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1.
ACS Sens ; 6(3): 1348-1356, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657808

RESUMO

Herein, an interface-based DNA nanosieve that has the ability to differentiate ssDNA from dsDNA has been demonstrated for the first time. The DNA nanosieve could be readily built through thiol-DNA's self-assembly on the gold electrode surface, and its cavity size was tunable by varying the concentration of thiol-DNAs. Electrochemical chronocoulometry using [Ru(NH3)6]3+ as redox revealed that the average probe-to-probe separation in the 1 µM thiol-DNA-modified gold electrode was 10.6 ± 0.3 nm so that the rigid dsDNA with a length of ∼17 nm could not permeate the nanosieve, whereas the randomly coiled ssDNA could enter it due to its high flexibility, which has been demonstrated by square wave voltammetry and methylene blue labels through an upside-down hybridization format. After combining the transiently binding characteristic of a short DNA duplex and introducing a regenerative probe (the counterpart of ssDNA), a highly reproducible nanosieve-based E-DNA model was obtained with a relative standard deviation (RSD) as low as 2.7% over seven cycles. Finally, we built a regenerative nanosieve-based E-DNA sensor using a ligation cycle reaction as an ssDNA amplification strategy and realized one-sensor-based continuous measurement to multiple clinical samples with excellent allele-typing performance. This work holds great potential in low-cost and high-throughput analysis between biosensors and biochips and also opens up a new avenue in nucleic acid flexibility-based DNA materials for future applications in DNA origami and molecular logic gates.

2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 51, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is currently the main cause of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in female patients. By analyzing 6-year patient data from Shanghai Zhoupu Hospital in China, we retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of women to determine the relationship between HPV genotype and cytological test results. METHODS: From 2014 to 2019, 23,724 cases of cervical shedding were collected from Zhoupu Hospital in Shanghai, China. By comparing the results of HPV and ThinPrep cytology test (TCT), the HPV infection rate of patients was retrospectively analyzed. HPV genotyping using commercial kits can detect 21 HPV subtypes (15 high-risk and 6 low-risk). According to the definition of the Bethesda system, seven types of cervical cytology results were involved. RESULTS: 3816 among 23,724 women, nearly 16.08%, were infected with HPV. The top three highest HPV prevalence rates were high-risk type infection, including HPV52 (3.19%), 58 (2.47%) and 16 (2.34%). The number of single-type HPV infections (3480 (91.20%)) was much larger than the number of multi-type ones (336 (8.8%)). Single-type infections were mainly in women aged 50-60 (16.63%) and women under 30 (15.37%), while multi-type infections were more common in women over 60 (2.67%). By analyzing the long-term trends, between 2014 and 2019, HPV52, 58, and 16 subtypes changed significantly, and the HPV positive rate also changed significantly during this period. Among 4502 TCT positive women, 15 (4.04%), 125 (2.64%),159 (1.54%), 4202 (17.71%) and 1 (0.004%) had atypical glandular cells (AGC), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), atypical squamous cells (ASC)and cervical adenocarcinoma, respectively. The HPV infection rates were 66.08%, 63.99%, 115.20%, 119.50%, and 31.72% for NILM, AGCs, HSILs LSILs and ASCs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HPV and TCT screening were very important steps in the secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Through the tracking and analysis of HPV and TCT results in this study, it can provide valuable information for Shanghai's HPV screening and prevention strategies, and provide references for clinical decision-making in the treatment of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.

3.
Exp Aging Res ; 47(3): 273-287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the normal aging process is one of the most common and prominent problems. Delaying and alleviating cognitive impairment is an important strategy of anti-aging. This study is to aim at investigating the effects of Yinxing-Mihuan-Oral-Liquid(GMOL) on the CREB/BDNF signaling in the normal aging process.METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into GMOL group and control group. The Morris water maze (MWM) was introduced for behavioral test. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used for cAMP response element binding protein 1(CREB1), p-CREB(Ser133), brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF), synaptophysin(SYP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP). Western blot was conducted for investigating the levels of CREB1 and p-CREB(Ser133), BDNF, SYP, GFAP and interleukin 6(IL-6). RESULTS:  Our data showed that compared with the control group, GMOL group had higher expression of memory-related proteins, decreased inflammatory factors, and enhanced spatial learning and memory ability.CONCLUSION: The study results show that GMOL ameliorates cognitive impairment of the normal aged SD rats via enhancing the expression of memory biomarkers and inhibiting inflammatory process. The potential neuroprotective role of GMOL in the process of aging may be related to mitigating cognitive decline via activating CREB/BDNF signaling and inhibiting inflammatory process.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-2521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis infection is associated with negative impacts on renal function that may lead to nephropathy. We investigated associations between chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a large, representative sample from a nationwide U.S. database. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective observational study extracted data from the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, including adults ≥18 years old admitted to U.S. hospitals between 2005 and 2014 with records of chronic HBV infection in medical history. The final analytic sample included 70,674 HBV-infected patients and 282,696 matched non-HBV controls. Study endpoints were prevalent CKD and ESRD. Associations between CKD/ESRD and HBV and patients' clinical characteristics were determined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: HBV infection was associated with slightly increased risk of prevalent CKD (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.004-1.119) and an approximate 2-times risk of prevalent ESRD (OR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.880-2.086). HBV infection in both genders was associated with slightly increased risk of CKD (males, OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.16; females, OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.98,1.17), and significantly associated with increased risk for CKD among non-diabetic patients (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.15-1.32), white patients (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.23) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.98-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HBV infection is associated with slightly increased risk for CKD and greater risk for ESRD in males and females, Whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders and non-diabetic patients


INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección por el virus de la hepatitis se asocia a impactos negativos en la función renal que pueden derivar en nefropatía. Investigamos las asociaciones entre la infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) y la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y/o la enfermedad renal terminal (ERT) en una muestra de grandes dimensiones y representativa procedente de una base de datos nacional de los Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Este estudio observacional retrospectivo y poblacional extrajo datos de la base de datos de la muestra nacional de pacientes hospitalizados (Nationwide Inpatient Sample, NIS) de los EE. UU., que incluye adultos ≥18 años ingresados en hospitales de los EE. UU. entre 2005 y 2014 con registros de infección crónica por VHB en su historia médica. La muestra analítica final incluyó a 70.674 pacientes infectados por el VHB y a 282.696 controles emparejados no infectados por el VHB. Los criterios de valoración del estudio fueron la enfermedad renal crónica y la enfermedad renal terminal prevalentes. Las asociaciones entre la ERC o la ERT y el VHB y las características clínicas de los pacientes se determinaron mediante un análisis de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La infección por VHB se asoció a un riesgo ligeramente mayor de prevalencia de enfermedad renal crónica (OR: 1,06; IC del 95%: 1,004-1,119) y un riesgo aproximadamente dos veces mayor de enfermedad renal terminal (OR: 1,98; IC del 95%: 1,880-2,086). La infección por VHB se asoció en ambos sexo a un riesgo ligeramente mayor de enfermedad renal crónica (hombres, OR: 1,09, IC del 95%: 1,02-1,16; mujeres, OR: 1,07, IC del 95%: 0,98-1,17), y se asoció significativamente a un mayor riesgo de enfermedad renal crónica entre los pacientes no diabéticos (OR: 1,23, IC del 95%: 1,15-1,32), pacientes blancos (OR: 1,14, IC del 95%: 1,06-1,23) y asiáticos o de las islas del Pacífico (OR: 1,13, IC del 95%: 0,98-1,30). CONCLUSIONES: La infección crónica por VHB se asocia a un riesgo ligeramente mayor de enfermedad renal crónica y a un mayor riesgo de enfermedad renal terminal en hombres y mujeres, blancos y asiáticos o de las islas del Pacífico y pacientes no diabéticos

5.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284015

RESUMO

Accurate and sensitive detection of single-base mutations in RNAs is of great value in basic studies of life science and medical diagnostics. However, the current available RNA detection methods are challenged by heterogeneous clinical samples in which trace RNA mutants usually existed in a large pool of normal wild sequences. Thus, there is still great need for developing the highly sensitive and highly specific methods in detecting single-base mutations of RNAs in heterogeneous clinical samples. In the present study, a new chimeric DNA probe-aided ligase chain reaction-based electrochemical method (cmDNA-eLCR) was developed for RNA mutation detection through the BSA-based carrier platform and the horseradish peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP-H2O2-TMB) system. The denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a fluorophore-labeled probe was ingeniously designed to demonstrate the advantage of cmDNA in ligation to normal DNA templated by RNA with the catalysis of T4 RNA ligase 2 as well as its higher selectivity than DNA ligase system. Finally, the proposed cmDNA-eLCR, compared with the traditional eLCR, showed excellent performance in discriminating single base-mismatched sequences, where the signal response for mismatched targets at a high concentration could overlap completely with that for the blank control. Besides, this cmDNA-eLCR assay had a wide linear range crossing six orders of magnitude from 1.0 × 10-15 to1.0 × 10-10 M with a limit of detection as low as 0.6 fM. Furthermore, this assay was applied to detect RNA in real sample with a satisfactory result, thereby demonstrating its great potential in diagnosis of RNA-related diseases.

6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(11): 1264-1273, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, the relationship between the causative pathogens and the changes of hematological parameters was rarely referred and deserves further investigation. METHODOLOGY: A total of 825 adult patients, including 134 negative blood cultures patients and 691 bloodstream infection (BSI) patients, were screened for eligibility in this study. Receiver operating characteristic curves and binary logistic regression models were used to assess the power of hematological parameters to distinguish patients with BSI caused by different pathogens. RESULTS: Except for platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and platelet larger cell count (P-LCC), the other hematological parameters investigated in the study were significantly different in patients with BSI caused by different pathogens, including Candida. The specific combinations of lymphocyte count (LYM), platelet count (PLT), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), mean platelet volume (MPV), MPV-to-PLT ratio (MPV/PLT), platelet larger cell ratio (P-LCR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) can improve the ability to distinguish various BSI from negative blood cultures. The highest area under the curve of was 0.753 (95% CI 0.709-0.797) for positive blood cultures, 0.715 (95% CI 0.658-0.771) for Gram-positive pathogens BSI, 0.777 (95% CI 0.730-0.824) for Gram-negative pathogens BSI, 0.797 (95% CI 0.747-0.846) for Escherichia coli BSI, 0.943 (95% CI 0.899-0.987) for Enterobacter aerogenes BSI, 0.830 (95% CI 0.740-0.921) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa BSI, and 0.767 (95% CI 0.695-0.839) for Staphylococcus aureus BSI. CONCLUSIONS: The specific combinations of hematological parameters can improve the power to distinguish patients with BSI caused by different pathogens. Attention to these parameters can be easily integrated into daily medical activities, without extra costs.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257448

RESUMO

Widespread antimicrobial resistance encourages repurposing/refining of non-antimicrobial drugs for antimicrobial indications. Gallium nitrate (GaNt), an FDA-approved medication for cancer-related hypercalcemia, recently showed good activity against several clinically significant bacteria. However, the mechanism of GaNt antibacterial action is still poorly understood. In the present work, resistant and tolerant mutants of Escherichia coli were sought via multiple rounds of killing by GaNt. Multi-round-enrichment yielded no resistant mutant; whole-genome sequencing of one representative GaNt-tolerant mutant uncovered mutations in three genes (evgS, arpA, kdpD) potentially linked to protection from GaNt-mediated killing. Subsequent genetic analysis ruled out a role for arpA and kdpD, but two gain-of-function mutations in evgS conferred tolerance. The evgS mutation-mediated GaNt tolerance depended on EvgS to EvgA phosphor-transfer; EvgA-mediated up-regulation of GadE. YdeO, and SarfA also contributed to tolerance, the latter two likely through their regulation of GadE. GaNt-mediated killing of wild-type cells correlated with increased intracellular ROS accumulation that was abolished by the evgS-tolerant mutation. Moreover, GaNt-mediated killing was mitigated by dimethyl sulfoxide, and the evgS-tolerant mutation upregulated genes encoding enzymes involved in ROS detoxification and in the glyoxylate shunt of the TCA cycle. Collectively, these findings indicate that GaNt kills bacteria through elevation of ROS; gain-of-function mutations in evgS confer tolerance by constitutively activating the EvgA-YdeO/GadE cascade of acid-resistance pathways and by preventing GaNt-stimulated ROS accumulation by upregulating ROS detoxification and shifting TCA cycle carbon flux. The striking lethal activity of GaNt suggests that clinical use of the agent may not quickly lead to resistance.

8.
Front Oncol ; 10: 545862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163395

RESUMO

Background: In differentiating indeterminate pulmonary nodules, multiple studies indicated the superiority of deep learning-based computer-assisted diagnosis system (DL-CADx) over conventional double reading by radiologists, which needs external validation. Therefore, our aim was to externally validate the performance of a commercial DL-CADx in differentiating benign and malignant lung nodules. Methods: In this retrospective study, 233 patients with 261 pathologically confirmed lung nodules were enrolled. Double reading was used to rate each nodule using a four-scale malignancy score system, including unlikely (0-25%), malignancy cannot be completely excluded (25-50%), highly likely (50-75%), and considered as malignant (75-100%), with any disagreement resolved through discussion. DL-CADx automatically rated each nodule with a malignancy likelihood ranging from 0 to 100%, which was then quadrichotomized accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the agreement in malignancy risk rating between DL-CADx and double reading, with ICC value of <0.5, 0.5 to 0.75, 0.75 to 0.9, and >0.9 indicating poor, moderate, good, and perfect agreement, respectively. With malignancy likelihood >50% as cut-off value for malignancy and pathological results as gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for double reading and DL-CADx, separately. Results: Among the 261 nodules, 247 nodules were successfully detected by DL-CADx with detection rate of 94.7%. Regarding malignancy rating, DL-CADx was in moderate agreement with double reading (ICC = 0.555, 95% CI 0.424 to 0.655). DL-CADx misdiagnosed 40 true malignant nodules as benign nodules and 30 true benign nodules as malignant nodules with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 79.2, 45.5, and 71.7%, respectively. In contrast, double reading achieved better performance with 16 true malignant nodules misdiagnosed as benign nodules and 26 true benign nodules as malignant nodules with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91.7, 52.7, and 83.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with double reading, DL-CADx we used still shows inferior performance in differentiating malignant and benign nodules.

9.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 4125-4132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209042

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to establish a tool for rapid identification of KL49 Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods: Based on the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) synthesis genes database, we investigated the distribution of K locus type 49 (KL49) genes in other KL types and established a rapid identification method for KL49. We collected 61 clinical carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) strains, identified KL49 by gtr100 detection, and used whole genome sequencing (WGS) for verification. A mouse pneumonia model was used to confirm the hypervirulence phenotype. We tested the presence of gtr100 gene in 165 CRAB strains from three provinces in China and evaluated the correlation of gtr100 carrying CRAB infection with mortality. Results: The gtr100 gene is the CPS synthesis gene found only in KL49. We screened out nine WGS-validated KL49 strains from 61 CRAB clinical strains using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the gtr100 gene. The survival rates of KL49 strains were significantly lower than nonKL49 strains in a mouse pneumonia model. The survival rates of LAC-4 gtr100 knockout strain decreased significantly. Analysis of phylogenetics showed the worldwide spread of KL49 A. baumannii. Infection of gtr100 carrying CRAB is an independent risk for mortality (OR, 10.76; 95%CI: 3.08-37.55; p<0.001). Conclusion: The hypervirulence phenotype of KL49 CRAB and the association with mortality highlight the urgent need for implementing control measures. The rapid identification assay has the potential to facilitate early medical intervention and worldwide surveillance.

10.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(20): 5062-5069, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fourth degree burns damage the full thickness of the skin and affect underlying tissues. Skin grafting after debridement is often used to cover the wounds of salvageable severe burns. A granulation wound can be formed by drilling the skull to the barrier layer to solve the problem of skull exposure. Low oxygen levels present at high altitudes aggravate ischemia and hypoxia which can negatively impact wound healing. The impaired healing in such cases can be ameliorated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. CASE SUMMARY: We describe a patient who presented with fourth degree burns to the left temporal and facial regions upon admission in December 2018. The periosteum of the skull and the deep fascia of the face were exposed. After the first stage of debridement and skin grafting, the temporal skin did not survive well. Granulation was induced by cranial drilling, and then a local flap was transferred to cover the wound. The left temporal and facial wounds were completely covered and the patient recovered well. CONCLUSION: Skin grafting and flap transfer after early debridement to cover the wound and control infection were of great significance. In the later stages of the patient's treatment, survival of the skin graft and skin flap was observed. The second stage repair was performed to achieve successful skin grafting by cranial granulation. Granulation was formed by drilling the skull, and then the wound was closed, which is suitable for cases with skull exposure and wounds with poor blood supply. We consider that hyperbaric oxygen treatment and improving tissue oxygen supply were beneficial in this patient.

11.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 2139270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204297

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the mainly caused maternal and infant incidences and mortalities worldwide. However, the mechanisms underlying PE remained largely unclear. The present study identified 1716 high expressions of gene and 2705 low expressions of gene using GSE60438 database, and identified 7087 hypermethylated and 15120 hypomethylated genes in preeclampsia using GSE100197. Finally, 536 upregulated genes with hypomethylation and 322 downregulated genes with hypermethylation were for the first time revealed in PE. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these genes were associated with peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation, skeletal system development, leukocyte migration, transcription regulation, T cell receptor and IFN-γ-involved pathways, innate immune response, signal transduction, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and hemopoiesis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that aberrantly methylated differentially expressed genes were involved in regulating adherens junction, pluripotency of stem cell regulation, immune processing, T cell receptor and NF-κB pathways, HTLV-I and HSV infections, leishmaniasis, and NK-induced cytotoxicity. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis identified several hub networks and key genes, including MAPK8, CCNF, CDC23, ABL1, NF1, UBE2E3, CD44, and PIK3R1. We hope these findings will draw more attention to these hub genes in future PE studies.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(2): 505-514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044180

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely reported in several neurodegenerative disorders, including in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, and Huntington disease. An increasing number of studies have implicated altered glucose and energy metabolism in patients with AD. There is compelling evidence of abnormalities in some of the key mitochondrial enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, which play a great significance role in the pathogenesis of AD. Changes in some of the enzyme activities of the mitochondria found in AD have been linked with the pathology of amyloid-ß (Aß). This review highlights the role of mitochondrial function in the production and clearance of Aß and how the pathology of Aß leads to a decrease in energy metabolism by affecting mitochondrial function.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021033

RESUMO

Currently, most two-dimensional (2D) metal halide perovskites are of the Ruddlesden-Popper type and contain the thermally unstable methylammonium (MA) molecules, which leads to inferior photovoltaic performance and mild stability. Here we report a new type of MA-free formamidinium (FA) based low-dimensional perovskites, featuring a general formula of (PDA)(FA)n-1 Pbn I3n+1 with propane-1,3-diammonium (PDA) as the organic spacer cation. The perovskite films with well-oriented crystal grains are attained under the assistance of the FACl additive, where the role of Cl is investigated through the grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction technique. The photovoltaic device based on the optimized (PDA)(FA)3 Pb4 I13 film demonstrates a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 13.8 %, the highest record for the FA-based 2D perovskite solar cells. In addition, compared to (PDA)(MA)3 Pb4 I13 , the MA-containing analogue and a renowned stable 2D perovskite, both the (PDA)(FA)3 Pb4 I13 films and their derived devices exhibit exceedingly higher thermal stability.

14.
Soft Matter ; 16(37): 8526-8546, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945331

RESUMO

Electrohydrodynamics is among the most promising techniques for manipulating liquids in microsystems. The electric stress actuates, generates, and coalesces droplets of small sizes; it also accelerates, focuses, and controls the motion of fine jets. In this review, the current understanding of dynamic regimes of electrically driven drops and jets in multiphase microsystems is summarized. The experimental description and underlying mechanism of force interplay and instabilities are discussed. Conditions for controlled transitions among different regimes are also provided. Emerging new phenomena either due to special interfacial properties or geometric confinement are emphasized, and simple scaling arguments proposed in the literature are introduced. The review provides useful perspectives for investigations involving electrically driven droplets and jets.

15.
Adv Mater ; 32(43): e2002932, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954548

RESUMO

Synthetic cells have a major role in gaining insight into the complex biological processes of living cells; they also give rise to a range of emerging applications from gene delivery to enzymatic nanoreactors. Living cells rely on compartmentalization to orchestrate reaction networks for specialized and coordinated functions. Principally, the compartmentalization has been an essential engineering theme in constructing cell-mimicking systems. Here, efforts to engineer liquid-liquid interfaces of multiphase systems into membrane-bounded and membraneless compartments, which include lipid vesicles, polymer vesicles, colloidosomes, hybrids, and coacervate droplets, are summarized. Examples are provided of how these compartments are designed to imitate biological behaviors or machinery, including molecule trafficking, growth, fusion, energy conversion, intercellular communication, and adaptivity. Subsequently, the state-of-art applications of these cell-inspired synthetic compartments are discussed. Apart from being simplified and cell models for bridging the gap between nonliving matter and cellular life, synthetic compartments also are utilized as intracellular delivery vehicles for nuclei acids and nanoreactors for biochemical synthesis. Finally, key challenges and future directions for achieving the full potential of synthetic cells are highlighted.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 870, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRAF-activated noncoding RNA (BANCR) is aberrantly expressed in various tumor tissues and has been confirmed to function as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in many types of cancers. Considering the conflicting results and insufficient sampling, a meta-analysis was performed to explore the prognostic value of BANCR in various carcinomas. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was conducted to collect relevant articles. RESULTS: The pooled results showed a strong relationship between high BANCR expression and poor overall survival (OS) (HR (hazard ratio) =1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.15, P = 0.002) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.27-1.85, P < 0.00001). In addition, high BANCR expression predicted advanced tumor stage (OR (odds ratio) =2.39, 95% CI: 1.26-4.53, P = 0.008), presence of lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.08-3.83, P = 0.03), positive distant metastasis (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.92-4.96, P < 0.00001) and larger tumor sizes (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.09-2.46, P = 0.02). However, no associations were found for smoking status (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.65-1.56, P = 0.98), age (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.71-1.09, P = 0.236) and sex (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.72-1.16, P = 0.469). The sensitivity analysis of OS showed that the results of each publication were almost consistent with the combined results, and the merged results have high robustness and reliability. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that elevated BANCR expression was associated with unfavorable prognosis for most cancer patients, and BANCR could serve as a promising therapeutic target and independent prognostic predictor in most of cancer types.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(41): 17681-17692, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924464

RESUMO

Conjugated polymers are regarded as promising candidates for dopant-free hole-transport materials (HTMs) in efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Thus far, the vast majority of polymeric HTMs feature structurally complicated benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) analogs and electron-withdrawing heterocycles, forming a strong donor-acceptor (D-A) structure. Herein, a new class of phenanthrocarbazole (PC)-based polymeric HTMs (PC1, PC2, and PC3) has been synthesized by inserting a PC unit into a polymeric thiophene or selenophene chain with the aim of enhancing the π-π stacking of adjacent polymer chains and also to efficiently interact with the perovskite surface through the broad and planar conjugated backbone of the PC. Suitable energy levels, excellent thermostability, and humidity resistivity together with remarkable photoelectric properties are obtained via meticulously tuning the conformation and elemental composition of the polymers. As a result, PSCs containing PC3 as dopant-free HTM show a stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 20.8% and significantly enhanced longevity, rendering one of the best types of PSCs based on dopant-free HTMs. Subsequent experimental and theoretical studies reveal that the planar conformation of the polymers contributes to an ordered and face-on stacking of the polymer chains. Furthermore, introduction of the "Lewis soft" selenium atom can passivate surface trap sites of perovskite films by Pb-Se interaction and facilitate the interfacial charge separation significantly. This work reveals the guiding principles for rational design of dopant-free polymeric HTMs and also inspires rational exploration of small molecular HTMs.

19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 629-640, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive salt intake is considered as an important risk factor for cognitive impairment, which might be the consequence of imbalanced intestinal homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of dietary salt on the gut microbiota and cognitive performance and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Adult female C57BL/6 mice were maintained on either normal chow (control group, CON) or sodium-rich chow containing 8% NaCl (high-salt diet, HSD) for 8 weeks. Spatial learning and memory ability, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations, gut bacterial flora composition, blood-brain barrier permeability, and proinflammatory cytokine levels and apoptosis in the brain were evaluated. RESULTS: The mice fed a HSD for 8 weeks displayed impaired learning and memory abilities. HSD significantly reduced the proportions of Bacteroidetes (S24-7 and Alloprevotella) and Proteobacteria and increased that of Firmicutes (Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae). SCFA concentrations decreased in the absolute concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the fecal samples from the HSD-fed mice. The HSD induced both BBB dysfunction and microglial activation in the mouse brain, and increased the IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α expression levels in the cortex. More importantly, the degree of apoptosis was higher in the cortex and hippocampus region of mice fed the HSD, and this effect was accompanied by significantly higher expression of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-3, and caspase-1. CONCLUSION: The HSD directly causes cognitive dysfunction in mice by eliciting an inflammatory environment and triggering apoptosis in the brain, and these effects are accompanied by gut dysbiosis, particularly reduced SCFA production.

20.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (ED) have increasingly become a global topic of concern for public health. A better understanding of ED incidence is a basic requirement for improving its management. However, the temporal trend of ED incidence in China is still unknown. METHODS: The incidence rates of ED from 1990 to 2017 were collected from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 database according to the following: subtype, i.e. anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN); sex; and age group. The average annual percent changes and relative risks were calculated using joinpoint regression and the age-period-cohort model, respectively. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2017, age-standardized incidence rates of ED continued to increase in males and females, and this variation trend was observed in AN and BN. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that the incidence rates increased in all age groups. Adolescents had the highest risk of developing ED, followed by young adults. Age effects were the most influential risk factor for ED incidence. Period effects showed that the risk of developing ED continuously increased with increasing time periods in BN, but not in ED and AN. Concerning the cohort effects, people born after the 1990s presented a higher risk of ED, though they presented a lower risk of BN as compared to the whole cohort. CONCLUSIONS: ED incidence rates continue to increase in China, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Further etiological studies are needed to explain these increases and to facilitate the early identification of high-risk individuals.

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