trAEs and 18.48% for high-grade trAEs. The three most frequent non-hematologic any-grade trAEs were reactive cutaneous capillary endothelial proliferation (RCCEP, 63.80%), esophagitis (51.54%), and fatigue (33.63%). Meanwhile, RCCEP (15.69%) was the most common non-hematologic high-grade trAE, followed by nausea (4.91%) and anorexia (3.81%). The occurrence rates of any-grade and high-grade pneumonitis were 10.82% and 0.66%, respectively. In subgroup analysis, the toxicity profiles of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors were mostly similar, except for any-grade pneumonitis (15.20% vs 4.88%, p=0.03) and high-grade leukopenia (6.25% vs 59.09%, p=0.00). In addition, concurrent treatment seemed to have a higher incidence of any-grade trAEs (95.20% vs 70.85%, p=0.03) compared with sequential treatment. ESCC seems to have higher incidence of any-grade hypothyroidism (22.55% vs 8.96%, p=0.049) compared to EAC. Conclusion: Our study is the first systematic review to provide a toxicity profile of trAEs in esophageal cancer patients who received ICIs combined with TRT. Most AEs of this combination treatment are tolerable, although the incidence of any-grade trAEs was higher in the concurrent group. The difference in any-grade pneumonitis between PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitor groups needs further validation in a large clinical trial.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429048

RESUMO

Bone defects and fractures heal slowly compared with injuries to other tissues, creating a heavy burden for patients, their families, and society. Alongside conventional treatment methods for fractures and bone defects, adjuvant therapies play an important but underappreciated role. In a previous study, we found that systemic administration of flufenamic acid promoted osteogenesis in vivo, but its side effects limited the application of our findings. In the present study, we assess the effects of external butyl flufenamate ointment on the healing of cranial defects in mice. We found that application of butyl flufenamate ointment on the surface of the skin accelerated the healing of cranial defects in mice by promoting BMP2 secretion from mouse-skin mesenchymal stem-cells. These findings indicate that butyl flufenamate ointment has potential therapeutic value for treating superficial fractures or bone defects while avoiding the toxicity and side effects of systemic medication, representing a safe and convenient adjuvant therapy to promote healing of superficial bone defects and fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos , Animais , Ácido Flufenâmico/farmacologia , Pomadas/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea , Fraturas Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia
7.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(23): 3331-3340, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining antiangiogenic therapy with radioimmunotherapy is believed to further improve antitumor efficacy, but there is still a lack of evidence to support this. This study aimed to investigate the role of the tumor vascular-targeted agent famitinib with a combination of radiotherapy and an immune checkpoint inhibitor in murine lung cancer. METHODS: The effect of VEGFA and HIF1A on clinical prognosis and the tumor immune microenvironment was analyzed using public databases. Enrichment analyses of post-irradiation gene expression and mRNAs related to immunotherapy efficacy were carried out based on GEO datasets. A C57BL/6 mouse subcutaneous tumor model was used to evaluate the antitumor effects of different treatment schemes. The tumor immunophenotyping was identified by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We demonstrated that high level of VEGFA and HIF1A expression in lung cancer was related to poor prognosis and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In a mouse model, the triple therapy of famitinib, radiotherapy and immunotherapy had the most dramatic antitumor activity. It significantly increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and reversed the immunosuppressive state of the tumor microenvironment in mice. Compared with radioimmunotherapy, the addition of famitinib further promoted the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and M1 type tumor associated macrophages, and reduced the number of myeloid suppressor cells. Therefore, triple therapy converted the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment into an immunostimulatory one. CONCLUSION: Famitinib can synergize with radioimmunotherapy by regulating the tumor immune microenvironment in murine lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radioimunoterapia , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 297: 120027, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184142

RESUMO

Delayed inflammatory reaction and poor osteogenesis are the two main causes of failure for bone-defect healing. Accordingly, in the present study, a dual-responsive hydrogel composite was successfully fabricated in which near-infrared (NIR)-light-responsive polydopamine-coated magnesium-calcium carbonate microspheres are incorporated into a thermo-responsive hydroxybutyl chitosan hydrogel to provide sequential delivery of the anti-inflammatory drug aspirin and osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). By initially releasing aspirin rapidly, the hydrogel composite efficiently ameliorates early-stage inflammatory reaction and promotes transition to the regenerative phase. Then, the hydrogel composite allows NIR-light-responsive release of BMP-2, which maximizes its osteoinductive effects. Using an SD rat calvaria-defect model, the sequential and controllable release achieved by the hydrogel is demonstrated to promote new-bone formation. Thus, the current study provides an efficient alternative strategy for developing multifunctional therapeutic biomaterials for bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Hidrogéis , Animais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea , Carbonato de Cálcio , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Indóis , Magnésio/farmacologia , Osteogênese , Polímeros , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146872

RESUMO

Seasonal H3N2 influenza evolves rapidly, leading to an extremely poor vaccine efficacy. Substitutions employed during vaccine production using embryonated eggs (i.e., egg passage adaptation) contribute to the poor vaccine efficacy (VE), but the evolutionary mechanism remains elusive. Using an unprecedented number of hemagglutinin sequences (n = 89,853), we found that the fitness landscape of passage adaptation is dominated by pervasive epistasis between two leading residues (186 and 194) and multiple other positions. Convergent evolutionary paths driven by strong epistasis explain most of the variation in VE, which has resulted in extremely poor vaccines for the past decade. Leveraging the unique fitness landscape, we developed a novel machine learning model that can predict egg passage substitutions for any candidate vaccine strain before the passage experiment, providing a unique opportunity for the selection of optimal vaccine viruses. Our study presents one of the most comprehensive characterizations of the fitness landscape of a virus and demonstrates that evolutionary trajectories can be harnessed for improved influenza vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/genética
10.
Odontology ; 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068382

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital dental casts from plaster cast scanning (PCS), impression scanning (IPS), intraoral scanning (IOS), and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning (CCS) methods. The maxillary and mandibular dental casts of 15 patients who needed CBCT scans for oral examination or treatment were digitized via four methods. 12 linear distance measurements of all digital dental casts were selected and acquired with software and compared to those of the reference plaster cast to evaluate the dimensional accuracy. Three-dimensional deviation analysis of the IPS, IOS and CCS groups with respect to the reference PCS group was performed to evaluate the morphological accuracy. The discrepancy in linear distances between the digital dental casts and reference plaster casts was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The dimensional accuracies of the PCS (0.06 ± 0.12 mm) and IPS (0.03 ± 0.05 mm) casts were better than those of the IOS (0.37 ± 0.30 mm) and CCS (0.54 ± 0.40 mm) casts. The one-sample t test showed that there were statistically significant differences between the discrepancies in 8 of the linear distances for the PCS group and 9 of the linear distances for the IPS group between the digital dental casts and reference plaster casts, with an ideal error of 0.00 (p < 0.05). The sequence of morphological accuracy from good to poor was maxillary and mandibular IPS, mandibular IOS; maxillary IOS; and maxillary and mandibular CCS. The accuracy of the digital dental casts from the PCS and IPS methods was greater than that of IOS and CCS methods. Although accuracy of the digital dental cast from IOS was low, it satisfied the clinical requirements for fixed restorations in small units. The accuracy of the digital dental cast from CCS was poorest and could only be used for procedures with lower accuracy requirements.

11.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 443, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone is a rigid organ that provides physical protection and support to vital organs of the body. Bone loss disorders are commonly associated with increased bone marrow adipose tissue. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotent progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) is a co-activator of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), and is required for ubiquitin ligase activity. Our previous study showed that CDC20 promoted the osteogenic commitment of BMSCs and Cdc20 conditional knockout mice suggested a decline in bone mass. In this study, we found that knockdown of CDC20 promoted adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs by modulating ß-catenin, which suggested a link between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. METHODS: Lentivirus containing a CDC20 shRNA was used for CDC20 knockdown in human BMSCs (hBMSCs). Primary mouse BMSCs (mBMSCs) were isolated from Cdc20f/f and Sp7-Cre;Cdc20f/f mice. Adipogenesis was examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting analysis of adipogenic regulators, Oil Red O staining, and transplantation into nude mice. CDC20 knockout efficiency was determined through immunochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blotting of bone marrow. Accumulation of adiposity was measured through histology and staining of bone sections. Exploration of the molecular mechanism was determined through western blotting, Oil Red O staining, and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: CDC20 expression in hBMSCs was significantly decreased during adipogenic differentiation. CDC20 knockdown enhanced hBMSC adipogenic differentiation in vitro. CDC20-knockdown hBMSCs showed more adipose tissue-like constructs upon hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining. Sp7-Cre;Cdc20f/f mice presented increased adipocytes in their bone marrow compared with the control mice. mBMSCs from Sp7-Cre;Cdc20f/f mice showed upregulated adipogenic differentiation. Knockdown of CDC20 led to decreased ß-catenin levels, and a ß-catenin pathway activator (lithium chloride) abolished the role of CDC20 in BMSC adipogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that CDC20 knockdown enhanced adipogenesis of hBMSC and mBMSCs adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo. CDC20 regulates both adipogenesis and osteogenesis of BMSCs, and might lead to the development of new therapeutic targets for "fatty bone" and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Proteínas Cdc20/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea , Proteínas Cdc20/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Osteogênese/genética , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
13.
J Prosthodont ; 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the accuracies of three intraoral scanners for shade determination function in vitro, and to preliminarily investigate the shade-matching characteristics of the three intraoral scanners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The shade of the middle third region of each shade tab on the Vita Classical A1-D4 shade guide (VC) was measured with a spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade V, VE) and three intraoral scanners, including CEREC Omnicam (OM), 3Shape TRIOS 3 (T3), and TRIOS 4 (T4). A conversion table between VC values and CIELAB values was established from the database of VE to analyze the trueness. The reproducibility of the instruments was then compared by repeating the measurements five times. RESULTS: The mean color difference for each instrument was highest in the OM, followed by the T4, and lowest in the T3 and VE, respectively. The L* and a* value for OM, and the b* value for T4, were significantly different from those for VE (p <0.05). The reproducibility of the instrument was highest in the VE (Fleiss' kappa: 0.95), followed by the T3 (Fleiss' kappa: 0.89), T4 (Fleiss' kappa: 0.87), and OM (Fleiss' kappa: 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Of the three intraoral scanners, the trueness was best on the T3. The reproducibility of all the instruments was excellent.

14.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 323, 2022 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In tissue engineering, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are common seed cells because of abundant sources, strong proliferation ability and immunomodulatory function. Numerous researches have demonstrated that MSC-macrophage crosstalk played a key role in the tissue engineering. Macrophages could regulate the differentiation of MSCs via different molecular mechanisms, including extracellular vesicles. Apoptotic macrophages could generate large amounts of apoptotic vesicles (apoVs). ApoVs are rich in proteins, RNA (microRNAs, mRNAs, ncRNAs, etc.) and lipids, and are a key intercellular communication mediator that can exert different regulatory effects on recipient cells. MiRNAs account for about half of the total RNAs of extracellular vesicles, and play important roles in biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas the functions of macrophage-derived apoVs remain largely unknown. There was no research to clarify the role of macrophage-derived apoVs in MSC fate choices. In this study, we aimed to characterize macrophage-derived apoVs, and investigate the roles of macrophage-derived apoVs in the fate commitment of MSCs. METHODS: We characterized macrophage-derived apoVs, and investigated their role in MSC osteogenesis and adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we performed microRNA loss- and gain-of-function experiments and western blot to determine the molecular mechanism. RESULTS: Macrophages could produce a large number of apoVs after apoptosis. MSCs could uptake apoVs. Then, we found that macrophage-derived apoVs inhibited osteogenesis and promoted adipogenesis of MSCs in vitro and in vivo. In mechanism, apoVs were enriched for microRNA155 (miR155), and apoVs regulated osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs by delivering miR155. Besides, miR155 regulated osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs cultured with macrophage-derived apoVs via the SMAD2 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage-derived apoVs could regulate the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs through delivering miR155, which provided novel insights for MSC-mediated tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , MicroRNAs , Adipogenia/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746515

RESUMO

Seasonal Influenza H3N2 virus poses a great threat to public health, but its vaccine efficacy remains suboptimal. One critical step in influenza vaccine production is the viral passage in embryonated eggs. Recently, the strength of egg passage adaptation was found to be rapidly increasing with time driven by convergent evolution at a set of functionally important codons in the hemagglutinin (HA1). In this study, we aim to take advantage of the negative correlation between egg passage adaptation and vaccine effectiveness (VE) and develop a computational tool for selecting the best candidate vaccine virus (CVV) for vaccine production. Using a probabilistic approach known as mutational mapping, we characterized the pattern of sequence evolution driven by egg passage adaptation and developed a new metric known as the adaptive distance (AD) which measures the overall strength of egg passage adaptation. We found that AD is negatively correlated with the influenza H3N2 vaccine effectiveness (VE) and ~75% of the variability in VE can be explained by AD. Based on these findings, we developed a computational package that can Measure the Adaptive Distance and predict vaccine Effectiveness (MADE). MADE provides a powerful tool for the community to calibrate the effect of egg passage adaptation and select more reliable strains with minimum egg-passaged changes as the seasonal A/H3N2 influenza vaccine.

16.
Gels ; 8(6)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735722

RESUMO

Organoids are novel in vitro cell culture models that enable stem cells (including pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells) to grow and undergo self-organization within a three-dimensional microenvironment during the process of differentiation into target tissues. Such miniature structures not only recapitulate the histological and genetic characteristics of organs in vivo, but also form tissues with the capacity for self-renewal and further differentiation. Recent advances in biomaterial technology, particularly hydrogels, have provided opportunities to improve organoid cultures; by closely integrating the mechanical and chemical properties of the extracellular matrix microenvironment, with novel synthetic materials and stem cell biology. This systematic review critically examines recent advances in various strategies and techniques utilized for stem-cell-derived organoid culture, with particular emphasis on the application potential of hydrogel technology in organoid culture. We hope this will give a better understanding of organoid cultures for modelling diseases and tissue engineering applications.

17.
Tissue Cell ; 77: 101829, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660272

RESUMO

Craniofacial bone defects cause significant problems to patients with harmful consequences. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can self-renew and exhibit multilineage differentiation, which could be applied to bone regeneration. However, craniofacial bone tissue MSCs have unique properties, differing in their characteristics to MSCs derived from long bones. CDC20 promotes osteogenic differentiation in long bones; however, its role in craniofacial bone tissues remains unknown. In this study, we found that Cdc20 conditional knockout in mice triggered distinctive cranial and mandibular bone loss. Moreover, the osteogenic differentiation potential of cranial suture-derived MSCs and mandibular bone marrow-derived MSCs was impaired in Cdc20 conditional knockout mice. The conditional knockout of Cdc20 impaired osteogenesis in craniofacial bones. Our findings provide new insights into craniofacial bone regeneration and the treatments of craniofacial bone-related diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cdc20/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteogênese , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Camundongos , Osteogênese/genética , Crânio
18.
Small ; 18(36): e2106056, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570711

RESUMO

Mg-Ca alloys have emerged as a promising research direction for biomedical implants in the orthopedic field. However, their clinical use is deterred by their fast corrosion rate. In this work, a pH stimuli-responsive silk-halloysite (HNT)/phytic acid (PA) self-healing coating (Silk-HNT/PA) is constructed to slow down the corrosion rate of Mg-1Ca alloy and its cell viability and osteogenic differentiation ability are enhanced. The Silk-HNT/PA coating exhibits appealing active corrosion protection, by eliciting pH-triggerable self-healing effects, while simultaneously affording superior biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation ability. Moreover, in vivo studies by histological analysis also demonstrate better osseointegration for the Silk-HNT/PA coated Mg-1Ca alloy. In summary, the Silk-HNT/PA coating in the present study has great potential in enhancing the biomedical utility of Mg alloys.


Assuntos
Magnésio , Osteogênese , Ligas , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Corrosão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Seda
19.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 33(7): 735-744, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the 3-year implant-related outcomes following alveolar ridge preservation in periodontally compromised molar sockets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty implants were placed in 26 patients following either ridge preservation (test, n = 16) or natural healing (control, n = 14) at deficient molar extraction sites after a 6-month healing period. The need for additional augmentation procedures at implant placement was recorded. Patients were assessed for 3 years following a definitive restoration. Patient information being collected included modified plaque index, the modified sulcus bleeding index, the peri-implant probing depth clinically, and alterations of marginal bone level (MBL) radiographically. RESULTS: There was a 100% survival rate of implants in both groups after 3-year follow-up. During implant placement operation, 35.7% in the control group and 6.3% in the test group required additional augmentation procedures. No statistically significant differences were determined for peri-implant parameters and marginal bone levels between the two groups. The overall mean difference of MBL was 0.072 mm (95% CI [-0.279, 0.423]) during the 3 years of follow-up. The success rate was 81.2% in the test and 78.6% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Implants placed into periodontally compromised molar-extracted sites after ridge augmentation resulted in comparable outcomes to implant placement at naturally healed sites after 3-year functional loading. (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-ONN-16009433).


Assuntos
Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar , Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Implantes Dentários , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Implantação Dentária Endóssea/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Extração Dentária/métodos , Alvéolo Dental/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Prosthodont ; 35(2): 181-185, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507531

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether a significant dimensional difference in labial soft tissue could be produced by maxillary anterior tooth restorations with diverse labial thicknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Changes in the contour of the lips in each participant produced by provisional restorations with different labial thicknesses (1-4 mm) compared to baseline (0 mm) were assessed using 3D software and using a visual analog scale by a group of prosthodontists and a group of laypeople. RESULTS: Significant enhancements in 3D deviation compared to baseline were present when the participants were wearing the labial provisional restorations. Negative correlations for labial thickness with nasolabial angle and distance from upper lip to E-plane measurements were found. However, the changes were most pronounced for the prosthodontist and laypeople groups when the labial veneer thickness was 2 mm or more. CONCLUSION: Prosthodontists and laypeople hardly recognized the lip profile changes when labial provisional restorations were below 2 mm. Therefore, restorations with limited labial thickness had a weak esthetic impact on lip morphology.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Maxila , Humanos
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