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1.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opsins are crucial for animal vision. The identity and function of opsins in Plutella xylostella remain unknown. The aim of the research is to confirm which opsin gene(s) contribute to phototaxis of P. xylostella. RESULTS: LW-opsin, BL-opsin and UV-opsin, were identified in the P. xylostella genome. LW-opsin was more highly expressed than the other two opsin genes, and all three genes were specifically expressed in the head. Three P. xylostella strains, LW-13 with a 13-bp deletion in LW-opsin, BL + 2 with a 2-bp insertion in BL-opsin, and UV-29 with a 5-bp insertion and a 34-bp deletion in UV-opsin, were established from the strain G88 using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Among the three opsin-knockout strains, only male and female LW-13 exhibited weaker phototaxis to lights of different wavelengths and white light than G88 at 2.5 lx due to defective locomotion, and LW-13 was defective to sense white, green and IR lights. The locomotion of LW-13 was reduced compared with G88 at 2.5, 10, 20, 60, 80, 100, and 200 lx under the green light, but the locomotion of LW-13 female was recovered at 80, 100 and 200 lx. The defective phototaxis to the green light of male LW-13 was not affected by light intensity, while the defective phototaxis to the green light of female LW-13 was recovered at 10, 20, 60, 80, 100, and 200 lx. CONCLUSION: LW-opsin is involved in light sensing and locomotion of P. xylostella, providing a potential target gene for controlling the pest.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838006

RESUMO

Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is an emerging noninvasive therapeutic approach, which could penetrate deep-seated tissues and activate sonosensitizer to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nevertheless, the hypoxic tumor microenvironment significantly limits the efficiency of SDT due to its oxygen-consumption treatment principle. To break hypoxia-induced resistance and improve the efficacy of SDT, we developed shell-core structured oxygen-sufficient nanobubbles(NBs), which were designed with a lipid shell loaded the sonosensitizer IR780 and a gas core loaded with oxygen. With the aid of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), IR780@O2 NBs not only make sonosensitizers more effectively enriched at the tumor site in a controlled manner, but also directly mediate oxygen release and provide sufficient oxygen for producing more ROS to induce cell apoptosis. Thus, IR780@O2 NBs can efficiently inhibit the proliferation of Hep-G2 cells under ultrasound exposure. What is more, IR780@O2 NBs have a potential for contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. We believe that our oxygen-sufficient NBs trigged by UTMD could be an ideal therapeutic and imaging system for hepatocellular carcinoma.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 367, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An important mechanism that promoter methylation-mediated gene silencing for gene inactivation is identified in human tumorigenesis. Methylated genes have been found in breast cancer (BC) and beneficial biomarkers for early diagnosis. Prognostic assessment of breast cancer remain little known. Zinc finger protein 132 (ZNF132) is downregulated by promoter methylation in prostate cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, no study provides information on the status of ZNF132, analyzes diagnosis and prognostic significance of ZNF132 in BC. METHODS: In the present study, the expression of ZNF132 mRNA and protein level was determined based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq database and clinical samples analysis and multiple cancer cell lines verification. P rognostic significance of ZNF132 in BC was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier plotter. Molecular mechanisms exploration of ZNF132 in BC was performed using the multiple bioinformatic tools. Hypermethylated status of ZNF132 in BC cell lines was confirmed via Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) analysis. RESULTS: The expression of ZNF132 both the mRNA and protein levels was downregulated in BC tissues. These results were obtained based on TCGA database and clinical sample analysis. Survival analysis from the Kaplan-Meier plotter revealed that the lower level of ZNF132 was associated with a shorter Relapse Free Survival (RFS) time. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.887 confirmed ZNF132 had powerful sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between BC and adjacent normal tissues. Bioinformatic analysis showed that 6% ((58/960)) alterations of ZNF132 were identified from cBioPortal. ZNF132 participated in multiple biological pathways based on the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) database including the regulation of cell cycle and glycolysis. Finally, MSP analysis demonstrated that ZNF132 was hypermethylated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) treatment restored ZNF132 expression in partial cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Results revealed that hypermethylation of ZNF132 contributed to its downregulated expression and could be identified as a new diagnostic and prognostic marker in BC.

4.
Biomaterials ; 272: 120777, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813258

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is one of most common cancers that often brings lots of inconvenience to the patient in swallowing and phonation even after the operation. Moreover, OPSCC is typically as nodal metastases and high recurrence rate due to the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection for 90% of patients. Obviously, completely curing OPSCC requires simultaneous removal of solid tumor and related pathogenic virus, which is very indispensable but never be realized by any kind of clinical therapy up to now. In this work, we selected the ZrC nanoparticles as difunctional photoactive substance for synchronous generation of hyperthermia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) under NIR excitation. The resultant synergistic photothermal and photodynamic treatment outcome contributed to an excellent anti-tumor effect. The phototherapy of this work was found not only to be able to damage cancer cells directly, but also could trigger the host immunity for further tumor removal and desirable HPV inactivation. An immunologic mechanism of this work was reasonable proposed by monitoring level of shock protein (HSP), calreticulin (CRT), T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) and immune check point of B7H3, B7H4 and PD-L1 post phototherapy. It was found that tumor-associated antigens of CRT ("eat-me" signal), HSPs and cell debris were released as cancer cell damage, and then the adaptive immune system and the congenital immunity were triggered to activate DCs maturity, antigen presentation to T cells, proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, recruiting macrophages and NK cells and so forth immune responses. Being the first example of using phototherapy for virus-related cancer study, this work opens the door for photo-immunotherapy.

5.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803244

RESUMO

Cellulose, as a natural polymer with an abundant source, has been widely used in many fields including the electric field responsive medium that we are interested in. In this work, cellulose micron particles were applied as an electrorheological (ER) material. Because of the low ER effect of the raw cellulose, a composite particle of cellulose and Laponite was prepared via a dissolution-regeneration process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe the morphologies and structures of the composite particles, which were different from pristine cellulose and Laponite, respectively. The ER performances of raw cellulose and the prepared composite were measured by an Anton Paar rotational rheometer. It was found that the ER properties of the composite were more superior to those of raw cellulose due to the flake-like shapes of the composite particles with rough surface. Moreover, the sedimentation stability of composite improves drastically, which means better suspension stability.

6.
Insects ; 12(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810421

RESUMO

The sensilla on the antennae and maxillary palps are the most important olfactory organs, via which the insect can perceive the semiochemicals to adjust their host seeking and oviposition behaviors. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major agricultural quarantine pest infesting more than 250 different fruits and vegetables. However, the sensilla involved in olfaction have not been well documented even though a variety of control practices based on chemical communication have already been developed. In this study, the ultrastructure of the sensilla, especially the olfactory sensilla on the antennae and maxillary palps of both males and females, were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of olfactory sensillum types including trichodea, basiconica, and coeloconica, and two non-olfactory sensilla including both chaetica and microtrichia, were observed. Each of these three types of olfactory sensilla on the antennae of B. dorsalis were further classified into two subtypes according to the morphology and number of receptor cells. For the first time, the pores on the sensilla trichodea and basiconica cuticular wall were observed in this species, suggesting they are involved in semiochemical perception. This study provides new information on B. dorsalis olfaction, which can be connected to other molecular, genetic, and behavioral research to construct an integral olfactory system model for this species.

7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 173: 104770, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771270

RESUMO

Chitin deacetylases (CDAs, EC 3.5.1.41) catalyze the N-deacetylation of chitin to produce chitosan, which is essential for insect survival. Hence, CDAs are promising targets for the development of novel insecticidal drugs. In this study, the putative Group I chitin deacetylase genes HpCDA1, HpCDA2-1 and HpCDA2-2 were identified from Holotrichia parallela. Conserved domain database search identified a chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (ChBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDLa), and a putative CDA-like catalytic domain. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the Group I HpCDAs were expressed in various tissues and predominant in the integument. The developmental expression patterns from the first-instar to third-instar larvae showed that HpCDAs were highly expressed on the first day and gradually declined after molting. The functional characteristics of the Group I CDAs in cuticle organization were examined using RNA interference (RNAi) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Administration of double-stranded HpCDA (dsHpCDA) through larval injection could suppress the expression levels of HpCDA1 and HpCDA2, thus resulting in abnormal or lethal phenotypes. TEM analysis revealed that RNAi of either HpCDA1 or HpCDA2 remarkably affected the cuticle integrity, as evidenced by cuticle disorganization and chitin laminae disruption, suggesting the crucial role of CDAs in chitin modification. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of putative key genes involved in chitin metabolism, and provide a foundation for developing new strategies to control H. parallela.


Assuntos
Besouros , Amidoidrolases/genética , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Quitina/metabolismo , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
8.
Cogn Neurodyn ; 15(1): 43-51, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786078

RESUMO

Epilepsy involves a diverse group of abnormalities, including molecular and cellular disorders. These abnormalities prove to be associated with the changes in local excitability and synaptic dynamics. Correspondingly, the epileptic processes including onset, propagation and generalized seizure may be related with the alterations of excitability and synapse. In this paper, three regions, epileptogenic zone (EZ), propagation area and normal region, were defined and represented by neuronal population model with heterogeneous excitability, respectively. In order to describe the synaptic behavior that the strength was enhanced and maintained at a high level for a short term under a high frequency spike train, a novel activity-dependent short-term plasticity model was proposed. Bifurcation analysis showed that the presence of hyperexcitability could increase the seizure susceptibility of local area, leading to epileptic discharges first seen in the EZ. Meanwhile, recurrent epileptic activities might result in the transition of synaptic strength from weak state to high level, augmenting synaptic depolarizations in non-epileptic neurons as the experimental findings. Numerical simulation based on a full-connected weighted network could qualitatively demonstrate the epileptic process that the propagation area and normal region were successively recruited by the EZ. Furthermore, cross recurrence plot was used to explore the synchronization between neuronal populations, and the global synchronization index was introduced to measure the global synchronization. Results suggested that the synchronization between the EZ and other region was significantly enhanced with the occurrence of seizure. Interestingly, the desynchronization phenomenon was also observed during seizure initiation and propagation as reported before. Therefore, heterogeneous excitability and short-term plasticity are believed to play an important role in the epileptic process. This study may provide novel insights into the mechanism of epileptogenesis.

9.
Transpl Immunol ; 66: 101387, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using regulatory T cells (Tregs) as a cellular therapy to control rejection is an attractive immunosuppressive strategy in transplantation, but immunosuppression mediated by Tregs need to be investigated before application. METHODS: In our experiment, mature Dendritic Cells (DCs) were generated through inducing bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. CD4+CD25+Tregs were sorted by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) from BALB/C (H-2d) mice, and Tregs were expanded ex vivo with anti-CD3/CD28 microbeads and high concentration of recombinant murine (rm) IL-2 for 14 days, after that, expanded polyclonal Tregs were collected and cocultured with mature DCs (H-2b) in the presence of lower concentration of rmIL-2 for 7 days to get antigen-specific Tregs. Subsequently, BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups: BALB/c mice were inoculated with 5 × 105 B16-F10 (H-2b) cells via tail vein, the other were inoculated with 1 × 107 BALB/c expanded polyclonal Tregs and 5 × 105 B16-F10, the last with 1 × 107 antigen-specific BALB/c Tregs and 5 × 105 B16-F10 cells. After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and the black tumor nodules in lungs were counted. RESULTS: Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded polyclonal Tregs rendered BALB/c mice (recipient) susceptible to MHC-mismatched tumor (B16-F10 cells, H-2b). If ex vivo expanded polyclonal Tregs from BALB/c were cocultured with mature DCs from C57BL/6 after expansion, suppression of tumor immunity against B16-F10 cells was further. CONCLUSION: We suggested that ex vivo expanded antigen-specific Tregs could more dampen recipient tumor immunity compare with polyclonal Tregs, and the increased risk of donor derived tumor should be considered.

10.
ACS Nano ; 15(3): 5428-5438, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689300

RESUMO

NIR-II (1000-1700 nm) fluorescence imaging is continually attracting strong research interest. However, current NIR-II imaging materials are limited to small molecules with fast blood clearance and inorganic nanomaterials and organic conjugated polymers of poor biodegradability and low biocompatibility. Here, we report a highly biodegradable polyester carrying tandem NIR-II fluorophores as a promising alternative. The polymer encapsulated a platinum intercalator (56MESS, (5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) (1S,2S-diaminocyclohexane) platinum(II)) and was conjugated with both a cell-targeting RGD peptide and a caspase-3 cleavable peptide probe to form nanoparticles for simultaneous NIR-II and apoptosis imaging. In vitro, the nanoparticles were approximately 4-1000- and 1.5-10-fold more potent than cisplatin and 56MESS, respectively. Moreover, in vivo, they significantly inhibited tumor growth on a multidrug-resistant patient-derived mouse model (PDXMDR). Finally, through label-free laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI), in situ 56MESS release in the deeper tumors was observed. This work highlighted the use of biodegradable NIR-II polymers for monitoring drugs in vivo and therapeutic effect feedback in real-time.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7207, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785763

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggest that transcription factors (TFs) play vital roles in serous ovarian cancer (SOC). In the present study, TFs mRNA expression profiles of 564 SOC subjects in the TCGA database, and 70 SOC subjects in the GEO database were screened. A 17-TFs related prognostic signature was constructed using lasso cox regression and validated in the TCGA and GEO cohorts. Consensus clustering analysis was applied to establish a cluster model. The 17-TFs related prognostic signature, risk score and cluster models were effective at accurately distinguishing the overall survival of SOC. Analysis of genomic alterations were used to elaborate on the association between the 17-TFs related prognostic signature and genomic aberrations. The GSEA assay results suggested that there was a significant difference in the inflammatory and immune response pathways between the high-risk and low-risk score groups. The potential immune infiltration, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy responses were analyzed due to the significant difference in the regulation of lymphocyte migration and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity between the two groups. The results indicated that patients with low-risk score were more likely to respond anti-PD-1, etoposide, paclitaxel, and veliparib but not to gemcitabine, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and cisplatin. Also, the prognostic nomogram model revealed that the risk score was a good prognostic indicator for SOC patients. In conclusion, we explored the prognostic values of TFs in SOC and developed a 17-TFs related prognostic signature to predict the survival of SOC patients.

12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 951-958, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754561

RESUMO

To solve the problem of uncoordinated source-sink relationship that limits the increase of peanut yield, we investigated the regulating effects of ethephon on the formation of source-sink in cultivar Shanhua 9 by spraying at 10, 20, and 30 d after anthesis in a field experiment. The results showed that spraying ethephon at 10 d and 20 d after anthesis significantly reduced the number of flowers, pegs and young pods, but increased the number of immature pods and mature pods. Spraying at 30 d after anthesis did not affect the number of flowers, pegs and young pods. Spraying ethephon could improve the leaf area per plant. Spraying at 10 d after anthesis achieved the highest leaf area per plant and the increment amplitude decreased with the delay of spraying stage. Spraying ethephon at 10 d and 20 d after anthesis significantly improved the photosynthetic performance of peanut, whereas spraying at 30 days after anthesis increased the photosynthesis only in the short-term and had no effect at late growth period. In terms of the comprehensive characters of source and sink, spraying ethephon at 20 d after anthesis achieved the most harmonious source-sink relationship, which could promote the transport of photosynthate to pods and increase the economic pods ratio, pod fullness, and the yield. Therefore, spraying ethephon is an effective practice to solve the problems of "more flowers but less pegs" and "more pods but less kernels" in peanut. The optimum spraying stage of ethephon to regulate flowering should be at 20 d after anthesis.


Assuntos
Arachis , Fotossíntese , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(7): 076604, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666472

RESUMO

We introduce different types of quenches to probe the nonequilibrium dynamics and multiple collective modes of bilayer fractional quantum Hall states. We show that applying an electric field in one layer induces oscillations of a spin-1 degree of freedom, whose frequency matches the long-wavelength limit of the dipole mode. On the other hand, oscillations of the long-wavelength limit of the quadrupole mode, i.e., the spin-2 graviton, as well as the combination of two spin-1 states, can be activated by a sudden change of band mass anisotropy. We construct an effective field theory to describe the quench dynamics of these collective modes. In particular, we derive the dynamics for both the spin-2 and the spin-1 states and demonstrate their excellent agreement with numerics.

14.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654218

RESUMO

Bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BETs) are potential targets for the therapeutic treatment of prostate cancer (PC). Herein, we report the design, the synthesis, and a structure-activity relationship study of 6-(3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)benzo[cd]indol-2(1H)-one derivative as novel selective BET inhibitors. One representative compound, 19 (Y06014), bound to BRD4(1) in the low micromolar range and demonstrated high selectivity for BRD4(1) over other non-BET bromodomain-containing proteins. This molecule also potently inhibited cell growth, colony formation, and mRNA expression of AR-regulated genes in PC cell lines. Y06014 also shows stronger activity than the second-generation antiandrogen enzalutamide. Y06014 may serve as a new small molecule probe for further validation of BET as a molecular target for PC drug development.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671883

RESUMO

This study investigated the distribution, pollution level and potential ecological risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from manganese mining in a karstic Danshui River, in Changyang, Western Hubei, Central China. River water and sediments were collected for seven PTEs measurement (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn), as well as pH and Eh of the river water were measured. Results showed that the major pollutant was Mn, the river water environment was mainly acidic and oxidizing (288 < Eh, pH < 6.3), and the pollution distribution of Mn in the study area was dominated by the combination of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. In the river water, according to the contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (IPL) results, Mn was considered the main pollutant. There was low As and Pb pollution downstream as well as Cu pollution upstream. Upstream and downstream areas were the main polluted river sections of the river water samples collected. In river sediments, based on the results of the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (IPER), it was determined that there was only considerable Mn pollution. The IPER of the PTEs from the river sediments was at acceptable levels, only Mn upstream performed at a moderate ecological risk level. According to Pearson correlation and principal component analysis, Mn originated from manganese mining activities, Cd, Cr and Zn were of natural origin, and Cu may have come from both mining and natural origin, whereas Pb and As were mainly related to the daily activities. Consequently, elemental speciation, mining activities and the distribution of water conservancy facilities were the main impacts of PET pollution distribution in this river.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689336

RESUMO

The elaborately designed π-electron-rich fluorescent ligand 1,4-bis(1-carboxymethylene-4-imidazolyl)benzene (H2L), possessing bifunctional groups including the carboxylate groups (building units) and 4-imidazoyl groups (N-donor potential active sites) has been employed to construct fluorescent coordination polymers. A luminescent sensor, namely [Cd(L)(phen)2]·5H2O (1), was obtained, which has a one-dimensional structure. The fluorescent material shows a blue emission maximum at 457 nm with a luminescence lifetime of 488 ns and a quantum yield (QY) of 4.56%. Significantly, 1 serves as a promising multiresponsive luminescent sensor to detect trace nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) with the limits of detection (LOD) of 7.21 × 10-8, 1.85 × 10-5, and 1.15 × 10-5 mol/L for 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), respectively. Furthermore, CP 1 exhibits fluorescent turn-off and turn-on sensing behavior for Fe3+ and Al3+ metal ions with trace amounts of 1.05 × 10-7 and 1.13 × 10-7 mol/L, respectively. Experimental methods and theoretical calculations were employed to elucidate the sensing mechanism in detail.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705467

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a crucial role in cancer progression, drug resistance and tumor recurrence. We have recently shown that the Notch pathway determines the tumor-regulatory role of experimentally created 'CAFs'. Here, we examined the status of Notch signaling in human melanoma-associated fibroblasts (MAFs) versus their normal counterparts and tested whether manipulation of the Notch pathway activity in MAFs alters their tumor-regulatory function. Using tissue microarrays, we found that MAFs exhibit decreased Notch pathway activity compared with normal fibroblasts in adjacent and non-adjacent skin. Consistently, MAFs isolated from human metastatic melanoma exhibited lower Notch activity than did normal human fibroblasts, demonstrating that Notch pathway activity is low in MAFs. We then investigated the effect of increasing Notch pathway activity in MAF on melanoma growth in co-cultures and in a mouse co-graft model. We found that activation of the Notch pathway in MAFs significantly restricted melanoma cell growth in vitro and suppressed melanoma skin growth and tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Our study demonstrates that the Notch signaling is inhibited in MAFs. Increase of Notch pathway activity can confer tumor-suppressive function on MAFs. Thus, targeting melanoma by activating Notch signaling in MAF may represent a novel therapeutic approach.

18.
J Periodontal Res ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of TLR-4 in the osteoimmunological imbalance of periodontitis. BACKGROUND: Although current evidence supports that TLR-4 plays an important role in the inflammatory response of periodontal tissues triggered by microorganisms, little information is available regarding the function of TLR-4 in the osteoimmune regulation of homeostasis in periodontitis. METHODS: Human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) were isolated from the gingival tissues of 3 healthy volunteers and the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines was evaluated by ELISA and real time RT-PCR. In addition, 30 C57BL/6 mice were used and randomly divided into three groups: control group, periodontitis group (CP) and periodontitis+TAK-242 (a specific inhibitor of TLR-4) group (TAK-242) and the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and the osteoclast density in the periodontal tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining. Moreover, micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) was used to assess bone resorption. RESULTS: The in vitro results showed that TAK-242 blocked the overproduction of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and RANKL in HGEC treated with LPS. The in vivo results revealed that TAK-242 also effectively decreased these osteoclastogenic cytokines in periodontal tissue of mice with periodontitis. More importantly, Micro-CT analysis showed a significant reduction of the alveolar bone loss in the TAK-242 group compared with the CP group. Furthermore, the TRAP staining showed a significant lower density of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone area of the TAK-242 group. CONCLUSION: TLR-4 inhibition decreased the differentiation of osteoclast through the inhibition of the overproduction of osteoclastogenic cytokines and the prevention of the alveolar bone absorption in mouse periodontitis models. Therefore, the use of TAK-242 might contribute to the recovery of the osteoimmunological homeostasis and might provide a potential strategy to treat periodontal diseases.

19.
Orthop Surg ; 13(2): 563-572, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the surgical strategy, safety, and efficacy of close reduction and robot-aided minimally invasive lumbopelvic fixation in treatment of traumatic spinopelvic dissociation. METHODS: Data of 32 patients (21 males and 11 females) with traumatic spinopelvic dissociation treated by lumbopelvic fixation with robot-aided minimally invasive technique or conventional open procedure in our institution from March 2010 to April 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, and divided into robot group and control group. Intraoperative blood loss, surgical time, fluoroscopy frequency, total drilling times, infection rate, hospitalization time, and sacral fracture healing time were reviewed. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans were totally acquired to evaluate the reduction quality, residual fracture displacement, and Gras classification on screws insertion after surgery. According to the Majeed scoring system, functional outcome was assessed for each patient at the final follow-up. RESULTS: There were 12 patients in the robot group and 20 patients in the control group with no significant difference about the demographic data. The average surgical time was 148.3 ± 40.5 min with intraoperative blood loss of 142.5±36.7 mL in the robot group and 185.0 ± 47.8 min with 612.5 ± 182.7 mL in the control group (P = 0.034, P = 0.000). The robot group had a shorter mean hospitalization time at 19.9 ± 7.0 days compared to the control group with 28.6 ± 5.4 days (P = 0.010). The fluoroscopy frequency was 35.4 ± 3.0 in the robot group and 45.5 ± 3.6 in the control group (P = 0.000) and total drilling times were 7.1 ± 1.1 and 9.6 ± 1.3 (P = 0.000), respectively. The infection rate was 0% (0/12) in the robot group and 15% (3/20) in the control group (P = 0.159). According to the Gras classification on screw positioning, there were 11 cases in Grade I and 1 case in Grade II in the robot group, and 14 cases in Grade I and 6 cases in Grade II in the control group. All the patients were followed up consecutively for at least 12 months, with an average follow-up period of 17.1 ± 3.6 months. All sacral fractures healed with an average time of 3.8 ± 0.6 months in the robot group and 4.7 ± 0.7 months in the control group (P = 0.000). According to Majeed functional assessment investigation, the mean score of the patients was 87.2 ± 4.0 in the robot group and 83.1 ± 4.5 in the control group (P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Robot-aided minimally invasive lumbopelvic fixation for traumatic spinopelvic dissociation is a safe and feasible option with advantages of less intraoperative blood loss, less radiation damage, less hospitalization time, and better functional outcome.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(17): 9546-9552, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559336

RESUMO

The catalytic conversion of alcohols under mild conditions is a great challenge because it is constrained by low selectivity and low activity. Herein, we demonstrate a hollow nanotube Fe2 O3 /MoO3 heterojunction (FeMo-2) for the photoelectrocatalytic conversion of small-molecule alcohols. Experimental and theoretical analyses reveal that the optical carrier transfer rate is enhanced by constructing interfacial internal electric fields and Fe-O-Mo charge transfer channels. For the formox process, heterojunctions possess superior HCHO-selective reaction paths and free energy transitions, optimizing the selectivity of HCHO and enhancing the reactivity. FeMo-2 shows a greatly improved performance compared to single Fe2 O3 ; the photocurrent density of FeMo-2 reaches 0.66 mA cm-2 , which is 3.88 times that of Fe2 O3 (0.17 mA cm-2 ), and the Faraday efficiency of the CH3 OH-to-HCHO conversion is 95.7 %. This work may deepen our understanding of interfacial charge separation and has potential for the production of HCHO and for conversion reactions of other small-molecule alcohols at cryogenic temperatures.

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