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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132998

RESUMO

Goat milk (GM), as compared to cow milk (CM), is easier for humans to digest. It also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and can improve minor digestive disorders and prevent allergic diseases in infants. It is unclear whether GM consumed in pregnant mothers has any protective effects on allergic diseases in infants. In this experimental study with mice, we found GM feeding enhanced immunoglobulin production, antigen-specific (ovalbumin, OVA) immune responses, and phagocytosis activity. The GM-fed mice had an increasing proportion of CD3+ T lymphocytes in the spleen. Splenocytes isolated from these animals also showed significantly increased production of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-10. More importantly, GM feeding during pregnancy and lactation periods can confer protective activity onto offspring by alleviating the airway inflammation of allergic asthma induced by mite allergens. There was a remarkably different composition of gut microbiota between offspring of pregnant mice fed with water or with milk (GM or CM). There was a greater proportion of beneficial bacterial species, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides eggerthii, and Parabacteroides goldsteinii in the gut microbiota of offspring from GM- or CM-fed pregnant mice compared to the offspring of water-fed pregnant mice. These results suggested that improving the nutrition of pregnant mice can promote immunological maturation and colonization of gut microbiota in offspring. This mother-to-child biological action may provide a protective effect on atopy development and alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation in offspring.

2.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132172

RESUMO

Obesity and elevation of circulating free fatty acids are associated with an accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of macrophages within metabolically active tissues such as adipose tissue, muscle, liver, and pancreas. Beyond macrophages, neutrophils also accumulate in adipose and muscle tissues during high fat diets and contribute to a state of local inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms by which neutrophils are recruited to these tissues are largely unknown. Here, we used a cell culture system as proof-of-concept to show that upon exposure to a saturated fatty acid, palmitate, macrophages release nucleotides that attract neutrophils. Moreover, we find that palmitate upregulates pannexin-1 channels in macrophages that mediate the attraction of neutrophils, previously shown to allow transfer of nucleotides across membranes. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory macrophages release nucleotides through pannexin-1, a process that may facilitate neutrophil recruitment into metabolic tissues during obesity.

3.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112691

RESUMO

This article investigates a fuzzy adaptive two-bit-triggered control for uncertain nonlinear systems with actuator failures and dead-zone constraint. Actuator failures and dead-zone constraint exist frequently in practical systems, which will affect the system performance greatly. Based on the improved fuzzy-logic systems (FLSs), a fuzzy adaptive compensation control is established to address these issues. The approximation error is introduced to the control design as a time-varying function. In addition, for the limited transmission resources of the practical system, a two-bit-triggered control mechanism is proposed to further save system transmission resources. It is proved that the proposed method can guarantee the system tracking performance and all the signals are bounded. Its effectiveness is verified by the simulation examples.

4.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169891

RESUMO

The underlying molecular mechanism driving clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression is not fully understood. The significant downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 3 (PTPN3) expression in the tumor tissues suggested its protective role in ccRCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of PTPN3 protein in 172 ccRCC tissue revealed that PTPN3 expression was an independent, favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.0343) and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0166) of patients. The ccRCC cell lines SN12C, 1932, ACHN and Caki-1 were used to evaluate, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological roles of PTPN3. We observed that overexpression of PTPN3 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ccRCC cells. In contrast, the knocking down of PTPN3 elicited opposite effects. PTPN3 overexpression suppressed xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo mice models. PTN3 inhibited tumor cell motility by suppressing the phosphorylation of AKT, and subsequently inactivating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway of ccRCC cells. Further, the inhibition of phospho-AKTThr308 and phospho-AKTSer473 reversed PTPN3 induced-silencing in tumor cell migration. Our work revealed that the overexpression of PTPN3 could suppress kidney cancer progression by negatively regulating the AKT signaling pathway, and served as a favorable prognostic factor in ccRCC patients. Our findings provided insight that PTPN3 could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC. Implications: PTPN3 is an independent favorable prognostic factor for ccRCC patients and could be a potential target for therapy aiming to inhibit the malignant behaviors of ccRCC.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102689, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How the oncoprotein epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) evades proteolytic degradation and accumulates in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear, and ubiquitin pathway genes (UPGs) that are critical to NSCLC needs to be systematically identified. METHODS: A total of 696 UPGs (including E1, E2, E3, and deubiquitinases) were silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) library in NSCLC cells, the candidates were verified, and their significance was evaluated in patients with NSCLC. The effects of a candidate gene on EGFR were investigated in vitro and in vivo. FINDINGS: We report 31 candidates that are required for cell proliferation, with the E2 ubiquitin conjugase CDC34 as the most significant one. CDC34 is elevated in tumor tissues in 76 of 114 (66.7%) NSCLCs and inversely associated with prognosis, is higher in smoker patients than nonsmoker patients, and is induced by tobacco carcinogens in normal human lung epithelial cells. Forced expression of CDC34 promotes, whereas knockdown of CDC34 inhibits, NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. CDC34 competes with c-Cbl to bind Y1045 to inhibit polyubiquitination and degradation of EGFR. In EGFR-L858R and EGFR-T790M/Del (exon 19)-driven lung tumor growth in mouse models, knockdown of CDC34 significantly inhibits tumor formation. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that an E2 enzyme is capable of competing with E3 ligase to stabilize substrates, and CDC34 represents an attractive therapeutic target for NSCLCs. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences.

6.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 81: 101711, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155412

RESUMO

Plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis are major processes of acute cardiovascular events. The Vulnerability Index is a very important indicator of whether a plaque is ruptured, and these easily ruptured or fragile plaques can be detected early. The higher the general vulnerability index, the higher the instability of the plaque. Therefore, determining a clear vulnerability index classification point can effectively reduce unnecessary interventional therapy. However, the current critical value of the vulnerability index has not been well defined. In this study, we proposed a neural network-based method to determine the critical point of vulnerability index that distinguishes vulnerable plaques from stable ones. Firstly, based on MatConvNet, the intravascular ultrasound images under different vulnerability index labels are classified. Different vulnerability indexes can obtain different accuracy rates for the demarcation points. The corresponding data points are fitted to find the existing relationship to judge the highest classification. In this way, the vulnerability index corresponding to the highest classification accuracy rate is judged. Then the article is based on the same experiment of different components of the aortic artery in the artificial neural network, and finally the vulnerability index corresponding to the highest classification accuracy can be obtained. The results show that the best vulnerability index point is 1.716 when the experiment is based on the intravascular ultrasound image, and the best vulnerability index point is 1.607 when the experiment is based on the aortic artery component data. Moreover, the vulnerability index and classification accuracy rate has a periodic relationship within a certain range, and finally the highest AUC is 0.7143 based on the obtained vulnerability index point on the verification set. In this paper, the convolution neural network is used to find the best vulnerability index classification points. The experimental results show that this method has the guiding significance for the classification and diagnosis of vulnerable plaques, further reduce interventional treatment of cardiovascular disease.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164390

RESUMO

Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) is a serious pest in the sericulture industry, which has caused damage and losses in recent years. With the widespread use of insecticides, the insecticide resistance of G. pyloalis has becomes increasingly apparent. In order to find other effective methods to control G. pyloalis, this study performed a transcriptome analysis of the midgut, integument, and whole larvae. Transcriptome data were annotated with KEGG and GO, and they have been shown to be of high quality by RT-qPCR. The different significant categories of differentially expressed genes between the midgut and the integument suggested that the transcriptome data could be used for next analysis. With the exception of Dda9 (GpCDA5), 19 genes were involved in chitin metabolism, most of which had close protein-protein interactions. Among them, the expression levels of 11 genes, including GpCHSA, GpCDA1, GpCDA2, GpCDA4, GPCHT1, GPCHT2a, GPCHT3a, GPCHT7, GpTre1, GpTre2, and GpRtv were higher in the integument than in the midgut, while the expression levels of the last eight genes, including GpCHSB, GpCDA5, GpCHT2b, GpCHT3b, GpCHT-h, GpPAGM, GpNAGK, and GpUAP, were higher in the midgut than in the integument. Moreover, 282 detoxification-related genes were identified and can be divided into 10 categories, including cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, carboxylesterase, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, aquaporin, chloride channel, methoprene-tolerant, serine protease inhibitor, sodium channel, and calcium channel. In order to further study the function of chitin metabolism-related genes, dsRNA injection knocked down the expression of GpCDA1 and GpCHT3a, resulting in the significant downregulation of its downstream genes. These results provide an overview of chitin metabolism and detoxification of G. pyloalis and lay the foundation for the effective control of this pest in the sericulture industry.

8.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166949

RESUMO

Tiglianes such as prostratin and related diterpenoids are biologically significant natural molecules and long-standing targets for organic synthesis community. Due to the complex polycyclic scaffolds, high oxygenation level, and dense functional groups and stereocenters, their de novo chemical syntheses still face formidable challenges despite extensive efforts in the past 40 years. This account details the development of a modular and concise synthesis of prostratin, a potent anti-HIV and anticancer agent. The key approach in this synthesis involved a sequence of oxidative dearomatization and sequential stereoselective installation of peripheral groups to rapidly build the contiguously substituted cyclohexane C-ring. Inspired by Wender's work, an acid- and solvent-controlled stereodivergent formation of cyclopropane D-ring was developed. Mechanistic investigations by computational methods revealed that the competition between intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding led to different conformations, thus favoring different protonation processes. The designed and unexpected chemistry along this campaign reflected the uniqueness of the natural structures and should be amenable to future chemical syntheses of related complex polycyclic molecules.

9.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is confirmed to be associated with poor outcomes in stroke patients. The present study aimed to confirm that being at risk of malnutrition assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002) and the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score predicts poor outcomes at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. METHODS: In total, 682 patients with AIS were recruited within 7 days of stroke onset consecutively and 110 were dropped out. They were screened for risk of malnutrition using NRS-2002 and the CONUT score. The primary outcome is the follow-up modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Poor outcomes were defined as an (mRS) score ≥ 3 at 3 months post discharge. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the mRS score at 3 months between patients at risk of malnutrition compared to those not at risk assessed by NRS-2002(P < 0.001) and CONUT (P = 0.011). The logistic regression model showed that the risk of malnourishment (according to NRS-2002), low risk of malnourishment (according to CONUT), and the moderate-to-severe risk of malnourishment (according to CONUT) were associated with higher risk of poor outcomes at 3 months (P < 0.001, P = 0.033, and P = 0.007). The multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted for confounding factors) demonstrated that the risk of malnourishment, according to the NRS-2002, was associated with the increasing risk of poor outcomes at 3 months (odds ratio = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.24-4.30; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of malnutrition assessed by NRS-2002 and CONUT can predict poor outcomes at 3 months in AIS patients. NRS-2002 is superior to CONUT in predicting poor outcomes at 3 months.

10.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether subtle changes in radiomics features are present in lung CT images prior to the development of CT-detectable lung metastases in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Thirty-three radiomics features were measured in the metastasis region (MR) and in matched contralateral tissues (non-metastasis region, NMR) of 29 breast cancer patients at the last CT scan, as well as in the corresponding regions of the patients' pre-metastasis scan (pre-MR and pre-NMR). We also compared them with normal lung tissues (control group, CG) from 29 healthy volunteers. Then, 8 patients from the 29 patients with lung metastases and 8 patients who did not develop lung metastases were chosen for further study of the correlation between radiomics parameters and tumor growth. RESULTS: In the MR vs. NMR and MR vs. CG groups, almost all radiomics features were significantly different. Twenty-six parameters showed significant differences between the pre-MRs and pre-NMRs. Linear fitting demonstrated a significant correlation between 5 features and tumor growth in the metastasis group, but not in the non-metastasis group. Among them, run percentage was the most representative feature. The calculated area under curves (AUCs), based on run percentage for the classification of metastasis and pre-metastasis, were 0.954 and 0.852, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Radiomics features may allow early detection of lung metastases before they become visually detectable, and the feature run percentage may be a promising image surrogate marker for the microinvasion of tumor cells into the lung tissue. KEY POINTS: • The significant differences in radiomics features between pre-MR and pre-NMR are critical for the early detection of lung metastases. • Five radiomics features show a correlation with tumor growth. • The radiomics feature run percentage may be a potential imaging biomarker for the early detection of lung metastases.

11.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(4): 1027-1036, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124933

RESUMO

Hypoxia­inducible factor­1α (HIF­1α) is a key transcriptional factor in response to hypoxia and is involved in ischemic stroke. In the present study, the potential for HIF­1α to inhibit neuronal apoptosis through upregulating erythropoietin (EPO) was investigated in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat stroke model. For this purpose, a recombinant adenovirus expressing HIF­1α was engineered (Ad­HIF­1α). Control adenovirus (Ad group), Ad­HIF­1α (Ad­HIF­1α group) or Ad­HIF­1α in addition to erythropoietin mimetic peptide­9 (EMP9), an EPO­receptor (­R) antagonist (Ad­HIF­1α+EMP9 group), were used for an intracranial injection into rat ischemic penumbra 1 h following MCAO. All rats demonstrated functional improvement following tMCAO, while the improvement rate was faster in rats treated by Ad­HIF­1α compared with all other groups. The EPO­R inhibitor partially reversed the benefits of Ad­HIF­1α. Apoptosis induced by tMCAO was significantly inhibited by Ad­HIF­1α (P<0.05). The expression of HIF­1α, evaluated by immunohistochemistry either in neurons or astrocytes, was upregulated by Ad­HIF­1α. Both EPO mRNA and protein expression were increased by Ad­HIF­1α, however, there was no significant change of EPO­R either on an mRNA level or protein level. Furthermore, EMP9 did not change the EPO expression which was upregulated by Ad­HIF­1α. Activated caspase 3 in neurons was suppressed by Ad­HIF­1α. Activated caspase 3 downregulated by HIF­1α was partially blocked by EMP9. Altogether, the present data demonstrated that HIF­1α attenuates neuronal apoptosis partially through upregulating EPO following cerebral ischemia in rat. Thus, upregulating HIF­1α subsequent to a stroke may be a potential treatment for ischemic stroke.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4155, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139705

RESUMO

Malignant gliomas are the most common tumor in central nervous system with poor prognosis. Due to the limitation of histological classification in earlier diagnosis and individualized medicine, it is necessary to combine the molecular signatures and the pathological characteristics of gliomas. Lots of microRNAs presented abnormal expression in gliomas and modulated gliomas development. Exploration the miRNAs profile is helpful for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of gliomas. It has been demonstrated that miR-144 plays important roles in solid tumors. However, the detail mechanisms remained unrevealed. In this study, we have demonstrated the level of miR-144 decreased in glioma tissues from patients, especially in gliomas with higher grades. MiR-144 was also validated have lower expression in glioma cell lines compared with cortical neuron cell by using qRT-PCR. The in vitro functional experiment indicated miR-144 improved gliomas progression through repressing proliferation, sensitizing to chemotherapeutics and inhibiting metastasis. We further identified fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and Caveolin 2 (CAV2) were target genes of miR-144 by luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. The mechanisms study suggested forced FGF7 expression elevated Akt activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The MTT and cell cycle assay indicated miR-144 suppressed glioma cells proliferation through modulating FGF mediated Akt signaling pathway. Meanwhile, miR-144 promoted Temozolomide (TMZ) induced apoptosis in glioma cells via increasing ROS production by using FACS. On the other hand, CAV2, as another target of miR-144, accelerated glioma cells migration and invasion via promoting glioma cells EMT progress. Retrieved expression of FGF7 or CAV2 rescued the proliferation and migration function mediated by miR-144. Furthermore, the in vivo experiments in PDX models displayed the anti-tumor function of miR-144, which could be retrieved by overexpression of FGF7 and CAV2. Taken together, these findings indicated miR-144 acted as a potential target against gliomas progression and uncovered a novel regulatory mechanism, which may provide a new therapeutic strategy and prognostic indicator for gliomas.

13.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 35, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151269

RESUMO

Calstabin2, also named FK506 binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6), is a subunit of ryanodine receptor subtype 2 (RyR2) macromolecular complex, an intracellular calcium channel. Studies from our and other's lab have shown that hippocampal calstabin2 regulates spatial memory. Calstabin2 and RyR2 are widely distributed in the brain, including the amygdala, a key brain area involved in the regulation of emotion including fear. Little is known about the role of calstabin2 in fear memory. Here, we found that genetic deletion of calstabin2 impaired long-term memory in cued fear conditioning test. Knockdown calstabin2 in the lateral amygdala (LA) by viral vector also impaired long-term cued fear memory expression. Furthermore, calstabin2 knockout reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) at both cortical and thalamic inputs to the LA. In conclusion, our present data indicate that calstabin2 in the LA plays a crucial role in the regulating of emotional memory.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193756

RESUMO

(R)-Mandelic acid (R-MA) is a key precursor for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillin, cephalosporin, anti-obesity drugs, antitumor agents, and chiral resolving agents for the resolution of racemic alcohols and amines. In this study, an enzymatic method for the large-scale production of R-MA by a stereospecific nitrilase in an aqueous system was developed. The nitrilase activity of the Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET-Nit whole cells reached 138.6 U/g in a 20,000-L fermentor. Using recombinant E. coli cells as catalyst, 500 mM R,S-mandelonitrile (R,S-MN) was resolved into 426 mM (64.85 g/L) R-MA within 8 h, and the enantiomeric excess (ee) value of R-MA reached 99%. During the purification process, pure R-MA with a recovery rate of 78.8% was obtained after concentration and crystallization. This study paved the foundation for the upscale production of R-MA using E. coli whole cells as biocatalyst.

15.
World J Pediatr ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei, China. People of all ages are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. No information on severe pediatric patients with COVID-19 has been reported. We aimed to describe the clinical features of severe pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included eight severe or critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were treated at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Wuhan Children's Hospital from January 24 to February 24. We collected information including demographic data, symptoms, imaging data, laboratory findings, treatments and clinical outcomes of the patients with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: The onset age of the eight patients ranged from 2 months to 15 years; six were boys. The most common symptoms were polypnea (8/8), followed by fever (6/8) and cough (6/8). Chest imaging showed multiple patch-like shadows in seven patients and ground-glass opacity in six. Laboratory findings revealed normal or increased whole blood counts (7/8), increased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and lactate dehydrogenase (6/8), and abnormal liver function (4/8). Other findings included decreased CD16 + CD56 (4/8) and Th/Ts*(1/8), increased CD3 (2/8), CD4 (4/8) and CD8 (1/8), IL-6 (2/8), IL-10 (5/8) and IFN-γ (2/8). Treatment modalities were focused on symptomatic and respiratory support. Two critically ill patients underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Up to February 24, 2020, three patients remained under treatment in ICU, the other five recovered and were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of severe pediatric patients in Wuhan, polypnea was the most common symptom, followed by fever and cough. Common imaging changes included multiple patch-like shadows and ground-glass opacity; and a cytokine storm was found in these patients, which appeared more serious in critically ill patients.

17.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 67, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was reported to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the association between them has not been firmly established in the existing literature. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between periodontitis and IBD. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for publications up to August 1, 2019 to include all eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to determine the association between periodontal disease and IBD using a random or fixed effects model according to heterogeneity. RESULTS: Six eligible studies involving 599 IBD patients and 448 controls were included. The pooled OR between periodontitis and IBD was 3.17 (95% CI: 2.09-4.8) with no heterogeneity observed (I2 = 0.00%). The pooled ORs were 3.64 (95% CI: 2.33-5.67) and 5.37 (95% CI: 3.30-8.74) for the associations between periodontitis and the two sub-categories of IBD, Crohn' s disease and ulcerative colitis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that periodontitis was significantly associated with IBD. However, the mechanisms underlying periodontitis and IBD development are undetermined. Further studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.

18.
Plant Dis ; : PDIS07191568RE, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196417

RESUMO

Tomato gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the main diseases of tomato and significantly impacts the yield and quality of tomato fruit. The overuse of chemical fungicides has resulted in the development of fungicide-resistant strains. Biological control is becoming an alternative method for the control of plant diseases to replace or decrease the application of traditional synthetic chemical fungicides and genus Trichoderma is widely used as a biological agent for controlling tomato gray mold. Brassinolide (BR) is a plant-growth-promoting steroid. To enhance the efficiency and stability of Trichoderma activity against B. cinerea, an optimal combination of Trichoderma atroviride CCTCCSBW0199 and BR that controls B. cinerea infection in tomato was identified. Strain CCTCCSBW0199 was found to have antagonistic activity against B. cinerea both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, a fermented culture of chlamydospores and metabolites, or metabolites only of strain CCTCCSBW0199 also reduced growth of B. cinerea. BR reduced growth of B. cinerea and had no effect on the sporulation and growth of Trichoderma spp. An application of metabolites of a Trichoderma sp. + BR reduced gray mold on tomato leaves by approximately 70.0%. Furthermore, the activities of induced defense response-related enzyme, such as peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were increased in tomato plants treated with a Trichoderma sp. + BR. Our data suggested that applying a mix of metabolites of T. atroviride CCTCCSBW0199 + BR was effective at reducing gray mold of tomato and may lay a theoretical foundation for the development of novel biofungicides.

19.
Platelets ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200697

RESUMO

A growing body of research has made it increasingly clear that there are substantial biological differences between fetal/neonatal and adult megakaryopoiesis. Over the last decade, studies revealed a developmentally unique uncoupling of proliferation, polyploidization, and cytoplasmic maturation in neonatal MKs that results in the production of large numbers of small, low ploidy, but mature MKs during this period of development, and identified substantial molecular differences between fetal/neonatal and adult MKs. This review will summarize our current knowledge on the developmental differences between fetal/neonatal and adult MKs, and recent advances in our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, including newly described developmentally regulated pathways and miRNAs. We will also discuss the implications of these findings on the ways MKs interact with the environment, the response of neonates to thrombocytopenia, the pathogenesis of Down syndrome-transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD), and the developmental stage specific-manifestations of congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia.

20.
Curr Med Sci ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207032

RESUMO

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has occurred unexpectedly and emerged as a health problem worldwide. Despite the rapidly increasing number of cases in subsequent weeks, the clinical characteristics of pediatric cases are rarely described. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 10 hospitals across Hubei province. A total of 25 confirmed pediatric cases of COVID-19 were collected. The demographic data, epidemiological history, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological data, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 25 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the boy to girl ratio was 1.27:1. The median age was 3 years. COVID-19 cases in children aged <3 years, 3.6 years, and ≥6-years patients were 10 (40%), 6 (24%), and 9 (36%), respectively. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (13 [52%]), and dry cough (11 [44%]). Chest CT images showed essential normal in 8 cases (33.3%), unilateral involvement of lungs in 5 cases (20.8%), and bilateral involvement in 11 cases (45.8%). Clinical diagnoses included upper respiratory tract infection (n=8), mild pneumonia (n=15), and critical cases (n=2). Two critical cases (8%) were given invasive mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin. The symptoms in 24 (96%) of 25 patients were alleviated and one patient had been discharged. It was concluded that children were susceptible to COVID-19 like adults, while the clinical presentations and outcomes were more favorable in children. However, children less than 3 years old accounted for majority cases and critical cases lied in this age group, which demanded extra attentions during home caring and hospitalization treatment.

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