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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e010870, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394972

RESUMO

Background The predictive value of adiposity indices and the newly developed index for cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in the Chinese population. This study aimed to compare the predictive value of A Body Shape Index with other 5 conventional obesity-related anthropometric indices (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio) in Chinese population. Methods and Results A total of 44 048 participants in the study were derived from the baseline data of the PURE-China (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology) study in China. All participants' anthropometric parameters, CVDs, and risk factors (dyslipidemia, abnormal blood pressure, and hyperglycemia) were collected by standard procedures. Multivariable logistic regression models and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were used to evaluate the predictive values of obesity-related anthropometric indices to the cardiometabolic risk factors and CVDs. A positive association was observed between each anthropometric index and cardiometabolic risk factors and CVDs in all models (P<0.001). Compared with other anthropometric indices (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and A Body Shape Index), waist-to-height ratio had significantly higher areas under the curve (AUCs) for predicting dyslipidemia (AUCs: 0.646, sensitivity: 65%, specificity: 44%), hyperglycemia (AUCs: 0.595, sensitivity: 60%, specificity: 45%), and CVDs (AUCs: 0.619, sensitivity: 59%, specificity: 41%). Waist circumference showed the best prediction for abnormal blood pressure (AUCs: 0.671, sensitivity: 66%, specificity: 40%) compared with other anthropometric indices. However, the new body shape index did not show a better prediction to either cardiometabolic risk factors or CVDs than that of any other traditional obesity-related indices. Conclusions Waist-to-height ratio appeared to be the best indicator for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and CVDs, while waist circumference had a better prediction for abnormal blood pressure.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398482

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains are widespread globally. However, there has been no systematic study on the associations between Beijing genotype and the characteristics of drug resistance. In this study, we collected 359 M. tuberculosis isolates from south China and investigated their background information, genotype diversity and drug resistance. The results revealed that 66.0% (237/359) of strains were categorized as Beijing genotype. There was no statistical difference between Beijing and non-Beijing genotype strains in terms of sex, age, residence place and treatment history. Drug resistance testing showed that 34.8% (125/359) of isolates were resistant to at least one of the seven drugs tested. The proportions of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis were 17.0% and 1.4%, respectively. Previously treated patients presented a significantly higher risk of developing drug resistance than new cases. Although the prevalence of drug resistance was observed more frequently in Beijing genotype than in non-Beijing genotype strains, there was no significant difference between these two genotypes. Even in retreated patients, the association of Beijing genotype with drug resistance was not significant. This study provided insight into genotype diversity and demonstrated the characteristics of drug resistance in Beijing genotype strains, which will be useful in generating efficient tuberculosis prevention and control strategies in China.

3.
New Phytol ; 224(1): 117-131, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264223

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial regulators in many plant biological processes. However, it remains unknown whether lncRNAs can respond to nitrate or function in nitrate regulation. We detected 695 lncRNAs, 480 known and 215 novel, in Arabidopsis seedling roots; six showed altered expression in response to nitrate treatment, among which T5120 showed the highest induction. Overexpression of T5120 in Arabidopsis promoted the response to nitrate, enhanced nitrate assimilation and improved biomass and root development. Biochemical and molecular analyses revealed that NLP7, a master nitrate regulatory transcription factor, directly bound to the nitrate-responsive cis-element (NRE)-like motif of the T5120 promoter and activated T5120 transcription. In addition, T5120 partially restored the nitrate signalling and assimilation phenotypes of nlp7 mutant, suggesting that T5120 is involved in NLP7-mediated nitrate regulation. Interestingly, the expression of T5120 was regulated by the nitrate sensor NRT1.1. Therefore, T5120 is modulated by NLP7 and NRT1.1 to regulate nitrate signalling. Our work reveals a new regulatory mechanism in which lncRNA T5120 functions in nitrate regulation, providing new insights into the nitrate signalling network. Importantly, lncRNA T5120 can promote nitrate assimilation and plant growth to improve nitrogen use efficiency.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200023

RESUMO

Clofazimine (CFZ) is a promising candidate drug for use in the management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method and checkerboard method were used to investigate potential synergies between CFZ and moxifloxacin (MOX) or capreomycin (CAP). 30 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were collected, including 13 MDR strains, 2 extensive drug- resistant (XDR) strains, 3 pan-sensitive strains and 12 strains resistant to other drugs. When the minimum fractional inhibitory concentration indexes (FICIs) were calculated, synergy was found in 21 (70.00%) M. tuberculosis strains against the CFZ/CAP combination and 29 (96.67%) against the CFZ/MOX combination. When the maximum FICIs were calculated, 10 out of 15 MDR/XDR strains and 2 out of 15 other drug-resistant or pan-sensitive strains showed antagonism against the CFZ/CAP combination, whilst 8 out of 15 MDR/XDR strains and 1 out of 15 other drug-resistant or pan-sensitive strains showed antagonism against the CFZ/MOX combination, respectively. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the combination of CFZ and MOX shows better synergism than the combination of CFZ and CAP. The MDR/XDR isolates are more likely to show antagonism than the other drug-resistant or pan-sensitive strains in both CFZ/MOX and CFZ/CAP combinations. Taken together, we suggest that CFZ, in combination with MOX, may be a promising drug regimen for the treatment of MDR-TB, especially for the susceptible M. tuberculosis infectious.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57003, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use for cooking affects 2.5 billion individuals globally and may contribute substantially to disease burden. However, few prospective studies have assessed the impact of HAP on mortality and cardiorespiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate associations between HAP and mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and respiratory disease in the prospective urban and rural epidemiology (PURE) study. METHODS: We studied 91,350 adults 35­70 y of age from 467 urban and rural communities in 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). After a median follow-up period of 9.1 y, we recorded 6,595 deaths, 5,472 incident cases of CVD (CVD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure), and 2,436 incident cases of respiratory disease (respiratory death or nonfatal chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, or lung cancer). We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for individual, household, and community-level characteristics to compare events for individuals living in households that used solid fuels for cooking to those using electricity or gas. RESULTS: We found that 41.8% of participants lived in households using solid fuels as their primary cooking fuel. Compared with electricity or gas, solid fuel use was associated with fully adjusted hazard ratios of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.21) for all-cause mortality, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.17) for fatal or nonfatal CVD, 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.30) for fatal or nonfatal respiratory disease, and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.19) for mortality from any cause or the first incidence of a nonfatal cardiorespiratory outcome. Associations persisted in extensive sensitivity analyses, but small differences were observed across study regions and across individual and household characteristics. DISCUSSION: Use of solid fuels for cooking is a risk factor for mortality and cardiorespiratory disease. Continued efforts to replace solid fuels with cleaner alternatives are needed to reduce premature mortality and morbidity in developing countries. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3915.

6.
Respiration ; 97(5): 436-443, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal management of persistent air leaks (PALs) in patients with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endobronchial autologous blood plus thrombin patch (ABP) and bronchial occlusion using silicone spigots (BOS) in patients with SSP accompanied by alveolar-pleural fistula (APF) and PALs. METHODS: This prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial compared chest tube-attached water-seal drainage (CTD), ABP, and BOS that were performed between February 2015 and June 2017 in one of six tertiary care hospitals in China. Patients diagnosed with APF experiencing PALs (despite 7 days of CTD) and inoperable patients were included. Outcome measures included success rate of pneumothorax resolution at the end of the observation period (further 14 days), duration of air leak stop, lung expansion, hospital stay, and complications. RESULTS: In total, 150 subjects were analysed in three groups (CTD, ABP, BOS) of 50 each. At 14 days, 60, 82, and 84% of CTD, ABP, and BOS subjects, respectively, experienced full resolution of pneumothorax (p = 0.008). All duration outcome measures were significantly better in the ABP and BOS groups than in the CTD group (p < 0.016 for all). The incidence of adverse events, including chest pain, cough, and fever, was not significantly different. All subjects in the ABP and BOS groups experienced temporary haemoptysis. Spigot displacement occurred in 8% of BOS subjects. CONCLUSION: ABP and BOS resulted in clinically meaningful outcomes, including higher success rate, duration of air leak stop, lung expansion, and hospital stay, with an acceptable safety profile.

7.
Lung Cancer ; 129: 48-54, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of detection of pulmonary nodules on computed radiography (CR) is approximately 0.09-0.2%, so rapid identification of the nature of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) with a likelihood of malignancy is a critical challenge in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to compare the diagnostic yield and safety of endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS), and the combination of EBUS-GS and virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN). METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, multi-arm, randomized controlled trial involving a total of 1010 subjects. All the patients recruited underwent a chest CT scan which found SPNs that needed to be diagnosed. The subjects were randomly divided into one of three groups: a traditional, non-guided, bronchoscopy biopsy group (NGB group), an EBUS-GS guided bronchoscopy biopsy group (EBUS group), and a guided bronchoscopy biopsy group that combined EBUS-GS with VBN (combined group). The primary endpoint was to investigate the differences between the diagnostic yields of the three groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the diagnostic yield between the EBUS group (72.3%) and the combined group (74.3%), but the diagnostic yield for the NGB group was 41.2%. The time required to reach biopsy position was significantly less in the combined group (7.96 ± 1.18 min in the combined group versus 11.92 ± 5.37 min in the EBUS group, p < 0.05). However, the bronchoscope operation time was the same in the EBUS-GS and combined groups. The diagnostic yield for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) >20 mm in diameter was significantly higher than for those <20 mm in diameter. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that guided bronchoscopy could increase the diagnostic yield in the context of peripheral lesions. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic yield between the EBUS and combined groups, but use of EBUS-GS with VBN could significantly shorten the bronchoscope arrival time.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(5): 5380-5392, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608129

RESUMO

Reducing the use of petrochemical products in coated controlled-release fertilizers while regulating the release rate is a popular research topic in the field of controlled-release fertilizers. In this study, a novel biobased polyurethane (BPU), epoxy resin (ER), and polyolefin wax (PW) composite coating method for the controlled release of urea was successfully established. The method involved: (1) the use of PW as a modified inner coating, which improved fertilizer surface performance and reduced urea surface roughness; (2) the degradable BPU film was synthesized with liquefied starch (LS) as the outer coating material; and (3) epoxy resin is a protective layer, which improved the hydrophobicity of the coated urea for controlled release. The chemical structure, thermostability and microscopic morphology of composite-coated urea (CCU) were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. A central composite design of response surface methodology was used to examine the effects of different film percentage, PW contents, and BPU/ER ratios on nutrient release behavior. The results showed that PW optimized the fluidity, thermal insulation properties, and microscopic surface of the particles and improved the uniformity of the heating of urea. When the same amount of ER was used, the CCU showed a 3-fold increase in the release period compared to that of the cross-linked interpenetrating coated urea. Polynomial mathematical models were established for CCU preparation and could be an effective tool for manufacturing CCUs with specific nutrient release characteristics that could meet the nutrient requirements of crops in different cropping systems. The new coating method introduced in this study could guide the development of a new generation of biobased controlled-release fertilizers.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517670

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the association of estimated total daily sleep duration and daytime nap duration with deaths and major cardiovascular events. Methods and results: We estimated the durations of total daily sleep and daytime naps based on the amount of time in bed and self-reported napping time and examined the associations between them and the composite outcome of deaths and major cardiovascular events in 116 632 participants from seven regions. After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, we recorded 4381 deaths and 4365 major cardiovascular events. It showed both shorter (≤6 h/day) and longer (>8 h/day) estimated total sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome when adjusted for age and sex. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours and health status, a J-shaped association was observed. Compared with sleeping 6-8 h/day, those who slept ≤6 h/day had a non-significant trend for increased risk of the composite outcome [hazard ratio (HR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.20]. As estimated sleep duration increased, we also noticed a significant trend for a greater risk of the composite outcome [HR of 1.05 (0.99-1.12), 1.17 (1.09-1.25), and 1.41 (1.30-1.53) for 8-9 h/day, 9-10 h/day, and >10 h/day, Ptrend < 0.0001, respectively]. The results were similar for each of all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Daytime nap duration was associated with an increased risk of the composite events in those with over 6 h of nocturnal sleep duration, but not in shorter nocturnal sleepers (≤6 h). Conclusion: Estimated total sleep duration of 6-8 h per day is associated with the lowest risk of deaths and major cardiovascular events. Daytime napping is associated with increased risks of major cardiovascular events and deaths in those with >6 h of nighttime sleep but not in those sleeping ≤6 h/night.

10.
Epigenomics ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426778

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of severe asthma. MATERIALS & METHODS: The shared and divergent differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs), miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) in asthma and severe asthma were identified by RNA-sequencing. Severe asthma-specific and shared DEmiRNA-DEmRNA-DElncRNA interaction networks were performed. RESULTS: Compared with normal control, 1328 DEmRNAs, 608 DElncRNAs and 63 DEmiRNAs were identified in severe asthma. Compared with asthma, 95 DEmRNAs, 143 DElncRNAs and 96 DEmiRNAs were identified in severe asthma. MiR-133a-3p-EFHD2/CNN2-AC144831.1 interactions and miR-3613-3p-CD44/BCL11B-LINC00158/CTA-217C2.1/AC010976.2/RP11-641A6.2 interactions were speculated to involve with the development of severe asthma. The results of GSE69683 validation were generally consistent with our RNA-sequencing results. CONCLUSION: This study provides clues for understanding the mechanism of severe asthma.

11.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 50(3): 1140-1153, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to identify overlapping or diverging dysregulated genes, lncRNAs, miRNAs and signaling pathways in smoking and non-smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Compared to normal controls, we identified the shared and divergent differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs), miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) in smoking and non-smoking COPD by RNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Functional annotation of DEmRNAs were performed. Both cis and trans-target DEmRNAs of DElncRNAs were identified. The target DEmRNAs of DEmiRNAs were identified as well. The DEmiRNA-DEmRNA-DElncRNA interaction network was constructed. QRT-PCR was performed to validat the selected DEmiRNAs, DEmRNA and DElncRNAs in COPD. RESULTS: Compared to normal control, 1234 DEmRNAs, 96 DElncRNAs and 151 DEmiRNAs were identified in non-smoking patients with COPD; 670 DEmRNAs, 44 DElncRNAs and 63 DEmiRNAs were identified in smoking patients with COPD. Leukocyte transendothelial migration and pathways in cancer were significantly enriched pathways in non-smoking and smoking COPD, respectively. MiR-122-5p-A2M-LINC00987/A2M-AS1/ linc0061 interactions might play key roles in COPD irrespective with the smoking status. Let-7-ADRB1-HLA-DQB1-AS1 might play a key role in the pathogenesis of smoking COPD while miR-218-5p/miR15a-RORA-LOC101928100/LINC00861 and miR-218-5p/miR15a-TGFß3-RORA-AS1 interactions might involve with non-smoking COPD. CONCLUSION: We identified the shared and diverging genes, lncRNAs, miRNAs and their interactions and pathways in smoking and non-smoking COPD which provided clues for understanding the mechanism and developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo
12.
Oncol Lett ; 16(3): 4057-4063, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128028

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of ulinastatin against lung injury. Rat models with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were used to provide guidance for the medical treatment of this disease. The rats were divided into three groups: A control group, a model group and an experimental group (each, n=10). With the exception of the control group, all of the rats were prepared as models of COPD, using the composite molding method of smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide. The rats in the model group all received a conventional treatment, while the rats in the experimental group received ulinastatin. A small animal lung function detector was used to examine lung function. The forced expiratory volume/sec (FEV) was negatively correlated with the protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to detect TLR4, MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), TRAF-6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), LOX-1 (lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1) and HMGB1 mRNA, along with their protein expression levels. The lung function of rats in the model group was significantly decreased compared with in the control group (P<0.05). In the experimental group the lung function was significantly greater, when compared with in the model group; however, it remained lower than in the control group. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, LOX-1 and HMGB1 were significantly higher in the model group than in the control and experimental groups; however, levels in the experimental group were significantly higher when compared with in the control group (P<0.05). The TLR4 and HMGB1 expression levels were positively correlated in all groups, which indicated involvement of the HMGB1/TLR4 signaling pathway. The FEV was negatively correlated with the protein expression levels of TLR4 and HMGB1. Thus, the protective effect of ulinastatin in the lungs of rats with COPD is associated with changes in the HMGB1/TLR4 signaling pathway.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 242(Pt B): 1299-1307, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121484

RESUMO

Long-term exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mortality but few studies examine the utility of WHO's interim targets (2006) concerning PM control on CVD mortality. This review aimed to synthesize the long-term exposed to ambient PM exposures on overall CVD mortality according to WHO's interim targets; meanwhile, subgroup analysis by ethnicity, smoking status and PM assessment method were also conducted. We systematically searched studies published between January 1974 and Jul 2017 in PubMed and Embase. Quality of each study was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skill Programme (CASP) checklist. Fixed-effects or random-effects model of meta-analysis was determined by the test of heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to ethnicity, smoking status, PM assessment method and interim PM targets of WHO guidelines. Overall, 16 eligible studies were included, covering 15,511,997 participants and 542,991 CVD deaths. Five studies concerning PM2.5 were rated as good quality. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of every 10µg/m3 increment of PM2.5 exposure for CVD mortality was 1.12 (95%CI = 1.08-1.16), but it was not significant for PM10 (HR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.89-1.16). Compared with the annual PM2.5 exposure level within WHO's interim targets (1.11-1.16), significantly smaller HR was observed for subjects with an exposure level below WHO's air quality guideline (HR = 1.03, 95%CI = 1.02-1.04). The pooled HR was relatively higher for studies in Asian and with at least 11 years' follow-up and those adopting relatively poor methods (category 1) in assessing PM2.5, whilst the risk was similar regardless of smoking status. Egger and Begg's tests showed no evidence for publication bias. Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure level was positively associated with the overall CVD mortality. Different interim targets above the WHO's Air Quality Guideline level exerted a similar scale of CVD risk, but there is no evidence for a threshold.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Nanoscale ; 10(35): 16630-16637, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155531

RESUMO

Chiral metamaterials with versatile designs can exhibit orders of magnitude enhancement in chiroptical responses compared with that of the natural chiral media. Here, we propose an ease-of-fabrication three-dimensional (3D) chiral metamaterial consisting of vertical asymmetric plate-shape resonators along a planar air hole array with extraordinary optical transmission. It is theoretically shown that such chiral metamaterials simultaneously support five-fold plasmonic Fano resonance states and exhibit significant bisignate circular dichroism (CD) with amplitude as large as 0.8 due to the distinctive local electric field distributions. More interestingly, a "bridge" in the proposed double-plate-based architectures can act as a flipped ruler that is able to continuously manipulate optical chirality including the handedness-selective enhancement and the switching of CD signals. Importantly, the proposed designs have been readily fabricated by using a focused-ion-beam irradiation-induced folding technique and they consistently exhibited five-fold Fano resonances with strong CD effects in experiments. The studies are helpful for the understanding, designing and improvement of chiral optical systems towards potential applications such as ultrasensitive biosensing, polarimetric imaging, quantum information processing, etc.

15.
Sci Adv ; 4(7): eaat4436, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984308

RESUMO

Kirigami enables versatile shape transformation from two-dimensional (2D) precursors to 3D architectures with simplified fabrication complexity and unconventional structural geometries. We demonstrate a one-step and on-site nano-kirigami method that avoids the prescribed multistep procedures in traditional mesoscopic kirigami or origami techniques. The nano-kirigami is readily implemented by in situ cutting and buckling a suspended gold film with programmed ion beam irradiation. By using the topography-guided stress equilibrium, rich 3D shape transformation such as buckling, rotation, and twisting of nanostructures is precisely achieved, which can be predicted by our mechanical modeling. Benefiting from the nanoscale 3D twisting features, giant optical chirality is achieved in an intuitively designed 3D pinwheel-like structure, in strong contrast to the achiral 2D precursor without nano-kirigami. The demonstrated nano-kirigami, as well as the exotic 3D nanostructures, could be adopted in broad nanofabrication platforms and could open up new possibilities for the exploration of functional micro-/nanophotonic and mechanical devices.

16.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931308

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which organisms adapt to variable environments are a fundamental question in evolutionary biology and are important to protect important species in response to a changing climate. An interesting candidate to study this question is the honey bee Apis cerana, a keystone pollinator with a wide distribution throughout a large variety of climates, that exhibits rapid dispersal. Here, we re-sequenced the genome of 180 A. cerana individuals from eighteen populations throughout China. Using a population genomics approach, we observed considerable genetic variation in A. cerana. Patterns of genetic differentiation indicate high divergence at the subspecies level, and physical barriers rather than distance are the driving force for population divergence. Estimations of divergence time suggested that the main branches diverged between 300 and 500 ka. Analyses of the population history revealed a substantial influence of the Earth's climate on the effective population size of A. cerana, as increased population sizes were observed during warmer periods. Further analyses identified candidate genes under natural selection that are potentially related to honey bee cognition, temperature adaptation, and olfactory. Based on our results, A. cerana may have great potential in response to climate change. Our study provides fundamental knowledge of the evolution and adaptation of A. cerana.

17.
Mol Med Rep ; 18(1): 1155-1164, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767254

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNA/miRs) have been associated with the initiation and progression of non­small­cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the association between dysregulated miRNAs and NSCLC may contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic methods for patients with NSCLC. MiRNA­433 (miR­433) has been reported to be dysregulated in numerous types of human cancers; however, its expression pattern, biological roles and associated mechanisms in NSCLC require further investigation. The present study aimed to detect miR­433 expression and determine its roles and underlying molecular mechanisms in NSCLC. In the present study, reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that miR­433 was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. This decreased miR­433 expression was strongly associated with the tumor node metastasis stage and lymph node metastasis of patients with NSCLC. Cell Counting kit­8 and cell invasion assays revealed that the resumption of miR­433 expression decreased the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells. Bioinformatics analysis predicted E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) as a potential target of miR­433. Luciferase reporter assay, RT­qPCR and western blot analysis further demonstrated that E2F3 was a direct target of miR­433 in NSCLC. E2F3 downregulation induced by small interfering RNA exhibited inhibitory effects similar to those of miR­433 overexpression in NSCLC cells, and the restored E2F3 expression counteracted the suppressive effects on NSCLC cells induced by miR­433 overexpression. Therefore, miR­433 may inhibit the progression of NSCLC, at least in part, by targeting E2F3. The present study indicated that miR­433 may be investigated as an innovative candidate target for the therapy of patients with this fatal disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Fator de Transcrição E2F3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Células A549 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Fator de Transcrição E2F3/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética
18.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 43(3): 268-273, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical value of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) in exudate pleural effusion (EPE).
 Methods: This clinical study was prospective, observational and cross-sectional. Two hundred and fifteen patients with pleural effusion were divided into the transudate pleural effusions (TPE) group and the EPE group. TPE patients served as the control group. The concentrations of pleural effusions SP-A (SP-Apl) and serum SP-A (SP-Ase) were measured by ELISA, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and multivarate Cox analysis of SP-A was analysed for its clinical value.
 Results: SP-Apl concentrations in the EPE group were significantly higher than that in the TPE group [(189.8±43.4) ng/mL vs (22.3±5.1) ng/mL, P<0.01]; SP-Ase concentrations in the EPE group were higher than that in the TPE group [(78.9±11.3) ng/mL vs (25.8±12.4) ng/mL, P<0.05]; SP-Apl concentrations were significantly higher than the concentrations of SP-Ase in the EPE group (P<0.01). In EPE group, SP-Apl and SP-Ase concentration in the patients with primary lung adenocarcinomas were the highest. The cut off value of SP-Apl concentrations was more than 484.5 ng/mL, yielding a 85.4% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity for diagnosing primary lung adenocarcinomas, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.943 (95% CI 0.852 to 0.934, P<0.01); when SP-Ase concentration was more than 84.2 ng/mL, it yielded a 76.4% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity for diagnosing primary lung adenocarcinomas, with an AUC of 0.910 (95% CI 0.921 to 0.953, P<0.01).
 Conclusion: While SP-Apl concentration is more than 484.5 ng/mL and/or SP-Ase concentration is more than 84.2 ng/mL, it may be helpful for the diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinomas with the usage of pleural effusion.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/metabolismo , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/análise , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/sangue , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tensoativos
19.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 10(3): 260-267, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Molecular mechanisms leading to asthma is still ill-defined. Though the function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in asthma was previously reported, the involvement of miR-155 in important features of this disease remains unknown. The present study was designed to uncover the probable involvement of miR-155-5p in the proliferation and migration of IL-13-induced human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) and the intrinsic regulatory mechanism. METHODS: The effects of different concentrations of IL-13 on the proliferation and migration of BSMCs as well as the expression of miR-155-5p and its predicted target transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß-activated kinase 1/MAP3K7-binding protein 2 (TAB2) were investigated. The effects of miR-155-5p on the proliferation and migration of interleukin (IL)-13-induced BSMCs was determined in vitro using BSMCs transfected with miR-155 mimic/inhibitor and induced by a high concentration of IL-13. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed for determining the expression of miR-155-5p and TAB2. Western blotting was applied to analyze the expression of TAB2 at the protein level. Cell proliferation and migration were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Transwell assays, respectively. RESULTS: The proliferation and migration of BSMCs were dose-dependently increased with IL-13 treatment. Contrariwise, IL-13 dose-dependently inhibited the expression of miR-155-5p in BSMCs. Mechanistic studies showed that inhibition of miR-155-5p further promoted the stimulatory effects of IL-13, whereas overexpression of miR-155 significantly inhibited these effects. In silico studies and luciferase reporter assays indicated that TAB2 was a negatively regulated miR-155-5p target. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that miR-155-5p-inhibit the IL-13-induced proliferation and migration of BSMCs by targeting TAB2 and that the IL-13/miR-155/TAB2 pathway could serve as a therapeutic target for pulmonary diseases, especially asthma.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4504, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540771

RESUMO

Previous research into the synthesis of urea-formaldehyde fertilizers was mostly based on orthogonal experimental designs or single factor tests; this led to low precision for synthesis and relatively large ranges of parameters for these processes. To obtain mathematical response models for the synthesis of urea-formaldehyde fertilizers with different nitrogen release properties, a central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology was used in our research to examine the effects of different reaction times, temperatures, and molar ratios on nitrogen insoluble in either hot or cold water. Our results showed that nitrogen insoluble in cold or hot water from urea-formaldehyde fertilizers were mainly affected by urea: formaldehyde molar ratios. Also, quadratic polynomial mathematical models were established for urea-formaldehyde. According to the models, the optimal process parameters which maximize cold-water-insoluble nitrogen and minimize hot-water-insoluble nitrogen for the synthesis of urea formaldehyde were as follows urea: formaldehyde molar ratio was 1.33, reaction temperature was 43.5 °C, and reaction time was 1.64 h. Under these conditions, the content of cold-water-insoluble nitrogen was 22.14%, and hot-water-insoluble nitrogen was 9.87%. The model could be an effective tool for predicting properties of urea-formaldehyde slow release fertilizers if the experimental conditions were held within the design limits.

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