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1.
BMC Genom Data ; 23(1): 37, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yield-related traits including thousand grain weight (TGW), grain number per spike (GNS), grain width (GW), grain length (GL), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), and spikelet number per spike (SNS) are greatly associated with grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with them, 193 recombinant inbred lines derived from two elite winter wheat varieties Chuanmai42 and Chuanmai39 were employed to perform QTL mapping in six/eight environments. RESULTS: A total of 30 QTLs on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, 6D, 7A, 7B and 7D were identified. Among them, six major QTLs QTgw.cib-6A.1, QTgw.cib-6A.2, QGw.cib-6A, QGl.cib-3A, QGl.cib-6A, and QSl.cib-2D explaining 5.96-23.75% of the phenotypic variance were detected in multi-environments and showed strong and stable effects on corresponding traits. Three QTL clusters on chromosomes 2D and 6A containing 10 QTLs were also detected, which showed significant pleiotropic effects on multiple traits. Additionally, three Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers linked with five of these major QTLs were developed. Candidate genes of QTgw.cib-6A.1/QGl.cib-6A and QGl.cib-3A were analyzed based on the spatiotemporal expression patterns, gene annotation, and orthologous search. CONCLUSIONS: Six major QTLs for TGW, GL, GW and SL were detected. Three KASP markers linked with five of these major QTLs were developed. These QTLs and KASP markers will be useful for elucidating the genetic architecture of grain yield and developing new wheat varieties with high and stable yield in wheat.

2.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(1): 257-271, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647130

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Six major QTLs for wheat grain size and weight were identified on chromosomes 4A, 4B, 5A and 6A across multiple environments, and were validated in different genetic backgrounds. Grain size and weight are crucial components of wheat yield. Dissection of their genetic control is thus essential for the improvement of yield potential in wheat breeding. We used a doubled haploid (DH) population to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain width (GW), grain length (GL), and thousand grain weight (TGW) in five environments. Six major QTLs, QGw.cib-4B.2, QGl.cib-4A, QGl.cib-5A.1, QGl.cib-6A, QTgw.cib-4B, and QTgw.cib-5A, were consistently identified in at least three individual environments and in best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) datasets, and explained 5.65-34.06% of phenotypic variation. QGw.cib-4B.2, QTgw.cib-4B, QGl.cib-5A.1 and QGl.cib-6A had no effect on grain number per spike (GNS). In addition to QGl.cib-4A, the other major QTLs were further validated by using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers in different genetic backgrounds. Moreover, significant interactions between the three major GL QTLs and two major TGW QTLs were observed. Comparison analysis showed that QGl.cib-5A.1 and QGl.cib-6A are likely new loci. Notably, QGw.cib-4B.2 and QTgw.cib-4B were co-located on chromosome 4B and improved TGW by increasing only GW, unlike nearby or overlapped loci reported previously. Three genes associated with grain development within the QGw.cib-4B.2/QTgw.cib-4B interval were identified by searches on sequence similarity, spatial expression patterns, and orthologs. The major QTLs and KASP markers reported here will be useful for elucidating the genetic architecture of grain size and weight and for developing new wheat cultivars with high and stable yield.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Sementes/genética
3.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 745290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659315

RESUMO

Durum wheat is one of the important food and cash crops. The main goals in current breeding programs are improving its low yield potential, kernel characteristics, and lack of resistance or tolerance to some biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a nascent synthesized hexaploid wheat Lanmai/AT23 is used as the female parent in crosses with its AB genome donor Lanmai. A tetraploid line YL-443 with supernumerary spikelets and high resistance to stripe rust was selected out from the pentaploid F7 progeny. Somatic analysis using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) revealed that this line is a disomic substitution line with the 4B chromosome pair of Lanmai replaced by the 4D chromosome pair of Aegilops tauschii AT23. Comparing with Lanmai, YL-443 shows an increase in the number of spikelets and florets per spike by 36.3 and 75.9%, respectively. The stripe rust resistance gene Yr28 carried on the 4D chromosome was fully expressed in the tetraploid background. The present 4D(4B) disomic substitution line YL-443 was distinguished from the previously reported 4D(4B) lines with the 4D chromosomes from Chinese Spring (CS). Our study demonstrated that YL-443 can be used as elite germplasm for durum wheat breeding targeting high yield potential and stripe rust resistance. The Yr28-specific PCR marker and the 4D chromosome-specific KASP markers together with its unique features of pubescent leaf sheath and auricles can be utilized for assisting selection in breeding.

4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(11): 3625-3641, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309684

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Two major and stable QTLs for spike compactness and length were detected and validated in multiple genetic backgrounds and environments, and their pleiotropic effects on yield-related traits were analyzed. Spike compactness (SC) and length (SL) are greatly associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SC and SL, two biparental populations derived from crosses of Chuanmai42/Kechengmai1 and Chuanmai42/Chuannong16 were employed to perform QTL mapping in five environments. A total of 34 QTLs were identified, in which six major QTLs were repeatedly detected in more than four environments and the best linear unbiased prediction datasets, explaining 7.13-33.6% of phenotypic variation. These major QTLs were co-located in two genomic regions on chromosome 5A and 6A, namely QSc/Sl.cib-5A and QSc/Sl.cib-6A, respectively. By developing kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers that linked to them, the two loci were validated in different genetic backgrounds, and their interactions were also analyzed. Comparison analysis showed that QSc/Sl.cib-5A was not Vrn-A1 and Q, and QSc/Sl.cib-6A was likely a new locus for SC and SL. Both QSc/Sl.cib-5A and QSc/Sl.cib-6A had pleiotropic effects on other yield-related traits including plant height, thousand grain weight and grain length. Therefore, the two loci combined with the developed KASP markers might be potentially applicable in wheat breeding. Furthermore, based on the spatiotemporal expression patterns, gene annotation, orthologous search and sequence differences, TraesCS5A01G301400 and TraesCS6A01G090300 were considered as potential candidates for QSc/Sl.cib-5A and QSc/Sl.cib-6A, respectively. These results provided valuable information for fine mapping and cloning of the two loci in the future.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Patrimônio Genético , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Pleiotropia Genética , Fenótipo
5.
Food Chem ; 356: 129699, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873144

RESUMO

Anthocyanins and selenium have vital biological functions for human and plants, they were investigated thoroughly and separately in plants. Previous studies indicated pigmented fruits and vegetables had higher selenium concentration, but whether there is a relationship between anthocyanins and selenium is unclear. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic methodological approach was undertaken to explore the potential relationship between anthocyanins and selenium accumulation by using phenotypic investigation and RNA-seq analysis. The results showed that pigmented cultivars enrichment in Se is a general phenomenon observed for these tested species, this due to pigmented cultivars have higher Se efficiency absorption. Se flow direction mainly improve concentration of S-rich proteins of LMW-GS. This may be a result of the MYB and bHLH co-regulate anthocyanins biosynthesis and Se metabolism at the transcriptional level. This thesis addresses a neglected aspect of the relevant relationship between anthocyanins and selenium.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Antocianinas/análise , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/química , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
New Phytol ; 230(5): 1940-1952, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651378

RESUMO

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), the germination of grain before harvest, is a serious problem resulting in wheat yield and quality losses. Here, we mapped the PHS resistance gene PHS-3D from synthetic hexaploid wheat to a 2.4 Mb presence-absence variation (PAV) region and found that its resistance effect was attributed to the pleiotropic Myb10-D by integrated omics and functional analyses. Three haplotypes were detected in this PAV region among 262 worldwide wheat lines and 16 Aegilops tauschii, and the germination percentages of wheat lines containing Myb10-D was approximately 40% lower than that of the other lines. Transcriptome and metabolome profiling indicated that Myb10-D affected the transcription of genes in both the flavonoid and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis pathways, which resulted in increases in flavonoids and ABA in transgenic wheat lines. Myb10-D activates 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) by biding the secondary wall MYB-responsive element (SMRE) to promote ABA biosynthesis in early wheat seed development stages. We revealed that the newly discovered function of Myb10-D confers PHS resistance by enhancing ABA biosynthesis to delay germination in wheat. The PAV harboring Myb10-D associated with grain color and PHS will be useful for understanding and selecting white grained PHS resistant wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases , Triticum , Dioxigenases/genética , Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12261, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703989

RESUMO

Plant height is an important agronomic trait for morphogenesis and grain yield formation in wheat. In this study, we performed both normal and multivariate conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plant height with spike length, internode number, length of the first internode to the sixth internode from the top during harvest, and photosynthesis traits at the seedling stage and heading stage based on a recombinant inbred line population. A total of 49 normal QTLs were detected, as well as 312 conditional QTLs. The genetic region Xbcd1970-Xbcd262 on chromosome 2D harbored the most QTLs, with 6 normal QTLs and 39 conditional QTLs. A comparison between the normal and conditional QTL mapping analyses suggested that the length of the third internode, fourth internode, and fifth internode from the top showed a high genetic association with plant height, whereas all photosynthesis traits showed weaker associations. This comparative analysis could serve as a platform for dissecting the genetic relation between objective traits and other phenotypic traits before manipulation of genes collocated with QTL clusters.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 505, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental toxicity from non-essential heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), which is released from human activities and other environmental causes, is rapidly increasing. Wheat can accumulate high levels of Cd in edible tissues, which poses a major hazard to human health. It has been reported that heat shock transcription factor A 4a (HsfA4a) of wheat and rice conferred Cd tolerance by upregulating metallothionein gene expression. However, genome-wide identification, classification, and comparative analysis of the Hsf family in wheat is lacking. Further, because of the promising role of Hsf genes in Cd tolerance, there is need for an understanding of the expression of this family and their functions on wheat under Cd stress. Therefore, here we identify the wheat TaHsf family and to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms mediated by the Hsf family under Cd stress. RESULTS: We first identified 78 putative Hsf homologs using the latest available wheat genome information, of which 38 belonged to class A, 16 to class B and 24 to class C subfamily. Then, we determined chromosome localizations, gene structures, conserved protein motifs, and phylogenetic relationships of these TaHsfs. Using RNA sequencing data over the course of development, we surveyed expression profiles of these TaHsfs during development and under different abiotic stresses to characterise the regulatory network of this family. Finally, we selected 13 TaHsf genes for expression level verification under Cd stress using qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the genome organization, evolutionary features and expression profiles of the wheat Hsf gene family. This work therefore lays the foundation for targeted functional analysis of wheat Hsf genes, and contributes to a better understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanism of wheat Hsfs under Cd stress.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/fisiologia
9.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 19(2): 281-294, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443851

RESUMO

Wheat, one of the most broadly cultivated and consumed food crops worldwide, can accumulate high Cd contents in their edible parts, which poses a major hazard to human health. Cd accumulation ability differs among varieties in wheat, but the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, key genes responsible for Cd accumulation between two contrasting wheat genotypes (low-Cd accumulation one L17, high-Cd accumulation one H17) were investigated. Total 1269 were differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in L17 after Cd treatment, whereas, 399 Cd-induced DEGs were found in H17. GO-GO network analysis showed that heme binding was the most active GO, and metal binding was the second one that associated with other GOs in response to Cd stress in both genotypes. Pathway-pathway network analysis showed that phenylpronanoid biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism were the top pathways in response to Cd stress in both genotypes. Furthermore, we found that DEGs related to ion binding, antioxidant defense mechanisms, sulfotransferase activity, and cysteine biosynthetic process were more enriched in L17. In conclusion, our results not only provide the foundation for further exploring the molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation in wheat but also supply new strategies for improving phytoremediation ability of wheat by genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Genótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol ; 177(4): 1754-1771, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914891

RESUMO

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes display differential expression in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Hundreds of imprinted genes have been identified from several plant species. Here, we identified, with a high level of confidence, 208 imprinted gene candidates from rice (Oryza sativa). Imprinted genes of rice showed limited association with the transposable elements, which contrasts with findings from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Generally, imprinting in rice is conserved within a species, but intraspecific variation also was detected. The imprinted rice genes do not show signatures of selection, which suggests that domestication has had a limited evolutionary consequence on genomic imprinting. Although conservation of imprinting in plants is limited, we show that some loci are imprinted in several different species. Moreover, our results suggest that different types of epigenetic regulation can be established either before or after fertilization. Imprinted 24-nucleotide small RNAs and their neighboring genes tend to express alleles from different parents. This association was not observed between 21-nucleotide small RNAs and their neighboring genes. Together, our findings suggest that the regulation of imprinting can be diverse, and genomic imprinting has evolutionary and biological significance.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Impressão Genômica , Oryza/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Epigênese Genética , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas
11.
J Exp Bot ; 69(10): 2495-2510, 2018 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514259

RESUMO

Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor that consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. Gene functions of NF-Ys during endosperm development are not well understood. In this study, we identified eight rice NF-Y-encoding genes, namely OsNF-YA8, OsNF-YB1,9, and OsNF-YC8,9,10,11,12, that are predominantly expressed in the endosperm. Interestingly, the close homologs of these OsNF-Ys are present only in monocot species and are also preferentially expressed in the endosperm, suggesting that they have roles in the regulation of endosperm development. A systemic analysis of interactions between rice endosperm-preferential NF-Ys in yeast revealed that OsNF-YBs and OsNF-YCs could interact with each other. We also found that the endosperm-preferential OsNF-YBs and OsNF-YCs could interact with some ethylene response factors (ERFs) of rice. Unlike OsNF-YC8,9,10, the members of OsNF-YB1,9 or OsNF-YC 11,12 showed no transcriptional activation when present alone. However, they displayed functional activity while in dimer form. In addition, OsNF-YB1-knockout lines showed significant changes in seed morphology, further confirming its role in endosperm development. Our findings provide evidence that a group of phylogenetically conserved NF-Ys is probably differentiated in monocots to regulate endosperm development.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 35(11): 1765-80, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23881316

RESUMO

Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites that contribute to the adaptation of plants to environmental stresses, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. Flavonoids are also beneficial for human health and depress the progression of some chronic diseases. The biosynthesis of flavonoids, which belong to a large family of phenolic compounds, is a complex metabolic process with many pathways that produce different metabolites, controlled by key enzymes. There is limited knowledge about the composition, biosynthesis and regulation of flavonoids in cereals. Improved understanding of the accumulation of flavonoids in cereal grains would help to improve human nutrition through these staple foods. The biosynthesis of flavonoids, scope for altering the flavonoid composition in cereal crops and benefits for human nutrition are reviewed here.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Poaceae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Engenharia Metabólica , Poaceae/metabolismo
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