Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 142
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Food Chem ; 312: 126043, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896450

RESUMO

Dark tea is a unique fermented tea produced by solid-state fermentation of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). It includes ripe Pu-erh tea, Fu brick tea, Liupao tea, and other teas. Microbial fermentation is considered to be the key factor controlling the quality of dark tea. It involves a series of reactions that modify the chemical constituents of tea leaves. These chemical conversions during microbial fermentation of dark tea are associated with a variety of functional core microorganisms. Further, Multi-omics approaches have been used to reveal the microbial impact on the conversion of the chemical components in dark tea. In the present review, we provide an overview of the most recent advances in the knowledge of the microbial bioconversion of the chemical components in dark tea, including the chemical composition of dark tea, microbial community composition and dynamics during the fermentation process, and the role of microorganisms in biotransformation of chemical constituents.

2.
Theriogenology ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791612

RESUMO

Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming is a major cause of the developmental failure of embryos after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3), a histone marker of transcriptional repression, is considered a key barrier to the development of cloned embryos. In the present study, H3K9me3 levels were much higher in SCNT embryos than IVF embryos at the 4-cell and 2-cell stages. The microinjection of the kdm4a mRNA encoding an H3K9me3 demethylase significantly increased the developmental efficiency of cloned porcine embryos. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of chaetocin, an inhibitor of histone methyltransferases suv39h1/2, on SCNT embryo development. Chaetocin did not suppress the H3K9me3 modification in porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF) but downregulated the expression of suv39h1, suv39h2, and kdm4d. However, 10 nM chaetocin treatment efficiently decreased the H3K9me3 level in cloned embryos. Importantly, a chaetocin treatment at the 4-cell stage for 6 h significantly increased the blastocyst rate and total cell numbers. Furthermore, the inhibitor treatment upregulated the expression of related developmental genes. In summary, both overexpression of kdm4a and treatment with a suv39h1/2 inhibitor improve the epigenetic reprogramming of cloned embryos and further improve the developmental competence in vitro.

3.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 950-961, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624057

RESUMO

SOX2 (sex determining region Y-box2) is one of the critical pluripotent factors that play a crucial role in the first lineage differentiation and maintenance of pluripotency in inner cell mass during early embryonic development. However, there are few researches about the regulation of the SOX2 promoter, especially in Sus scrofa. To analyzed the activity of SOX2 promoter in early porcine embryos, we determined the control system and established the microinjection system for assessing SOX2 promoter activity by analyzing the embryonic development and the expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) after micro-injected different EGFP plasmids at different times after activation of the oocytes. Then, we analyzed the structure of 5000 bp upstream of the SOX2 translation initiation site and found there were four transcription factor binding site clusters. Next, we designed and constructed promoter-containing plasmids to analyze the function of each cluster. To detect the activity of different promoters, we assessed the mCherry expression in protein levels and mRNA levels by analyzing the mCherry fluorescence intensity and qRT-PCR after injecting plasmids into embryos. These results showed that the activity of the shorted promoter, with the region from 2254 bp to 2442 bp upstream of translation initiation site deleted, decreased to 17.8% at 4-cell and 8-cell stages compared with the full-length promoter. This region included two NF-AT transcription factor binding sites, which indicated that the NF-AT binding site is a key region to regulate the activity of the SOX2 promoter. The results provide important data for determination the mechanism of porcine SOX2 regulation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Diferenciação Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC , Plasmídeos , Suínos
4.
Theriogenology ; 135: 19-24, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189122

RESUMO

Approximately 40% of mammalian genome is made of transposable elements (TEs), and during specific biological processes, such as gametogenesis, they may be activated by global demethylation, so strict silencing mechanism is indispensable for genomic stability. Here, we performed small RNA-seq on Dicer1 knockdown (KD) oocytes in pig, and observed short interspersed nuclear elements 1B (SINE1B) derived endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), termed SINE1B-siRNAs, were significantly decreased and their biogenesis was dependent on Dicer1 and transcript of SINE1B. Furthermore, by injection of mimics and inhibitors of the SINE1B-siRNAs into germinal vesicle-stage (GV-stage) oocytes, we found the maturation rate was significantly decreased by SINE1B-siRNAs, indicating the SINE1B-siRNAs are indispensible for in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocyte. To figure out the mechanism, we checked the expression pattern and DNA methylation status of SINE1B during IVM of porcine oocytes, and demonstrated the SINE1B-siRNAs could repress SINE1B expression induced by hypomethylation at a post-transcriptional level. Our results suggest that during gametogenesis when the erasure of DNA methylation occurs, endo-siRNAs act as a chronic response to limit retrotransposon activation.

5.
Cell Prolif ; 52(3): e12591, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date, many efforts have been made to establish porcine embryonic stem (pES) cells without success. Extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) cells can self-renew and differentiate into the visceral endoderm and parietal endoderm. XEN cells are derived from the primitive endoderm of the inner cell mass of blastocysts and may be an intermediate state in cell reprogramming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porcine XEN cells (pXENCs) were generated from porcine pluripotent stem cells (pPSCs) and were characterized by RNA sequencing and immunofluorescence analyses. The developmental potential of pXENCs was investigated in chimeric mouse embryos. RESULTS: Porcine XEN cells derived from porcine pPSCs were successfully expanded in N2B27 medium supplemented with bFGF for least 30 passages. RNA sequencing and immunofluorescence analyses showed that pXENCs expressed the murine and canine XEN markers Gata6, Gata4, Sox17 and Pdgfra but not the pluripotent markers Oct4, Sox2 and TE marker Cdx2. Moreover, these cells contributed to the XEN when injected into four-cell stage mouse embryos. Supplementation with Chir99021 and SB431542 promoted the pluripotency of the pXENCs. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully derived pXENCs and showed that supplementation with Chir99021 and SB431542 confer them with pluripotency. Our results provide a new resource for investigating the reprogramming mechanism of porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells.


Assuntos
Endoderma/citologia , Endoderma/embriologia , Suínos/embriologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cães , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Endoderma/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Quimeras de Transplante
6.
Gene ; 699: 8-15, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851424

RESUMO

Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me) in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is a major source of O-methylated catechin and renowned for a wide range of health effects. However, the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of EGCG3"Me biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor, designated as CsbHLH62, belonging to GBOF group of bHLH families, was isolated and characterized from Camellia sinensis. CsbHLH62 contains an Open Reading Frame of 1662 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 553 amino acids. Subcellular location and transcriptional activity analysis showed it as a nucleus protein and possessed transcriptional inhibition activity. Furthermore, the expression of CsbHLH62 was decreased during EGCG3"Me accumulation. More importantly, E-box motifs (5'-CANNTG-3') were found in the promoters of CCoAOMT, CsLAR, and CsDFR, and further transient expression assays showed that CsbHLH62 repressed the transcription of CCoAOMT, CsLAR, and CsDFR. Collectively, these results suggest that CsbHLH62 acts as a transcriptional repressor that might be negatively affecting the accumulation of EGCG3"Me. These findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of EGCG3"Me biosynthesis, which might help to breed high EGCG3"Me-content tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Catequina/genética , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Chá/genética , Chá/metabolismo
7.
Phytother Res ; 33(4): 1019-1026, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746789

RESUMO

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine in tea exert anti-obesity effects and induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) amelioration. However, previous studies usually performed a high-dose EGCG administration, whereas the insecurity was arisen in recent researches. In this study, we treated obese rats with an elaborate dose-40 mg/kg EGCG, 20 mg/kg caffeine, and the coadministration of them as low dose, which were similar to the daily intake; 160 mg/kg EGCG as high dose, which was the maximum safe dose had touched the contentious edge. The results suggested that the coadministration of EGCG and caffeine exerted more remarkable function on suppressing body weight gain, reducing white adipose tissue weight and decreasing the energy intake than single use. This may be due to the variation in serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, and adipose-derived and inflammatory cytokines. The pathological micrographs showed long-term high-fat diets caused severe NAFLD, but it was ameliorated at different levels by all of the administrations. In summary, low dose of EGCG or caffeine only showed a mild effect of anti-obesity and NAFLD amelioration. The coadministration of them could exert a superior curative effect as well as high dose EGCG but no anxiety regarding safety.


Assuntos
Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Chá/química
8.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(7): 859-866, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382183

RESUMO

Human genetic and pharmacological studies have demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of pain. Spider venom contains many toxins that modulate the activity of VGSCs. To date, only 0.01% of such spider toxins has been explored, and thus there is a great potential for discovery of novel VGSC modulators as useful pharmacological tools or potential therapeutics. In the current study, we identified a novel peptide, µ-TRTX-Ca1a (Ca1a), in the venom of the tarantula Cyriopagopus albostriatus. This peptide consisted of 38 residues, including 6 cysteines, i.e. IFECSISCEIEKEGNGKKCKPKKCKGGWKCKFNICVKV. In HEK293T or ND7/23 cells expressing mammalian VGSCs, this peptide exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity on Nav1.7 (IC50 378 nM), followed by Nav1.6 (IC50 547 nM), Nav1.2 (IC50 728 nM), Nav1.3 (IC50 2.2 µM) and Nav1.4 (IC50 3.2 µM), and produced negligible inhibitory effect on Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, even at high concentrations of up to 10 µM. Furthermore, this peptide did not significantly affect the activation and inactivation of Nav1.7. Using site-directed mutagenesis of Nav1.7 and Nav1.4, we revealed that its binding site was localized to the DIIS3-S4 linker region involving the D816 and E818 residues. In three different mouse models of pain, pretreatment with Cala (100, 200, 500 µg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed the nociceptive responses induced by formalin, acetic acid or heat. These results suggest that Ca1a is a novel neurotoxin against VGSCs and has a potential to be developed as a novel analgesic.

9.
Poult Sci ; 98(1): 430-439, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085302

RESUMO

The generation of transgenic chickens is of both biomedical and agricultural significance, and recently chicken transgenesis technology has been greatly advanced. However, major issues still exist in the efficient production of transgenic chickens. This study was designed to optimize the production of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-transgenic broilers, including egg windowing at the blunt end (air cell) of egg, and the direct transfection of circulating primordial germ cells by microinjection of the Tol2 plasmid-liposome complex into the early embryonic dorsal aorta. For egg windowing, we discovered that proper manipulation of the inner shell membrane at the blunt end could improve the rate of producing G0 transgenic roosters. From 27 G0 roosters, we successfully collected semen with EGFP-positive sperms from 16 and 19 roosters after direct fluorescence observation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses (13 detected by both methods), respectively. After artificial insemination using the G0 rooster with the highest number of EGFP fluorescent sperm, one G1 EGFP transgenic broiler (1/81, 1.23%) was generated. Our results indicate that appropriate egg windowing and screening of potentially transgene-positive roosters can improve the production of germline-transmitted transgenic birds.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Galinhas/genética , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes/veterinária , Transfecção/veterinária , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Transfecção/métodos , Transgenes
10.
Theriogenology ; 126: 75-80, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537656

RESUMO

In vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are important breeding techniques for livestock. High-quality MII oocytes produced from in vitro maturation (IVM) are required for the two techniques listed above. The ovaries used for IVM operations are primarily acquired from commercial abattoirs, and the pathogen status of slaughtered animals becomes an unavoidable issue. Our previous monitoring data showed that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) is the main pathogen present in ovaries from abattoirs. However, the characteristics and effects of PCV-2 infection in oocyte maturation and in vitro production (IVP) of embryos are unclear, and currently there are no relevant studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the PCV-2 infection pattern and determine whether it affects oocyte in vitro maturation and IVP embryo development. More than five hundred ovaries and five thousand oocytes were utilized in the present study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect PCV-2 DNA in ovaries, follicular fluid (FF), oocytes, cumulus cells and IVP embryos. The effects of viral infections on the rate of oocyte maturation and IVP embryo development were evaluated. We also analyzed the number of copies of the virus in the IVM and IVP process by absolute quantitative fluorescence PCR. Our study showed that the prevalent virus subgenotype in ovaries was PCV-2a. PCV-2a infection did not significantly affect ovarian/oocyte morphology and maturation. Moreover, virus infection did not have a significant effect on the development of the IVP embryos except for a reduction in IVF blastocyst cell numbers. Further tests showed that the viral copy numbers fluctuated at different stages between the IVP embryos and culture medium. For the first time, this study identified the infection pattern of naturally sourced PCV-2 in the course of oocyte maturation and embryo development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Oócitos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/embriologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/embriologia , Meios de Cultura , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/virologia
11.
Yi Chuan ; 40(12): 1120-1128, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559101

RESUMO

With the rapid development of stem cell research, the demands for high quality stem cells in cell differentiation studies, cell therapy and clinical applications increase significantly. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) hold great potentials in these applications due to its wide availability, self-renewal capacity, good pluripotency, and in particular, self-immunomodulation ability. However, the conventional adherent culture system remains challenging in mass production of high-quality stem cells. In this study, we set up a 3D suspension culture system by using spinner flasks added with microcarrier. By optimizing the seeding density and rotation speed, we achieved a cell density as higher as 7×10 8cells/L per vessel. The cultured MSCs had good viability, and the expression levels of the MSC markers were similar to those of 2D-cultured MSCs. After being transferred back into a 2D culture system, the MSCs still maintained normal morphology and proliferation ability. These results indicated that the 3D suspension culture system established in this study provides a fundamental basis for mass production of high-quality MSCs for future research and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
12.
Hum Reprod ; 33(12): 2285-2294, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388225

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of glucocorticoid (GC) on female reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: Corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes little damage to oocyte quality or developmental competence but has an adverse effect on the uterus, which causes decreased implantation, embryo death and subsequent infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Chronic treatment with high GC doses is effective in controlling most allergic diseases but may lead to metabolic disorders such as obesity that are closely related with reproductive function. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Hypercortisolism was induced in a female mouse model by supplementing the drinking water with 100 µg/ml of CORT. Controls received vehicle (1% v/v ethanol) only. After 4 weeks treatment mice were either mated or killed in estrus for hormone and organ measurements. In the first experiment, treatment with CORT or control continued during pregnancy but in the second CORT treatment was stopped after mating. To identify the effects of GC exposure on the uterus, blastocysts were generated by IVF of oocytes from CORT and control mice and replaced into recipients receiving the opposite treatment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The effects of hypercortisolism on female mice were first characterized by living body fat content, body weight, food intake, hormone and biochemical measurements, a glucose tolerance test and an insulin resistance test. Fertility was determined with or without CORT-treatment during pregnancy. Oocyte quality was assessed by oocyte maturation, mitochondrial distribution, reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial DNA mutations and morphology of blastocysts produced in vivo or in vitro. Blastocyst cross-transfer was done to evaluate the causes of embryonic development failure. Fetus development and uterus morphology evaluation as well as culture of oocytes in vitro with gradient concentrations of CORT were also carried out. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In the hypercortisolism female mouse model, body weight and food intake were much higher than in the control, and corticosterone, estradiol, cholesterol (CHO) and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of CORT-treated mice was significantly increased. The hypercortisolism female mice were infertile when CORT-treatment was sustained during pregnancy but fertile if CORT-treatment was stopped after mating. The rate of successful implantation in hypercortisolism mice with sustained CORT-treatment during pregnancy was significantly lower than in the control, and the implanted embryos could not develop beyond 13.5 dpc. Blastocyst cross-transfer showed that blastocysts from CORT-treated mice could develop to term in the uterus of control mice, but blastocysts from control mice failed to develop to term when they were transferred into CORT-treated mice, providing evidence that the infertility was mainly caused by an altered uterine environment. CORT administration did not affect oocyte maturation, mitochondrial distribution, ROS production and blastocyst morphology, but increased mitochondrial DNA mutations. Culture of oocytes in vitro with gradient concentrations of CORT showed that only very high concentrations of CORT caused damage to oocyte developmental competence. LARGE SCALE DATA: NA. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The mouse model has the advantages of a consistent genetic and physiological background and openness to experimental manipulation over clinical studies but may not represent the human situation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings show that special care should be taken when administering CORT during pregnancy, and provide important information concerning female reproduction when treating patients by subjecting them to chronic GC exposure. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2016YFA0100400 and 2017YFC1000600) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31472055). The authors have no conflicts of interest.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/farmacologia , Síndrome de Cushing/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/induzido quimicamente , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infertilidade Feminina/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Útero/metabolismo
13.
Theriogenology ; 121: 21-26, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125824

RESUMO

It is important to utilize an antioxidant to ameliorate oxidative damage during boar sperm cryopreservation and thawing. Some studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) has antioxidant capabilities in sperm storage at low temperatures. However, the effects of APS on thawed sperm are unclear. In this study, the effect of supplementation of thawing boar semen extender with APS (0.5, 1, 5, 10 mg/mL) on sperm quality parameters (viability, motility, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity) was evaluated. Next, we investigated the effect of APS (0.5 mg/mL) supplementation on antioxidant parameters. Semen from two straws was thawed and diluted with three volumes of Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) and immediately divided into a control group without addition of antioxidants (CTR) and the APS group. Sperm and antioxidant parameters were evaluated in the CTR and APS groups after 1 h of incubation at 37 °C. Finally, we studied the effect of APS (0.5 mg/mL) supplementation on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development. The addition of different doses of APS to thawed sperm did not induce any significant effects on the sperm viability or motility compared to the sperm without APS treatment. However, the addition of 0.5 mg/mL APS to thawed sperm showed improved mitochondrial activity, higher penetration rate and increased total IVF efficiency compared with those of the control group. Moreover, our results indicate that the supplementation of APS in thawed sperm decreased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improved the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Finally, the addition of APS significantly increased the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate compared to those of the control group. In conclusion, the addition of APS to thawed boar sperm can enhance the antioxidant ability of sperm and improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters and the outcomes of embryonic development. These results imply that APS has practical potential to enhance boar sperm reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
14.
Food Funct ; 9(7): 3798-3806, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932178

RESUMO

Here we identified that BTE (black tea extract), within the studied concentration range, is more effective than GTE (green tea extract) in protecting C. elegans against hypertonic stress, by enhancing survival after exposure to various salts, and alleviating suffered motility loss and body shrinkage. The mechanism of such protection may be due to the ability of black tea to induce the conserved WNK/GCK signaling pathway and down-regulation of the expression levels of nlp-29. Intriguingly, black tea does not relieve hypertonicity-induced protein damage. The findings implicate the potential health benefits of black tea consumed worldwide.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Phytochem Anal ; 29(4): 365-374, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plants are gaining increasing attention worldwide due to their empirical therapeutic efficacy and being a huge natural compound pool for new drug discovery and development. The efficacy, safety and quality of medicinal plants are the main concerns, which are highly dependent on the comprehensive analysis of chemical components in the medicinal plants. With the advances in mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, comprehensive analysis and fast identification of complex phytochemical components have become feasible, and may meet the needs, for the analysis of medicinal plants. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to provide an overview on the latest developments in MS and its hyphenated technique and their applications for the comprehensive analysis of medicinal plants. METHODOLOGY: Application of various MS and its hyphenated techniques for the analysis of medicinal plants, including but not limited to one-dimensional chromatography, multiple-dimensional chromatography coupled to MS, ambient ionisation MS, and mass spectral database, have been reviewed and compared in this work. RESULTS: Recent advancs in MS and its hyphenated techniques have made MS one of the most powerful tools for the analysis of complex extracts from medicinal plants due to its excellent separation and identification ability, high sensitivity and resolution, and wide detection dynamic range. CONCLUSION: To achieve high-throughput or multi-dimensional analysis of medicinal plants, the state-of-the-art MS and its hyphenated techniques have played, and will continue to play a great role in being the major platform for their further research in order to obtain insight into both their empirical therapeutic efficacy and quality control.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Extração em Fase Sólida
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(18): 4702-4709, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693394

RESUMO

Coprinopsis polysaccharides exhibit hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. In this report, increases in polysaccharide production by homologous co-overexpression or individual homologous overexpression of phosphoglucomutase and UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase gene in Coprinopsis cinerea, which participate in polysaccharide biosynthesis. The transcription levels of the target genes were upregulated significantly in the oePGM-UGP strain when compared with the oePGM or oeUGP strain. The maximum intracellular polysaccharide content obtained in the oePGM-UGP strain was 1.49-fold higher than that of the WT strain, whereas a slight improvement in polysaccharide production was obtained in the oePGM and oeUGP strains. Extracellular polysaccharide production was enhanced by 75% in the oePGM-UGP strain when compared with that of the WT strain, whereas improvements of 30% and 16% were observed for the oePGM and oeUGP strains, respectively. These results show that multiple interventions in polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways of Basidiomycetes might improve polysaccharide yields when compared with that of single interventions.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , Fosfoglucomutase/genética , Polissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/genética , Agaricales/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Metabólica , Fosfoglucomutase/metabolismo , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/metabolismo
17.
Cell Death Discov ; 4: 17, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531814

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a multifunctional cell process involved in the pathogenesis of numerous conditions, including fibrosis and cancer. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease characterized by fibroblast accumulation and collagen deposition in the lungs. The fibroblasts involved in this process partially originate from lung epithelial cells via the EMT. Evidence suggests that the EMT contributes to progression, invasion, and metastasis of various types of cancer. We screened a series of 80 compounds for the ability to interfere with the EMT and potentially be applied as a therapeutic for IPF and/or lung cancer. We identified 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of guanosine and adenosine, as a candidate in this screen. Herein, we demonstrate that 2-AP can restore E-cadherin expression and inhibit fibronectin and vimentin expression in TGF-ß1-treated A549 lung cancer cells. Moreover, 2-AP can inhibit TGF-ß1-induced metastasis of A549 cells. This compound significantly attenuated bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary inflammation, the EMT, and fibrosis. In addition, 2-AP treatment significantly decreased mortality in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Collectively, we determined that 2-AP could inhibit metastasis in vitro by suppressing the TGF-ß1-induced EMT and could attenuate BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Results of this study suggest that 2-AP may have utility as a treatment for lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis.

18.
J Neurotrauma ; 35(2): 308-313, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141511

RESUMO

Accurate and reliable assessment of the conscious state of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is vital for their future management. The purpose of the present study is to find an effective and accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for predicting recovery of consciousness in patients with severe TBI. Multimodal MR techniques, including structural MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), were used to evaluate brain damage in 58 patients with severe TBI. Statistical analysis compared imaging results and recovery over a relatively long period to find the most potent prognostic indicators and predictive method. A total 33 patients gained recovery of consciousness (RC), and 25 did not (NRC). Compared with the RC group, those in the NRC group had a significantly lower N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio of pons (1.43 ± 0.54 vs. 1.70 ± 0.42), more fiber lines (1046.3 ± 100.8 vs. 975.6 ± 128.1), less peripheral grey matter (pgrey) (579.23 ± 78.85 vs. 638.23 ± 61.16), lower fractional anisotropy (FA) of fibers (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.45 ± 0.03), older age (43.08 ± 14.61 vs. 30.57 ± 12.89), and higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of fibers (0.99 ± 0.14 vs. 0.89 ± 0.06); all p < 0.05. Age, pgrey, ADC of fibers, NAA/Cr of pons were selected by logistic regression analysis to predict RC, with p values of 0.033 and 0.031, 0.035, 0.030, respectively. Age, pgrey, ADC of fibers, NAA/Cr of pons are effective indicators in the predictive model of RC.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado de Consciência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Redox Biol ; 14: 305-315, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992589

RESUMO

The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is widely consumed as a dietary supplement. Its potential properties include slowing aging and extending lifespan, although how exactly this is achieved remains unclear. Here, we report that EGCG promoted healthy lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans when administered throughout or only at early-to-mid adulthood. Specifically, EGCG extended lifespan in an inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. The life-extending mechanism was stimulated by EGCG-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, EGCG triggered mitochondrial biogenesis to restore mitochondrial function. The EGCG-induced increase in lifespan depends on known energy sensors such as AMPK/AAK-2, as well as SIRT1/SIR-2.1 and FOXO/DAF-16. Interestingly, aging decreased the response to EGCG and progressively neutralized its beneficial effects on longevity. Collectively, our findings link EGCG to the process of mitohormesis and suggest an inducible, AMPK/SIRT1/FOXO-dependent redox signaling module that could be invoked in different contexts to extend healthy lifespan. Its effectiveness is higher in younger adults and declines with age.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Chá/química
20.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 3(2): 129-134, 2017 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29063066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability, and is closely related to a lack of exercise. Currently, most Chinese medical staff members lack exercise and may be at risk for stroke. We sought to determine the risk factors for stroke and study the significance of health-related physical fitness testing in stroke prevention among Chinese medical staff members. METHODS: A total of 627 subjects from Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, were included in the study and a survey was conducted from 1st January 2016 to 1st February 2016. Stroke screening and health-related physical fitness testing were completed according to the standard protocol, and the related data were analyzed. RESULTS: Based on the screening, 27.6% (n = 173) of the subjects were at high risk for stroke. The top risk factors for stroke in these subjects were dyslipidemia, lack of exercise or mild physical activity, being overweight or obese, and high blood pressure. Body weight, body mass index, body fat, visceral fat area, body fat percentage, and basal metabolic rate were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in subjects at high risk for stroke than in subjects who were not at high risk. Lung capacity, step index, grip test, vertical jump, and sit-up/push-up index were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in subjects at high risk for stroke than in subjects who were not at high risk. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of China's on-the-job medical personnel is at high risk for stroke. This may be related to the nature of the profession and warrants more attention from the society. The health-related physical fitness measurement parameters in subjects at high risk for stroke were significantly different from those in subjects who were not at high risk. Screening and health-related physical fitness testing in medical staff members may contribute to stroke prevention. More rigorous controlled clinical trials will be needed in the future.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA