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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130624, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339982

RESUMO

Wuyi Rock tea (WRT), a top-ranking oolong tea, possesses characteristic woody, floral, nutty flavor. WRT flavor is mainly formed during the manufacturing process. However, details regarding its formation process are not fully understood yet. In this study, the dynamics of volatile and phenolic components over the whole manufacturing process of WRT were investigated. During withering, despite minor changes in volatile and phenolic components, the central vacuole shrunk remarkably, which reduced the cell mechanical performance and facilitated the subsequent enzymatic fermentation. During fermentation, approximately 78% of flavan-3-ols in fresh tea leaves were oxidized and converted to a diverse mixture of highly heterogeneous oxidation products, such as theaflavins, whereas flavonols, phenolic acids, and xanthine alkaloids remained stable throughout the manufacturing process. Aldehydes, ketones, and heterocyclic compounds, imparting woody, floral, and nutty scent, were mainly formed during the roasting steps. This detailed information can expand our understanding on the formation of WRT flavor.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Chá , Aromatizantes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Folhas de Planta , Paladar
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130735, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365247

RESUMO

Green and black teas are regarded to possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity, however it is not clear which tea performs better in body weight control. In this study, aiming to eliminate cultivar variation, green tea phenolics (GTP) were oxidized by tyrosinase to obtain oxidized tea phenolics (OTP). Thereafter, their anti-obesity effect on high-fat diet induced obese mice were compared. The results showed that despite their distinctive phenolic profiles, GTP and OTP exerted similar anti-obesity properties after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Furthermore, cecal microbiota profiling exhibited comparable modulatory effects of GTP and OTP on multiple bacterial taxa, including Parabacteroides distasonis, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Akkermansia muciniphila, which were strongly associated with obesity related indexes. Putative bacterial function profiling implicated that both GTP and OTP might regulate the lipid metabolism similarly. Collectively, the oxidation of GTP did not influence the anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects to any large extent.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Chá , Animais , Bacteroidetes , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia
3.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633234

RESUMO

Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae (Xcm) is the causal agent of mango bacterial black spot which is present in many mango growing regions and leads to great economic losses to mango industry. Due to the limitation of high-quality genomic resources, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of Xcm. Here, we used PacBio High Fidelity reads (HiFi) sequencing technology to sequence and analyze the whole genome of an Xcm strain GXG07 isolated from Guangxi, the largest mango growing region in China. PacBio HiFi reads with a mean coverage of 450× had been assembled into three contigs of 5,166,537, 79,634 and 30,169 bp, revealing that the genome of Xcm GXG07 contains one chromosome and two plasmids. This genome provides a resource to better understand the biology and pathogenicity of mango bacterial black spot.

4.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111017, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620426

RESUMO

As a critical second messenger in plants, Ca2+ is involved in numerous biological processes including biotic and abiotic stress responses. The CBL-interacting protein kinases, known as CIPKs, are essential components in Ca2+-mediated signal transduction pathways. Here, we found that CIPK14 plays a role in the process of regulating immune response in Arabidopsis. The CIPK14 loss-of-function mutants exhibited enhanced resistance to the P. syringae, whereas CIPK14 overexpression plants were more susceptible to bacterial pathogen. Enhanced resistance in cipk14 mutants were accompanied by increased accumulation of SA and elevated expression of defense marker genes (PR1, EDS1, EDS5, ICS1). Overexpression of CIPK14 suppressed Pst DC3000, Pst DC3000 hrcC and flg22 induced generation of ROS and callose deposition. As compared with wild type plants, the expression levels of MPK3/6-dependent PTI marker genes (FRK1, CYP81F2, WAK2, FOX) were up-regulated in cipk14 mutants but down-regulated in CIPK14 overexpression plants after flg22 and elf18 treatment. Additionally, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function of CIPK14 significantly altered the phosphorylation status of MPK3/6 under flg22 treatment, suggesting that CIPK14 is a general modulator of plant immunity at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Taken together, our results uncover that CIPK14 acts as a negative regulator in plant immune response.

6.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 80(9): 844-855, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343334

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal dysfunction is the main nonmotor characteristic of Parkinson disease (PD), manipulation of gastrointestinal function by altering gut-brain axis is a potentially novel entry point for the treatment of PD. Acupuncture has been reported to confer beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effects and mechanism of acupuncture on the pathophysiology and gastrointestinal function of PD. A PD mouse model was established by rotenone, and electroacupuncture was used to regulate the gastrointestinal function. Rotenone was found to induce the types of brain pathologies and gastrointestinal dysfunction that are similar to those observed with PD. Electroacupuncture significantly increased the spontaneous activity of mice with PD and increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, while reducing the expression of Iba-1 in substantia nigra (SN), suggesting that motor dysfunction and neurological damage was alleviated. In addition, electroacupuncture significantly reduced the deposition of α-synuclein in both colon and SN, reduced intestinal inflammation, and exerted protective effects on enteric nervous system and intestinal barrier. In conclusion, electroacupuncture confers beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system of mice with PD and can alleviate neuroinflammation and neuropathic injury by inhibiting intestinal inflammation, promoting intestinal barrier repair and reducing α-synuclein deposition in the colon.

7.
Opt Lett ; 46(15): 3524-3527, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329215

RESUMO

We introduce a new type of optical beam that can autofocus multiple times in free space, namely, a multi-focus autofocusing optical beam. Based on the superposed caustic method, we design and construct one-dimensional autofocusing optical beams by tailoring and overlapping two paraxial accelerating optical beams. The two accelerating optical beams are shaped in cosine trajectories symmetrically, thus enabling an on-axis multi-focus property. Furthermore, we fabricate compact devices utilizing diffractive optical elements on a quartz plate patterning the required phase for generations of three-focus and four-focus autofocusing optical beams in free space. We expect that this work may bring autofocusing optical beams further potential applications in particle transporting, material processing, and lithography technology.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283354

RESUMO

The volatilization process of contaminants has been shown to play an important role in remediation of VOC-contaminated soils. The aim of this paper is to study the volatilization characteristics of both toluene and water from soil, and to evaluate their interaction mechanism under different conditions. A test system is developed to measure mass loss of contaminants and water from soil by volatilization. It was found that basically the volatilization process could be divided into two stages in clay and one stage in sand. Two main influential mechanisms of water on the volatilization of toluene include molecules' competitive adsorption and blocking of volatilization channels. In addition, the evaporation process of water was restricted by volatilization of toluene. Volatilization rate of toluene would increase with the increase of water content when the water content was low. But it would decrease with the increase of water content when the water content was higher than 15% in clay. In addition, there existed an optimal water content (15%) under which the maximum volatilization rate could be achieved.

9.
AIDS Rev ; 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153977

RESUMO

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) strongly inhibits HIV replication. However, many patients show suboptimal immune recovery (SIR), as defined by virological suppression (i.e. low viral load) with a CD4+ T-cell count of ≤ 200 cells/mm3, after HAART initiation. Here, we performed a systematic evaluation of the SIR prevalence among HIV-infected patients in cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang database, and Chinese Biomedicine Database for cohort studies about HIV-infected participants whose CD4+ T-cell count was ≤ 200 cells/mm3 but still had virological suppression after HAART initiation. The SIR prevalence from each of those cohort studies was pooled into a random-effect meta-analysis. We obtained two kinds of pooled post-HARRT initiation SIR prevalence: one among participants with virological suppression (11 cohort studies involving 18,672 participants), and the other among all HIV-infected participants (seven cohort studies involving 12,063 participants). The pooled SIR prevalence among HIV-infected patients with virological suppression after HAART initiation was 43% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34-51%) at 6 months post-HAART initiation and 10% (95% CI, 5-18%) at 36 months post-HAART initiation; among all HIV-infected patients after HAART initiation, it was 17% (95% CI, 0-55%) and 5% (95% CI, 2-10%) at 6 and 36 months post-HAART initiation, respectively. The SIR prevalence among HIV-infected patients is high at 6 months post-HAART initiation, but its prevalence gradually reduces over time under continuous HAART. Thus, it is important to follow-up on variations in the CD4+ T-cell count and viral load.

10.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(5): 362-7, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) intervention on the behavior, colon and midbrain substantia nigra α-synuclein(α-syn) expression in Parkinson's disease (PD) mice, so as to explore the mechanism of early EA on prevention of PD. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into blank, model and EA groups, with 8 mice in each group. The PD mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of rotenone. Mice in the EA group received EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) at "Quchi"(LI11), "Shangjuxu"(ST37) and acupuncture at "Shenting" (GV24)and "Tianshu"(ST25) for 10 min once daily, with 7 d for a course, a total of 8 courses. Behavioral tests of hanging and climbing poles were carried out before, during and after modeling. The expressions of a-syn in substantia nigra and colon were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence. RESULTS: After 8 weeks of modeling, the mice in the model group showed symptoms such as listlessness, dim hair color, coldness and curling up. Compared with the blank group, the hanging score of the model group was significantly lower (P<0.01), the pole climbing time and the expressions of α-syn protein in colon and substantia nigra were significantly increased (P<0.01). Following intervention, mice in the EA group were always in good mental state, with shiny fur and stable body weight. The hanging scores was significantly higher and the pole climbing time and the expressions of α-syn protein in colon and substantia nigra were significantly down-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the EA group relevant to the model group. CONCLUSION: Early EA intervention can delay the onset of PD induced by rotenone, which may be related to its effect in reducing the expression of α-syn in midbrain substantia nigra and colon.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Colo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substância Negra
11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(5): 4341-4350, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097202

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat is a kind of plant which can be used as medicine as well as edible. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays an important role in the response of plants such as tartary buckwheat to drought and other stress. However, there are not many studies on tartary buckwheat by ABA treatment. In this study, the germination, root length, stoma, and anthocyanin accumulation of tartary buckwheat were all significantly affected by ABA. ABA signaling is important for plants to respond to drought and other stresses, the bZIP gene family is an important member of the ABA signaling pathway. Through the analysis of the origin relationship between tartary buckwheat bZIP family and its related species, 19 bZIP genes in tartary buckwheat were found to be relatively conserved, which laid a foundation for further study of bZIP family. The qRT-PCR results showed that most of the group members were induced by ABA treatment, including 0, 15, 30, 50, 70 µM ABA and 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 h ABA treatment. These results suggested that ABA could affect the growth and development of tartary buckwheat, and FtbZIPs might have different functions in the response of tartary buckwheat to drought. This study will be helpful to further analyze the genetic breeding and economic value of tartary buckwheat resistance.

12.
Food Chem ; 361: 130065, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023683

RESUMO

In response to the increasing interest of western consumers in high antioxidant activity of green tea but their low acceptance of its green odor, we employed a new starter culture, Wolfiporia cocos to tune flavor of green tea infusion. After submerged fermentation for 17 h, W. cocos changed the characteristic green odor to an attractive floral, jasmine-like, and slightly citrus-like flavor while preserving most of in vitro antioxidant activity. By application of mSBSE-GC-MS-O combined with sensorial tests, the formed pleasant aroma was mainly attributed to methyl anthranilate (OAV 802), linalool (OAV 190), 2-phenylethanol (OAV165), and geraniol (OAV 118). Concurrently, the catechin profile determined by UHPLC-MS showed diverse reduction rates (10-50%) for the individual catechins after fermentation. Nevertheless, up to 80% of in vitro antioxidant activity in DPPH assay was preserved. Overall, our findings provide an innovative approach to naturally flavor green tea while retaining the antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Chá/química , Wolfiporia/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Paladar , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 13954-13967, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982673

RESUMO

To examine the role of S100B in genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD), we conducted a case-control study to analyze four polymorphism loci (rs2839364, rs1051169, rs2300403, and rs9722) of the S100B gene and AD risk. We found an independent increased risk of AD in ApoE ε4(-) subjects carrying the rs9722 AA-genotype (OR = 2.622, 95% CI = 1.399-4.915, P = 0.003). Further investigation revealed the serum S100B levels to be lower in rs9722 GG carriers than in rs9722 AA carriers (P = 0.003). We identified three miRNAs (miR-340-3p, miR-593-3p, miR-6827-3p) in which the seed match region covered locus rs9722. Luciferase assays indicated that the rs9722 G allele has a higher binding affinity to miR-6827-3p than the rs9722 A allele, leading to a significantly decreased fluorescence intensity. Subsequent western blot analysis showed that the S100B protein level of SH-SY5Y cells, which carry the rs9722 G allele, decreased significantly following miR-6827-3p stimulation (P = 0.009). The present study suggests that the rs9722 polymorphism may upregulate the expression of S100B by altering the miRNA binding capacity and may thus increase the AD risk. This finding would be of great help for the early diagnosis of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/sangue , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/genética , Idoso , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética
14.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(12): 2909-2917, 2021 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885646

RESUMO

Macrophages are essential in innate immunity and are involved in a variety of biological functions. Due to high plasticity, macrophages are polarized in different phenotypes depending on different microenvironments to perform specific functions. Although many studies have focused on macrophage polarization, few have explored the polarization characteristics of macrophages at the subcellular level, even at nanoscale resolution. Here, we utilize AFM-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) to investigate the influence of an inducer on the expressed proteins of M1/M2 macrophages (induced by LPS and IL-13, respectively). The results from AFM-IR combined with principal component analysis revealed that the characteristic proteins within M1 contain about 35% antiparallel ß-sheets (due to the high expression of TNF-α), while the proteins within M2 are made up of approximately 38.8% α-helices. The corresponding nanoscale chemical mapping demonstrates a remarkably heterogeneous distribution of expressed proteins inside single macrophages. Beside the biochemical properties, the biomechanical properties of macrophages were found to be softened in response to the polarization process.


Assuntos
Interleucina-13/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Microambiente Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Conformação Proteica , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(1): 55-65, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834691

RESUMO

Synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss are related to cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence indicates that regulating the phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/AKT/GSK-3ß pathway is a therapeutic strategy for improving synaptic plasticity in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated "olfactory three-needle" effects on synaptic function and the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in ß-amyloid1-42 (Aß1-42)-induced Alzheimer's disease rats. A three-needle olfactory bulb insertion for 28 days alleviated Aß1-42-induced Alzheimer's disease rats' cognitive impairment as assessed by performance in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, the three-needle electrode inhibited neuro-apoptosis and neuro-inflammation. It significantly upregulated the protein expression of postsynaptic density protein 95, synaptophysin, and GAP43, indicating a protective effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Additionally, the activation level of PI3K/AKT signaling and the phosphorylation inactivation of GSK-3ß were significantly enhanced by the "olfactory three-needle". Our findings suggested that the three-needle acupuncture is a potential alternative to improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of Alzheimer's disease brain in rodents.

16.
Rheumatol Ther ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to identify the potential risk factors for progression from subclinical to clinical psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal, case-control study was conducted at a single hospital, including 25 patients with clinically confirmed PsA in the case group and 137 controls without confirmed PsA. All patients in both groups had a medical history of subclinical PsA. Various baseline covariates were collected from all patients when they had a status of subclinical PsA. Univariate, multivariate, stratified, and interaction analyses were employed to identify potential risk factors of transiting to clinical PsA from subclinical PsA. RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age (OR 10.15, 95% CI 2.79-36.91, p = 0.00), alcohol drinking (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.17-10.12, p = 0.03), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09, p = 0.03) were identified as risk factors for transition from subclinical to clinical PsA. Stratified and logistic regression analyses suggest a significant interaction between age and fatty liver. For patients aged less than 45 years old, the association between fatty liver and clinical PsA was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, alcohol drinking, elevated hs-CRP, and the presence of fatty liver at less than 45 years old appear to increase the risk of transition from subclinical to clinical PsA. These findings call for a need to manage these risk factors.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(8): 2477-2484, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619960

RESUMO

Due to low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds in small intestine, their metabolism by gut microbiota is gaining increasing attention. The microbial metabolism of theasinensin A (TSA), a bioactive catechin dimer found in black tea, has not been studied yet. Here, TSA was extracted and purified for in vitro fermentation by human fecal microbiota, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and procyanidin B2 (PCB2) were used for comparison. Despite the similarity in their flavan-3-ol skeletons, metabolic fate of TSA was distinctively different. After degalloylation, its core biphenyl-2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexaol structure remained intact during fermentation. Conversely, EGCG and PCB2 were promptly degraded into a series of hydroxylated phenylcarboxylic acids. Computational analyses comparing TSA and PCB2 revealed that TSA's stronger interflavanic bond and more compact stereo-configuration might underlie its lower fermentability. These insights in the recalcitrance of theasinensins to degradation by human gut microbiota are of key importance for a comprehensive understanding of its health benefits.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Catequina , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Benzopiranos , Humanos , Fenóis , Chá
18.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(3): 543-552, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205908

RESUMO

Uridine diphosphate-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) maintain abscisic acid (ABA) homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana by converting ABA to abscisic acid-glucose ester (ABA-GE). UGT71C5 plays an important role in the generation of ABA-GE. Abscisic acid receptors are crucial upstream components of the ABA signaling pathway, but how UGTs and ABA receptors function together to modulate ABA levels is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the ABA receptors RCAR12/13 and UGT71C5 maintain ABA homeostasis in Arabidopsis following rehydration under drought stress. Biochemical analyses show that UGT71C5 directly interacted with RCAR8/12/13 in yeast cells, and the interactions between UGT71C5 and RCAR12/13 were enhanced by ABA treatment. Enzyme activity analysis showed that ABA-GE contents were significantly elevated in the presence of RCAR12 or RCAR13, suggesting that these ABA receptors enhance the activity of UGT71C5. Determination of the content of ABA and ABA-GE in Arabidopsis following rehydration under drought stress revealed that ABA-GE contents were significantly higher in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing RCAR12 and RCAR13 than in non-transformed plants and plants overexpressing RCAR11 following rehydration under drought stress. These observations suggest that RCAR12 and RCAR13 enhance the activity of UGT71C5 to glycosylate excess ABA into ABA-GE following rehydration under drought stress, representing a rapid mechanism for regulating plant growth and development.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 232-245, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347309

RESUMO

Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), a bioactive black tea phenolic, is poorly absorbed in the small intestine, and it has been suggested that gut microbiota metabolism plays a crucial role in its bioactivities. However, information on its metabolic fate and impact on gut microbiota is limited. Here, TFDG was anaerobically fermented in vitro by human fecal microbiota, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used for comparison. Despite the similar flavan-3-ol skeletons, TFDG was more slowly degraded and yielded a distinctively different metabolic profile. The formation of theanaphthoquinone as the main metabolites was unique to TFDG. Additionally, a number of hydroxylated phenylcarboxylic acids were formed with low concentrations, when comparing to EGCG metabolism. Microbiome profiling demonstrated several similarities in gut microbiota modulatory effects, including growth-promoting effects on Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Parabacteroides, and Bifidobacterium, and inhibitory effects on Prevotella and Fusobacterium. In conclusion, TFDG and EGCG underwent significantly different microbial metabolic fates, yet their gut microbiota modulatory effects were similar.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/química , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 13906-13915, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146527

RESUMO

Presently, the potential health risks of neonicotinoid insecticides (neonics) are now receiving much attention, but no data regarding the exposure of infants to neonics via human breast milk intake have been reported. In this study, a nationwide survey was conducted during the period of 2017-2019, wherein 97 pooled breast milk samples were collected from 3570 lactating women of 23 provinces in China. Nationally, acetamiprid-N-desmethyl was the most predominant compound, accounting for 61.2% of the total amount of neonics, followed by imidacloprid (15.6%). The concentration of the sum of acetamiprid and its metabolite acetamiprid-N-desmethyl in breast milk was positively correlated with corresponding dietary exposure, while no statistically significant association between the other neonic levels in breast milk and dietary exposure was found. The cumulative daily intakes of neonics (9.40-249 ng kg-1 of body weight day-1) were estimated for breastfed infants, indicating a minuscule risk to Chinese infants from neonic exposure via breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Monitoramento Biológico , Aleitamento Materno , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inseticidas/análise , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Neonicotinoides/análise , Medição de Risco
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