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1.
Chempluschem ; 87(5): e202200097, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510892

RESUMO

Metal oxide materials show promise for application in photoelectrocatalytic conversion due to their inherent advantages involving positive reactive surface, improved light absorption capability, efficient charge separation yield, and fast charge transport channels. The unique electrical and optical properties of metal oxide based photoelectrodes have a great effect on their performance in solar cells, photoelectrocatalysis, and photocatalysis. It has been reported that the presence of defects on grain boundaries, oxygen vacancy, doping strategy, and heterojunction play a vital role in both the efficiency and durability of their photoelectric application. However, the intrinsic mechanisms at the atomic level remained unclear, which require more in-depth understanding in terms of theoretical analysis. In this Review, we emphatically introduce the recent advances and current challenges of metal oxide-based photoelectrodes for photoelectrocatalytic application, beneath the structure-activity relationship of metal oxide catalysts. Then, we give a summary of the state-of-the-art research in the preparation and application for the metal oxide based composite materials. Finally, we discuss key aspects, which should be addressed for design and construction.

2.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The GE Discovery NM (DNM) 530c/570c are dedicated cardiac SPECT scanners with 19 detector modules designed for stationary imaging. This study aims to incorporate additional projection angular sampling to improve reconstruction quality. A deep learning method is also proposed to generate synthetic dense-view image volumes from few-view counterparts. METHODS: By moving the detector array, a total of four projection angle sets were acquired and combined for image reconstructions. A deep neural network is proposed to generate synthetic four-angle images with 76 ([Formula: see text]) projections from corresponding one-angle images with 19 projections. Simulated data, pig, physical phantom, and human studies were used for network training and evaluation. Reconstruction results were quantitatively evaluated using representative image metrics. The myocardial perfusion defect size of different subjects was quantified using an FDA-cleared clinical software. RESULTS: Multi-angle reconstructions and network results have higher image resolution, improved uniformity on normal myocardium, more accurate defect quantification, and superior quantitative values on all the testing data. As validated against cardiac catheterization and diagnostic results, deep learning results showed improved image quality with better defect contrast on human studies. CONCLUSION: Increasing angular sampling can substantially improve image quality on DNM, and deep learning can be implemented to improve reconstruction quality in case of stationary imaging.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525895

RESUMO

Environmental protection and innovation performance are key issues that affect the sustainable development and value growth of cities. Using data of 272 prefecture-level cities during 2002-2016 and 2,169 listed companies, and the air ventilation coefficient and government environmental regulations, as the instrumental variables for PM2.5 concentrations, this paper applies two-stage OLS (2SLS) to investigate how air pollution affects China's technological innovation and its realization mechanism. The results indicate that the rise in air pollution significantly inhibits the technological innovation level of regions as a whole as well as individual enterprises. When considering the spatial effect of the spread of PM2.5 concentrations, due to positive spillover effects on innovation activities, the spread of air pollution has negative impacts on technological innovation activities in surrounding cities. Human capital and labour costs are important channels through which air pollution influences China's technological innovation. The implementation of pilot carbon trading policies can effectively reduce air pollution and then contribute to the achievement of the goals of the green growth strategy.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506371

RESUMO

Biotic and abiotic oxidation of Mn(II) in aqueous environments is an important process for the cycling of many elements. However, the mechanism involved in photocatalytic oxidation of Mn(II) has not been clearly elucidated yet. In this study, the photocatalytic oxidation of Mn(II) on the surface of self-doped Bi2+xWO6 (Bi2.15WO6) under visible light was conducted. Kinetics results show that visible light apparently accelerates the oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III, IV) oxides on Bi2.15WO6. The average oxidation states (AOS) of manganese reach 2.18 after 80 min of reaction under visible light at pH 8.50. Characterizations indicate the formation of Bi(III)-O-Mn(II) surface complexes between Mn(II) and surface Bi(III) on Bi2.15WO6, which then decreases the bandgap of [Bi2.15WO6 + Mn(II)]light (2.53 eV) compared with those of [Bi2.15WO6 + Mn(II)]dark (2.72 eV) and pure Bi2.15WO6 (2.86 eV), suggesting the contribution of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) pathway to the photocatalytic oxidation of Mn(II). Moreover, the addition of inorganic oxidants with strong oxidizing capacities (such as Cr2O72-, NO3- or NO2-) significantly increases the oxidation rate of Mn(II), further verifying the contribution of the LMCT pathway to Mn(II) oxidation. We therefore suggest that the LMCT pathway is one of the important oxidation routes for Mn(II) oxidation on Bi2.15WO6 under visible light.

5.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 172, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) is associated with various inflammation and cancer. The occurrence and progression of tumors are closely related to the abnormal expression of RBPs. There are few studies on RBPs in clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC), which allows us to explore the role of RBPs in ccRCC. METHODS: We obtained the gene expression data and clinical data of ccRCC from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and extracted all the information of RBPs. We performed differential expression analysis of RBPs. Risk model were constructed based on the differentially expressed RBPs (DERBPs). The expression levels of model markers were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and analyzed for model-clinical relevance. Finally, we mapped the model's nomograms to predict the 1, 3 and 5-year survival rates for ccRCC patients. RESULTS: The results showed that the five-year survival rate for the high-risk group was 40.2% (95% CI = 0.313 ~ 0.518), while the five-year survival rate for the low-risk group was 84.3% (95% CI = 0.767 ~ 0.926). The ROC curves (AUC = 0.748) also showed that our model had stable predictive power. Further RT-qPCR results were in accordance with our analysis (p < 0.05). The results of the independent prognostic analysis showed that the model could be an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC. The results of the correlation analysis also demonstrated the good predictive ability of the model. CONCLUSION: In summary, the 4-RBPs (EZH2, RPL22L1, RNASE2, U2AF1L4) risk model could be used as a prognostic indicator of ccRCC. Our study provides a possibility for predicting the survival of ccRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(17): 176403, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570419

RESUMO

We propose models of twisted multilayer graphene that exhibit exactly flat Bloch bands with arbitrary Chern numbers and ideal band geometries. The models are constructed by twisting two sheets of Bernal-stacked multiple graphene layers with only intersublattice couplings. Analytically we show that flatband wave functions in these models exhibit a momentum space holomorphic character, leading to ideal band geometries. We also explicitly demonstrate a generic "wave function exchange" mechanism that generates the high Chern numbers of these ideal flatbands. The ideal band geometries and high Chern numbers of the flatbands imply the possibility of hosting exotic fractional Chern insulators which do not have analogues in continuum Landau levels. We numerically verify that these exotic fractional Chern insulators are model states for short-range interactions, characterized by exact ground-state degeneracies at zero energy and infinite particle-cut entanglement gaps.

7.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 870698, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574074

RESUMO

Improvements in plant growth can bring great benefits to the forest industry. Eucalyptus urophylla is an important plantation species worldwide, and given that ploidy increases are often associated with plant phenotype changes, it was reasoned that its polyploidization may have good prospects and great significance toward its cultivation. In this study, the zygotic development period of E. urophylla was observed through paraffin sections, and a correlation between the development time of flower buds after pollination and the zygotic development period was established. On this basis, it was determined that the 25th day after pollination was the appropriate time for a high temperature to induce zygotic chromosome doubling. Then tetraploid E. urophylla was successfully obtained for the first time through zygotic chromosome doubling induced by high temperature, and the appropriate conditions were treating flower branches at 44°C for 6 h. The characterization of tetraploid E. urophylla was performed. Chromosome duplication brought about slower growing trees with thicker leaves, larger cells, higher net photosynthetic rates, and a higher content of certain secondary metabolites. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms for the variation in the tetraploid's characteristics were studied. The qRT-PCR results showed that genes mediating the tetraploid characteristics showed the same change trend as those of the characteristics, which verified that tetraploid trait variation was mainly caused by gene expression changes. Furthermore, although the tetraploid had no growth advantage compared with the diploid, it can provide important germplasm resources for future breeding, especially for the creation of triploids.

8.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538183

RESUMO

KIF17, which belongs to the kinesin-2 protein family, plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermiogenesis. However, the role of KIF17 in fish spermatid remodeling during spermiogenesis remains poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of KIF17 in spermatid remodeling during Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) spermiogenesis. The kif17 cDNA sequence, 3247 bp in length, was cloned from L. crocea testis, which consisted of a 347-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 413-bp 3' -UTR, and 2487-bp open reading frame. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that KIF17 obtained from L. crocea (Lc-KIF17) exhibited a high sequence identity compared with those from other teleosts and possessed the structural features of other kinesin-2 proteins. Based on structural similarity, we speculate that the role of Lc-KIF17 may be similar to that of KIF17 in other animals. Lc-kif17 mRNA was diffusely expressed in L. crocea tissues and was highly expressed in the testis, especially at stage IV testicular development. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Lc-KIF17 signals colocalized with ß-tubulin signals and migrated from the perinuclear cytoplasm to the side of the nucleus where the tail forms during spermiogenesis. These findings revealed that KIF17 may be involved in L. crocea spermiogenesis. In particular, KIF17 may participate in spermatid remodeling by interacting with perinuclear microtubules during L. crocea spermiogenesis. Collectively, this study contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanism underlying L. crocea spermiogenesis and provides a basis for further research on L. crocea reproduction and development.

9.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 24: 100464, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538934

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco dependence is the key barrier to successful smoking cessation. However, little is known about its prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics and determinants. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, associated factors and burden of tobacco dependence in China. Methods: During 2018-2019, the nationally representative 2018 China Health Literacy Survey (2018 CHLS) invited 87,708 participants to participate using a multistage stratified sampling method from 31 provinces (or equivalent) in mainland China, and 84,839 participants aged 20-69 with valid data were included in the analysis. We diagnosed tobacco dependence based on international criteria (ICD-10, DSM-4) and tailored to Chinese population according to China Clinical Guideline for Tobacco Cessation (2015 version). The prevalence of tobacco dependence was estimated overall and by sociodemographic factors. The Logistic regression was conducted to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for tobacco dependence and success of smoking cessation (being ex-smokers), with different levels of adjustment. These were used to estimate the total number of adults who were tobacco dependent in China. Findings: In China, the estimated prevalence of current smoking was 25.1%, significantly higher in men than in women (47.6% vs 1.9%). The prevalence of current smoking varied approximately 3-fold (12.9% to 37.9%) across 31 provinces of China. Among general population aged 20-69 years, the prevalence of tobacco dependence was 13.1% (95% CI:12.2-14.1). Among current smokers, the prevalence of tobacco dependence was 49.7% (46.5-52.9%), with no difference between men and women (49.7% vs 50.8%). The prevalence of tobacco dependence was associated significantly with smoking intensity, defined by pack-years (1.62 [1.54-1.70] per 10 pack-years), cigarettes smoked per day (2.01 [1.78, 2.27] per 10 cigarettes), and smoking starting age (0.93 [0.90, 0.97] per 5 years). Given smoking intensity, the prevalence of tobacco dependence also varied by age, gender, certain socioeconomic status and regions. Compared with those without tobacco dependence, ever smokers with tobacco dependence were less likely to be ex-smokers (2.88, 2.59-3.21). In China, 183.5 (170.4-197.4) million adults (177.5 million were men) were tobacco dependent in 2018. Interpretation: In China, tobacco dependence is highly prevalent, with approximately half of current smokers being addictive, highlighting the need for coordinated effort to improve awareness, diagnosis and treatment of tobacco dependence. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Initiative for Innovative Medicine (CAMS 2021-I2M-1-010), National Key R&D Program of China (grant no 2017YFC1309400), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no 81720108001). Note: Chinese translation of abstract is available in appendix section.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526771

RESUMO

Chondroitin sulfate (CCS) was purified from discarded codfish (Gadus macrocephalus) bones, and its chemical structure and anticoagulant activity were assessed. CCS was obtained via enzymatic lysis and ion-exchange column chromatography, with a yield of approximately 0.15%. High-performance gel performance chromatography revealed CCS to be a largely homogeneous polysaccharide with a relatively low molecular weight of 12.3 kDa. FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and SAX-HPLC indicated that CCS was composed of monosulfated disaccharides (ΔDi4S 73.85% and ΔDi6S 19.06%) and nonsulfated disaccharides (ΔDi0S 7.09%). In vitro anticoagulation analyses revealed that CCS was able to significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) (p < 0.05). At a CCS concentration of 5 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, APTT and TT were approximately 1.08 and 1.12 times higher, respectively, compared to the negative control group. The results indicated that CCS might offer value as a dietary fiber supplement with the potential to prevent the incidence of coagulation-related thrombosis.

11.
Big Data ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446684

RESUMO

Under the requirements of new urbanization in China, the improvement of urban spatial vitality has become a key aspect of the territory development plan. Based on the theory of urban vitality by Jacobs, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of mobility, diversity, and regularity from urban vitality in 36 key Chinese cities from 1990 to 2015; the urban vitality was evaluated by considering the society, economy, environment, culture, and cyberspace and by exploring its driving factors. The results suggest that vitality was higher in the southern/eastern coastal cities than in the northern/western inland ones. Cities with the highest vitality levels (top 10) were mostly located in the Pearl and Yangtze River deltas, the Beijing-Tianjin region, and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Shenzhen demonstrated the highest vitality in the stage of extremely high coordination. Most of the cities with a middle level of vitality were located in northern China, while cities with poor vitality were small-scale cities with underdeveloped economies in the west and provincial capitals in northeastern China with a shrinking population. Areas with high-density facilities, high-accessibility transportation, multiple functional land use, and a high standard of living always have high vitality. The point of interest density had a significant positive effect on daytime vitality in regions with moderate and high vitality, but varying effects on nighttime vitality; it had a higher influence on nighttime vitality than on daytime vitality in areas of extremely high vitality. The study also provides corresponding measures for infrastructure, which could be invested in and constructed at different urban development stages to promote vitality. This could provide guidance for creating a booming space and revitalize and increase urban vitality, and could help reasonably regulate and control urban population and land use.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(16): 9316-9323, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389407

RESUMO

The directionality of steering charge carriers is of great importance for the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Using the generalized Bloch theorem coupled with the self-consistent charge density-functional tight-binding method, we theoretically propose an approach to construct a one-dimensional (1D) quantum channel in honeycomb nanoribbons (NR) via in-plane bending deformation. Bending-induced pseudo-magnetic fields lead to Landau quantization and localize the electronic states along both edges of bent NR. These localized states form robust 1D quantum channels, whose energies can be linearly modulated through the bending angle. Our findings give new inspiration for the realization of transverse magnetic focusing (TMF) under zero magnetic fields and pave the way for the design of 2D material-based nano-devices via strain-engineering.

13.
Eur J Neurosci ; 55(8): 2024-2036, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388553

RESUMO

Attempts to determine why some patients respond to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are valuable in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is associated with aberrant dynamic functional architecture, which might impact the efficacy of ECT. We aimed to explore the relationship between pre-treatment temporal variability and ECT acute efficacy. Forty-eight patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether patterns of temporary variability of functional architecture differ between high responders (HR) and low responders (LR) at baseline. Compared with LR, HR exhibited significantly abnormal temporal variability in right inferior front gyrus (IFGtriang.R), left temporal pole (TPOsup.L) and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG.R). In the pooled patient group, ∆PANSS was correlated with the temporal variability of these regions. Patients with schizophrenia with a distinct dynamic functional architecture appear to reveal differential response to ECT. Our findings provide not only an understanding of the neural functional architecture patterns that are found in schizophrenia but also the possibility of using these measures as moderators for ECT selection.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Lobo Temporal
14.
Food Chem ; 387: 132823, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398680

RESUMO

The current study analysed concentrations of furan and its derivatives in coffee products commercially available in China based on an improved headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method and estimated health risks. A total of 101 samples of coffee products on the Chinese market was analysed. Furan (98%, ND-6569 µg/kg) and 2-methylfuran (100%, 2-29639 µg/kg) were the compounds with the highest concentrations and detection rates in coffee products. The mean dietary exposure of Chinese consumers to furan and the sum of furan, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran in coffee products was 0.09 and 0.46 µg/kg bw/day, respectively. For the neoplastic effects of furan, the margin of exposure (MOE) was 14,556 for the mean dietary exposure of consumers. For the non-neoplastic effects of furan, MOEs were 711 and 139 for furan and the sum of furan, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran, respectively. Overall, a health concern is indicated for coffee consumers with MOEs below 10000.


Assuntos
Café , Furanos , China , Café/química , Furanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
15.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 402, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the lateral femoral notch sign as well as the coronal lateral collateral ligament (LCL) sign and anterior tibial translation using the GNRB arthrometer in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. METHODS: Forty-six patients with ACL injuries were retrospectively included from May 2020 to February 2022; four patients were excluded due to incomplete data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed for the lateral femoral notch sign and the coronal LCL sign. The GNRB arthrometer was used to evaluate the dynamic anterior tibial translation of the knee, and the side-to-side differences (SSDs) in tibial translation between the injured knee and healthy knee were calculated at different force levels. Two types of slopes for displacement-force curves were acquired. RESULTS: Six patients (14.3%) had the positive lateral femoral notch sign (notch depth > 2.0 mm), and 14 patients (33.3%) had the positive coronal LCL sign. The SSD of the anterior tibial translations under different loads as well as the slopes of displacement-force curves were the same in the positive and negative notch sign groups (p all > 0.05) and between the positive and negative coronal LCL sign groups (p all > 0.05). Meanwhile, the measured notch depth and notch length were also not significantly correlated with the anterior tibial translation SSD in the GNRB. CONCLUSION: The presence of the lateral femoral notch sign and the coronal LCL sign did not indicate greater dynamic tibial laxity as measured using the GNRB.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Instabilidade Articular , Ligamentos Laterais do Tornozelo , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/patologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Instabilidade Articular/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458100

RESUMO

Phospholipids are pivotal polar lipids in human milk and essential for infants' growth and development, especially in the brain and cognitive development. Its content and composition are affected by multiple factors and there exist discrepancies in different studies. In this study, we determined five major phospholipids classes (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin) in 2270 human milk samples collected from 0 to 400 days postpartum in six regions of China. The high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was performed to quantify the phospholipids. Total phospholipid median (IQR) content was in a range between 170.38 ± 96.52 mg/L to 195.69 ± 81.80 mg/L during lactation and was higher concentrated in colostrum milk and later stage of lactation (after 200 days postpartum) compared with that in the samples collected between 10 to 45 days postpartum. Variations in five major sub-class phospholipids content were also observed across lactation stages (phosphatidylethanolamine: 52.61 ± 29.05 to 59.95 ± 41.74 mg/L; phosphatidylinositol: 17.65 ± 10.68 to 20.38 ± 8.55 mg/L; phosphatidylserine: 15.98 ± 9.02 to 22.77 ± 11.17 mg/L; phosphatidylcholine: 34.13 ± 25.33 to 48.64 ± 19.73 mg/L; sphingomyelin: 41.35 ± 20.31 to 54.79 ± 35.26 mg/L). Phosphatidylethanolamine (29.18-32.52%), phosphatidylcholine (19.90-25.04%) and sphingomyelin (22.39-29.17%) were the dominant sub-class phospholipids in Chinese breast milk during the whole lactation period. These results updated phospholipids data in Chinese human milk and could provide evidence for better development of secure and effective human milk surrogates for infants without access to breast milk.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Fosfolipídeos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Leite/química , Leite Humano/química , Fosfatidilcolinas , Fosfatidilinositóis , Fosfatidilserinas/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Esfingomielinas/análise
17.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458803

RESUMO

Gelsemium elegans (Gardn. & Champ.) Benth is a toxic flowering plant in the family Loganiaceae used to treat skin diseases, neuralgia and acute pain. The high toxicity of G. elegans restricts its development and clinical applications, but in veterinary applications, G. elegans has been fed to pigs as a feed additive without poisoning. However, until now, the in vivo processes of the multiple components of G. elegans have not been studied. This study investigates the excretion, metabolism and tissue distribution of the multiple components of G. elegans after feeding it to pigs in medicated feed. Pigs were fed 2% G. elegans powder in feed for 45 days. The plasma, urine, bile, feces and tissues (heart, liver, lung, spleen, brain, spinal cord, adrenal gland, testis, thigh muscle, abdominal muscle and back muscle) were collected 6 h after the last feeding and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Five natural products in plasma, twelve natural products and five metabolites in urine, and three natural products in feces were characterized, suggesting that multiple components from G. elegans were excreted in the urine. However, ten natural products and four metabolites were detected in bile samples, which suggested that G. elegans is involved in enterohepatic circulation in pigs. A total of seven of these metabolites were characterized, and four metabolites were glucuronidated metabolites. Ten natural products and six metabolites were detected in the tissues, which indicates that G. elegans is widely distributed in tissues and can cross the blood-brain barrier. Among the characterized compounds, a highly toxic gelsedine-type alkaloid from G. elegans was the main compound detected in all biological samples. This is the first study of the excretion, metabolism and tissue distribution of multiple components from G. elegans in pigs. These data can provide an important reference to explain the efficacy and toxicity of G. elegans. Additionally, the results of the tissue distribution of G. elegans are of great value for further residue depletion studies and safety evaluations of products of animals fed G. elegans.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Gelsemium , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Gelsemium/química , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais , Suínos , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Talanta ; 244: 123402, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398633

RESUMO

A new label-free method was developed for SERS detection of human apolipoprotein A4. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) was used, which could induce the production of AuNPs (poly adenine and adsorption gold nanoparticles). When there were two DNA labeled antibodies and target protein, MB1 (molecular beacon 1) was unfolded and the substrate was modified in the homogeneous solution, and the proximate complex was formed. The unfolded molecular beacon worked as a primer in the hybridization with the RCA template to start RCA, which could produce many long sequences of DNA containing amounts of adenines. The AuNPs were bound with the long-repeated adenine in the RCA product, causing accumulation of AuNPs on the surface of the electrode. It was indicated that the spectral characteristics of adenine at 736 cm-1 strongly dominated the SERS spectrum of DNA. Adenine worked as an internal marker for detecting human apolipoprotein A4 by using label-free SERS method. When the conditions were optimal, the detection of human apolipoprotein A4 was carried out from 10 pg mL-1 to 1000 ng mL-1, and the detection limit was low (4.1 pg mL-1). Meanwhile, the specificity was also excellent because the antibody could specifically bind with the corresponding antigen. In addition, since adenine was dominant in SERS spectra and the affinity between AuNPs and poly adenine was high, the detection procedure could be performed without any sophisticated modification. This method might provide a promising strategy for diagnosis in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Adenina , Apolipoproteínas A , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA , Depressão , Ouro/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos
19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 42(5): 677-688, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether obesity with or without metabolic syndrome is prospectively associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression and incident cardiovascular disease events. METHODS: A total of 1730 participants from the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) were included (age, 40.1±3.6 years; 38.3% men), who completed computed tomography of CAC at baseline (year 15: 2000-2001) and follow-up (year 20 or 25). Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) was defined as body mass index≥30 kg/m2 without any metabolic syndrome components in our main analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for several conditions characterizing 4 metabolic phenotypes. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 9.1 years, 439 participants had CAC progression. MHO subjects had a significantly higher risk of CAC progression than their metabolically healthy normal weight counterparts (adjusted hazard ratios [95% CIs] from 1.761 [1.369-2.264] to 2.047 [1.380-3.036]) depending on the definition of MHO adopted. Obesity with unhealthy metabolic profile remained the highest significant risk of CAC progression and cardiovascular disease events whatever the definitions adopted for metabolically unhealthy status. Up to 60% of participants with MHO converted to metabolically unhealthy obesity from year 15 to year 20 or year 25. Further sensitivity analysis showed that MHO throughout carried a similar risk of incident cardiovascular disease events compared with metabolically healthy normal weight throughout. CONCLUSIONS: Different metabolic phenotypes of obesity beginning at a young age exhibit distinct risks of CAC progression and subsequent cardiovascular disease events in later midlife. MHO represents an intermediate phenotype between metabolically low- to high-risk obese individuals. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005130.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/complicações , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/diagnóstico , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 831: 154972, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367558

RESUMO

The responses of the operational performance and bacterial community structure of a nitrification membrane bioreactor (MBR) to elevated ammonia loading rate (ALR) were investigated. Effective nitrification performance was achieved at high ALR up to 3.43 kg NH4+-N/m3·d, corresponding to influent NH4+-N concentration of 2000 mg/L. Further increasing influent NH4+-N concentration to 3000 mg/L, the MBR system finally became completely inefficient due to the combined inhibition effect of salinity, free ammonia and free nitrous acid on nitrification. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas were enriched with the increase of ALR. The relative abundance of Nitrosomonas in the sludge with ALR of 2.57 kg NH4+-N/m3·d was up to 14.82%, which were 9-fold and 53-fold higher than that in seed sludge and the sludge with ALR of 0.10 kg NH4+-N/m3·d, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of AOB amoA genes showed that Nitrosomonas europaea/mobilis lineage are chiefly responsible for catalyzing ammonia oxidation at high ALRs.

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