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1.
Immunotherapy ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478418

RESUMO

Aim: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disease. The therapeutic efficacy of AR needs to be improved. This study aims to evaluate the effects of local administration of probiotic extracts on inhibiting experimental AR. Methods: Epithelial cells (ECs) were primed by exposing to Clostridium butyricum extracts (CBe) in the culture to upregulate the expression of IL-10. A mouse AR model was developed to assess the therapeutic potential of CBe in AR. Results: CBe markedly induced the expression of IL-10 in ECs. Co-culture of naive B cells with CBe-primed ECs significantly increased IL-10 expression in the B cells (iB10 cells). The iB10 cells showed immune suppressive function in suppressing effector CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Treatment with nasal drops containing CBe efficiently inhibited experimental AR in mice. Conclusion: Local administration of CBe can efficiently inhibit experimental AR.

2.
Cell ; 178(6): 1478-1492.e20, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474362

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a very common condition seen in millions of patients with various liver diseases, and yet no effective treatments are available owing to poorly characterized molecular pathogenesis. Here, we show that leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a functional ligand of Tie1, a poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC)-specific orphan receptor. Upon binding to Tie1, LECT2 interrupts Tie1/Tie2 heterodimerization, facilitates Tie2/Tie2 homodimerization, activates PPAR signaling, and inhibits the migration and tube formations of EC. In vivo studies showed that LECT2 overexpression inhibits portal angiogenesis, promotes sinusoid capillarization, and worsens fibrosis, whereas these changes were reversed in Lect2-KO mice. Adeno-associated viral vector serotype 9 (AAV9)-LECT2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) treatment significantly attenuates fibrosis. Upregulation of LECT2 is associated with advanced human liver fibrosis staging. We concluded that targeting LECT2/Tie1 signaling may represent a potential therapeutic target for liver fibrosis, and serum LECT2 level may be a potential biomarker for the screening and diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

3.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484149

RESUMO

In this article, we consider the leader-follower consensus control problem of uncertain multiagent systems, aiming to achieve the improvement of system steady state and transient performance. To this end, a new adaptive neural control approach is proposed with a novel design of the Lyapunov function, which is generated with a class of positive functions. Guided by this idea, a series of smooth functions is incorporated into backstepping design and Lyapunov analysis to develop a performance-oriented controller. It is proved that the proposed controller achieves a perfect asymptotic consensus performance and a tunable L2 transient performance of synchronization errors, whereas most existing results can only ensure the stability. Simulation demonstrates the obtained results.

4.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2019: 6134942, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481851

RESUMO

With the development of computer vision and image segmentation technology, medical image segmentation and recognition technology has become an important part of computer-aided diagnosis. The traditional image segmentation method relies on artificial means to extract and select information such as edges, colors, and textures in the image. It not only consumes considerable energy resources and people's time but also requires certain expertise to obtain useful feature information, which no longer meets the practical application requirements of medical image segmentation and recognition. As an efficient image segmentation method, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely promoted and applied in the field of medical image segmentation. However, CNNs that rely on simple feedforward methods have not met the actual needs of the rapid development of the medical field. Thus, this paper is inspired by the feedback mechanism of the human visual cortex, and an effective feedback mechanism calculation model and operation framework is proposed, and the feedback optimization problem is presented. A new feedback convolutional neural network algorithm based on neuron screening and neuron visual information recovery is constructed. So, a medical image segmentation algorithm based on a feedback mechanism convolutional neural network is proposed. The basic idea is as follows: The model for obtaining an initial region with the segmented medical image classifies the pixel block samples in the segmented image. Then, the initial results are optimized by threshold segmentation and morphological methods to obtain accurate medical image segmentation results. Experiments show that the proposed segmentation method has not only high segmentation accuracy but also extremely high adaptive segmentation ability for various medical images. The research in this paper provides a new perspective for medical image segmentation research. It is a new attempt to explore more advanced intelligent medical image segmentation methods. It also provides technical approaches and methods for further development and improvement of adaptive medical image segmentation technology.

5.
Mol Pharmacol ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515283

RESUMO

Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain, obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, and addiction. Recently, the crystal structure of human CB1 was determined in complex with the stabilizing antagonist AM6538. In the present study, we characterize AM6538 as a tight binding/irreversible antagonist of CB1 as well as two derivatives of AM6538 - AM4112 and AM6542 - as slowly-dissociating CB1 antagonists across binding simulations and cellular signaling assays. The long-lasting nature of AM6538 is explored in vivo, wherein AM6538 continues to block CP55,940-mediated behaviors in mice up to 5 days after a single injection. In contrast, the effects of SR141716A abate in mice 2 days after injection. These studies demonstrate the functional outcome of CB1 antagonist modification and open the path for development of long-lasting CB1 antagonists. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: AM6538 binds tightly to the CB1 receptor in a wash-resistant manner. It has long lasting antagonist effects in both cellular assays and in vivo.

6.
J Org Chem ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475536

RESUMO

Three new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), hunterines A-C (1-3), were isolated from Hunteria zeylanica. Compound 1 possesses a unique skeleton with an unprecedented azabicyclo[4.3.1]decane ring system. Compounds 2 and 3 are a pair of epimeric vobasinylindole alkaloid heterodimers. Their structures including absolute configurations were established by spectroscopic analyses, X-ray diffraction, computational calculation, and the modified Mosher's method. Plausible biogenetic pathways of 1-3 were also proposed. Alkaloid 1 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against the HepG2 cell line.

7.
Biotechnol Prog ; : e2900, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486281

RESUMO

tert-Butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate ((3R,5S)-CDHH) is an important chiral intermediate for the synthesis of rosuvastatin. The biotechnological production of (3R,5S)-CDHH is catalyzed from tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH) by a carbonyl reductase, and this synthetic pathway is becoming a primary route for (3R,5S)-CDHH production due to its high enantioselectivity, mild reaction conditions, low cost, process safety, and environmental friendship. However, the requirement of the pyridine nucleotide cofactors, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) limits its economic flexibility. In the present study, a recombinant Escherichia coli strain harboring carbonyl reductase R9M and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was constructed with high carbonyl reduction activity and cofactor regeneration efficiency. The recombinant E. coli cells were applied for the efficient production of (3R,5S)-CDHH with a substrate conversion of 98.8%, a yield of 95.6% and an enantiomeric excess (e.e.) of >99.0% under 350 g/L of (S)-CHOH after 12 hr reaction. A substrate fed-batch strategy was further employed to increase the substrate concentration to 400 g/L resulting in an enhanced product yield to 98.5% after 12 hr reaction in a 1 L bioreactor. Meanwhile, the space-time yield was 1,182.3 g L-1 day-1 , which was the highest value ever reported by a coupled system of carbonyl reductase and glucose dehydrogenase.

8.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(10): 781-792, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489798

RESUMO

Over the past decade, there has been increasing attention on the interaction between microbiota and bile acid metabolism. Bile acids are not only involved in the metabolism of nutrients, but are also important in signal transduction for the regulation of host physiological activities. Microbial-regulated bile acid metabolism has been proven to affect many diseases, but there have not been many studies of disease regulation by microbial receptor signaling pathways. This review considers findings of recent research on the core roles of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways in microbial-host interactions in health and disease. Studying the relationship between these pathways can help us understand the pathogenesis of human diseases, and lead to new solutions for their treatments.

9.
Opt Express ; 27(18): 25000-25011, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510380

RESUMO

In order to better evaluate the relationship between reciprocity and time delay of the fiber receiving system in the atmospheric turbulence channel, a time-domain signal generation mathematical model is proposed for the first time. A numerical solution of Johnson SB probability density distribution (PDF) in time-domain is creatively given for evaluating the reciprocity of both communication ends, which relates to the normalized fluctuation variance of the light intensity and the Greenwood frequency. An experiment is then carried out for verifying the time-domain signal generation model and measuring reciprocity. It shows that the excellent fitting accuracy of Johnson SB PDF signal generation model is first experimentally verified. It also indicates that the system reciprocity is improved by 10% after eliminating the system time delay. Meanwhile, the relationship between time delay and reciprocity under different atmospheric environments are analyzed and the relationship between time delay and system reciprocity at different Greenwood frequencies are discussed. This work provides a time parameter reference for the design of adaptive system and free-space optical (FSO) communication system.

10.
Behav Brain Res ; 376: 112182, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472195

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, characterized by amyloid-beta (Aß) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Synaptic plasticity impairment is one of the early pathological events in AD. Transgenic APP/PS1 mice that overproduce Aß are one of the most extensively used AD animal models. Many studies have investigated the roles of NTF-related p-Tau, non-amyloidogenic ADAM10, amyloidogenic BACE1, Aß proteolytic NEP and IDE in certain ages of APP/PS1 mice as well as dendritic spine-related Rictor and Profilin-1 in normal mice, but there are few studies exploring the age-related changes of these molecules in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, current studies regarding when memory impairment occurs in these mice are controversial. Thus, we examined the changes of these molecules in APP/PS1 and control mice using Western blot in mice 2-month-old (2 m) to 10 m of age and behavior changes using the Morris water maze from 4 m to 8 m. The results showed that in APP/PS1 mice, significant changes of hippocampal p-Tau, Aß, ADAM10, BACE1 and Rictor occurred at 6 m, NEP at 8 m, and IDE and Profilin-1 at 10 m. In control mice, changes of p-Tau, ADAM10, and BACE1 occurred at 8 m and NEP at 10 m, while IDE, Rictor and Profilin-1 remained unchanged. Importantly, the Morris water maze test revealed that spatial memory impairment was detected at 8 m but not 4 or 6 m. The above findings clearly evidence that neurochemical changes overtly precede cognitive dysfunctions in this AD model and provide novel knowledge for a better understanding of the molecular events driving AD.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398482

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains are widespread globally. However, there has been no systematic study on the associations between Beijing genotype and the characteristics of drug resistance. In this study, we collected 359 M. tuberculosis isolates from south China and investigated their background information, genotype diversity and drug resistance. The results revealed that 66.0% (237/359) of strains were categorized as Beijing genotype. There was no statistical difference between Beijing and non-Beijing genotype strains in terms of sex, age, residence place and treatment history. Drug resistance testing showed that 34.8% (125/359) of isolates were resistant to at least one of the seven drugs tested. The proportions of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis were 17.0% and 1.4%, respectively. Previously treated patients presented a significantly higher risk of developing drug resistance than new cases. Although the prevalence of drug resistance was observed more frequently in Beijing genotype than in non-Beijing genotype strains, there was no significant difference between these two genotypes. Even in retreated patients, the association of Beijing genotype with drug resistance was not significant. This study provided insight into genotype diversity and demonstrated the characteristics of drug resistance in Beijing genotype strains, which will be useful in generating efficient tuberculosis prevention and control strategies in China.

12.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464029

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome is a congenital disorder with multiple malformations in the craniofacial structures, and cardiovascular and genital systems, which are mainly affected by neural crest defects caused by loss-of-function mutations within chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7). However, many patients with CHARGE syndrome test negative for CHD7. Semaphorin 3E (sema3E) is a gene reported to be mutated in patients with CHARGE syndrome. However, its role in the pathogenesis of CHARGE syndrome has not been verified experimentally. Here, we report that the knockdown of sema3E results in severe craniofacial malformations, including small eyes, defective cartilage and an abnormal number of otoliths in zebrafish embryos, which resemble the major features of CHARGE syndrome. Further analysis reveals that the migratory cranial neural crest cells are scattered in the region of the hindbrain, and the postmigratory neural crest cells are reduced in the pharyngeal arches upon sema3E knockdown. Notably, immunostaining and time-lapse imaging analyses of a neural crest cell-labelled transgenic fish line, sox10:EGFP, show that the migration of cranial neural crest cells is severely impaired, and many of these cells are misrouted upon sema3E knockdown. Furthermore, the sox10-expressing cranial neural crest cells are scattered in chd7 homozygous mutants, which phenocopied the phenotype in sema3E morphants. Overexpression of sema3E rescues the phenotype of scattered cranial neural crest cells in chd7 homozygotes, indicating that chd7 may control the expression of sema3E to regulate cranial neural crest cell migration. Collectively, our data demonstrate that sema3E is involved in the pathogenesis of CHARGE syndrome by modulating cranial neural crest cell migration.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468666

RESUMO

Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODE) is limited by the facile deep oxidation and potential safety hazard. Herein, electrochemical ODE reaction is incorporated into the anode of a solid oxide electrolysis cell, utilizing the oxygen species generated at anode to catalytically convert ethane, which can avoid deep oxidation and reaction unsafety. By infiltrating g-Al 2 O 3 onto the surface of La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3- δ -Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 2- δ (LSCF-SDC) anode, the ethylene selectivity reaches as high as 92.5%, while the highest ethane conversion is up to 29.1% at 600 °C with optimized current and ethane flow rate. Density functional theory calculations and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations reveal that the Al 2 O 3 /LSCF interfaces effectively reduce the amount of adsorbed oxygen species, leading to improved ethylene selectivity and stability, and that the formation of Al-O-Fe alters the electronic structure of interficial Fe center with increased density of state around Fermi level and downshift of the empty band, which enhances ethane conversion.

14.
Thromb Res ; 181: 127-134, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cardiovascular disease, in which pulmonary embolism (PE) is potentially life-threatening. Accurate biological markers for the early diagnosis of VTE are needed. The purpose of this study was to analyze and validate the predictive value of microRNAs for the diagnosis of VTE. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases and is current through Sep 27, 2018. The diagnostic value of microRNAs for VTE was analyzed by creating a summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Our analysis included 12 articles assessing a total of 1057 individuals. The most frequently researched microRNA was miR-134, and the pooled results of the predictive ability of this miRNA with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) showed an average sensitivity of 0.82 (0.69-0.91) and an average specificity of 0.83 (0.68-0.92). The average AUC for the SROC curves was 0.89 (0.86-0.92). For other microRNAs, AUC values >0.8 were considered as potential diagnostic indices. These microRNAs included miR-1233, miR-134, miR-145, miR-483-3p, miR-582, miR-532, and miR-195. CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNAs may act as novel diagnostic biomarkers for VTE, and miR-1233, miR-134, miR-145, miR-483-3p, miR-582, miR-532, and miR-195 are prime candidates. Of these, research on miR-134 is the most extensive and reliable.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470139

RESUMO

In recent years, streptococcal diseases have severely threatened the development of tilapia aquaculture, but effective prevention and control methods have not yet been established. To understand the immune responses of vaccinated Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), digital gene expression (DGE) technology was applied in this study to detect the gene expression profile of the Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) liver in response to ScpB (Streptococcal C5a peptidase from group B Streptococcus, ScpB) vaccination and a Streptococcus agalactiae-challenge. The control and the ScpB-vaccinated Nile tilapia yielded a total of 25,788,734 and 27,088,598 clean reads, respectively. A total of 1234 significant differentially expressed unigenes were detected (P < 0.05), of which 236 were significantly up-regulated, and 269 were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05, |fold|>2, FDR<0.05). Of the differentially expressed gene, the identified genes which were enriched using databases of GO and KEGG could be categorized into a total of 67 functional groups and were mapped to 153 signaling pathways including 15 immune-related pathways. The differentially expressed genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR5, TLR9, MyD88, C3, IL-1ß, IL-10) were detected in the expression profiles, and this was subsequently verified via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results of this study can serve as a basis for future research not only on the molecular mechanism of S. agalactiae invasion, but also on the anti-S. agalactiae mechanism in targeted tissues of Nile tilapia.

16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 176: 112800, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394304

RESUMO

The Herpetospermum caudigerum Wall (HCW) is a traditional Tibetan medicine and is widely used in clinical practice. However, the shell of the HCW (SHCW) has rarely been studied, and some researchers have suggested that the SHCW may be toxic. Therefore, in this study, SHCW was administered to rats at two doses (0.1 and 0.33 g/kg) once a day for 21 days. The hepatic stimuli induced by SHCW in rats were investigated for the first time by 1H-NMR-based metabolomics combined with histopathological observation and biochemical detection. Histopathological sections showed a certain degree of hepatocyte edema and hepatic sinus congestion in the liver tissue of the rats in the drug-administered group. Serum biochemical indicators revealed a significant increase in ALT, AST, and MDA, and a significant decrease in SOD. Metabolomic results showed that the metabolites in rats were changed after gavage administration of extracts from SHCW. By multivariate statistical analysis and univariate analysis, it was found that SHCW could cause the disorder of energy metabolism, oxidative stress and amino acid metabolism in rats, leading to liver damage. This comprehensive metabolomics approach demonstrates its ability to describe the global metabolic state of an organism and provides a powerful and viable tool for exploring drug-induced toxicity or side effects.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(35): 19252-19268, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441925

RESUMO

During homogenous catalysis by organometallic complexes, the dissociation of a ligand to produce an unsaturated site on the metal center is often invoked as the first step of activation, especially when photo-excitation is involved. In this theoretical study, we demonstrated that under mild conditions, a thermodynamically unstable yet dynamically favorable active intermediate could be produced by the inhomogeneity of the solvent distribution around the catalyst rather than by ligand dissociation. This occurred at the end of the first catalytic cycle when the product was eliminated. The empty site was immediately filled by one of the additive molecules aggregated around the reaction center even when the intermediate complex was unstable, producing a transient and more active catalyst. This process accounted for the accelerated reaction rate observed in the landmark CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by (PMe3)4RuH2 in supercritical CO2 when H2O, MeOH, or HNMe2 was added. This also suggests a new way to exploit the structural inhomogeneity around an organometallic complex for the design of superior catalysts.

19.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(7): 501-5, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) and c-fos proteins in the hypothalamus and colon tissues in functional diarrhea (FD) rats so as to explore its underlying mechanisms in improving intestinal function via brain-gut axis. METHODS: A total of 40 SD rats were randomized into blank control, model, EA Tianshu (ST25)-Dachangshu (BL25, ST25-BL25) and EA Quchi (LI11)- Shangjuxu (ST37, LI11-ST37) groups. The FD model was established by gavage of Folium Sennae (10 mg/kg) and constraint immobilization once daily for 29 days. EA (10 Hz/50 Hz, 1.5 mA) was applied to bilateral ST25 and BL25 in EA ST25-BL25 group, and bilateral LI11 and ST37 in EA LI11-ST37 group for 20 min, once daily for successive 10 days. The expression of 5-HT1AR and c-fos protein in the hypothalamus and colon tissues was determined by using Western blot. The state of stool was recorded for calculating the loose stool rate and diarrhea index. RESULTS: After modeling, the loose stool rate, diarrhea index and expression levels of 5-HT1AR and c-fos proteins in the colon and hypothalamus tissues were obviously increased in the model group in contrast with the blank control group(P<0.01,P<0.05). Following EA intervention, the loose stool rate and diarrhea index, the expression levels of 5-HT1AR and c-fos proteins in the hypothalamus and colon in the EA ST25-BL25 group, and the expression of 5-HT1AR in the colon in the EA LI11-ST37 group were significantly down-regulated relevant to the model group (P<0.01,P<0.05). No significant changes were found in loose stool rate and diarrhea index,and the expression levels of hypothalamic 5-HT1AR and hypothalamic and colonic c-fos proteins in the EA LI11-ST37 group (P>0.05). The expression levels of 5-HT1AR protein in the hypothalamus and c-fos protein in the hypothalamus and colon in the EA LI11-ST37 group were significantly up-regulated relevant to the EA ST25-BL25 group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA of ST25-BL25 can down-regulate expression of 5-HT1AR and c-fos proteins in the hypothalamus and colon tissue in FD rats, which may contribute to its function in improving symptoms of FD possibly via brain-gut axis.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Encéfalo , Colo , Diarreia , Hipotálamo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serotonina
20.
Exp Brain Res ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435692

RESUMO

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with motor training (rTMS-MT) can be an effective method for enhancing motor function. However, the effects of rTMS-MT on inter-hemispheric lateralization remain unclear. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited. The volunteers were randomized to receive 2 weeks of rTMS-MT or MT to improve the motor function of the nondominant hand. Hand dexterity was tested by the Nine-Hole Peg Test. Resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potentials (MEP) and electroencephalography (EEG) in the resting state with eyes closed were recorded, to calculate inter-hemispheric lateralization before and after rTMS-MT or MT. rTMS-MT and MT improved the dexterity and MEP amplitude of the nondominant hand. Furthermore, there were significant changes in the lateralization of not only power spectral density, but also information transmission efficiency between regions following rTMS-MT, especially between the central cortices of both hemispheres. However, although the lateralization change of the power spectral density between the central cortices was observed following MT, there was no such change for information transmission efficiency between any cortices. These results suggested that rTMS-MT could modulate inter-hemispheric lateralization. Changes in inter-hemispheric lateralization might be an important neural mechanism by which rTMS-MT improves motor function. These results could be helpful for understanding the brain mechanism of rTMS-MT.

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