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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6648093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968297

RESUMO

The imbalance of the redox system has been shown to be closely related to the occurrence and progression of many cancers. However, the biological function and clinical significance of redox-related genes (RRGs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are unclear. In our current study, we downloaded transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database of ccRCC patients and identified the differential expression of RRGs in tumor and normal kidney tissues. Then, we identified a total of 344 differentially expressed RRGs, including 234 upregulated and 110 downregulated RRGs. Fourteen prognosis-related RRGs (ADAM8, CGN, EIF4EBP1, FOXM1, G6PC, HAMP, HTR2C, ITIH4, LTB4R, MMP3, PLG, PRKCG, SAA1, and VWF) were selected out, and a prognosis-related signature was constructed based on these RRGs. Survival analysis showed that overall survival was lower in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the risk score signature was 0.728 at three years and 0.759 at five years in the TCGA cohort and 0.804 at three years and 0.829 at five years in the E-MTAB-1980 cohort, showing good predictive performance. In addition, we explored the regulatory relationships of these RRGs with upstream miRNA, their biological functions and molecular mechanisms, and their relationship with immune cell infiltration. We also established a nomogram based on these prognostic RRGs and performed internal and external validation in the TCGA and E-MTAB-1980 cohorts, respectively, showing an accurate prediction of ccRCC prognosis. Moreover, a stratified analysis showed a significant correlation between the prognostic signature and ccRCC progression.

2.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942822

RESUMO

Gene delivery is an indispensable technique for various biomedical applications such as gene therapy, stem cell engineering and gene editing. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have received increasing attention for their use in promoting gene delivery efficiency. Under magnetic attraction, gene delivery efficiency using viral or nonviral gene carriers could be universally enhanced. Besides, magnetic nanoparticles could be utilized in magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic hyperthermia therapy, providing extra theranostic opportunities. In this review, recent research integrating MNPs with a viral or nonviral gene vector is summarized from both technical and application perspectives. Applications of MNPs in cutting-edge research technologies, such as biomimetic cell membrane nano-gene carriers, exosome-based gene delivery, cell-based drug delivery systems or CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, are also discussed.

3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 152: 112213, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862121

RESUMO

Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is related to elevated risks of neurodegenerative diseases, and mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a critical pathophysiological feature of Mn neurotoxicity. Although previous research has demonstrated Mn-induced alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) overexpression, the role of α-Syn in mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. Here, we used Wistar rats and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying how α-Syn overexpression induced by different doses of Mn (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) results in mitochondrial dysfunction. We found that Mn-induced neural cell injury was associated with mitochondrial damage. Furthermore, Mn upregulated α-Syn protein levels and increased the interaction between α-Syn and mitochondria. We then used a lentivirus vector containing α-Syn shRNA to examine the effect of Mn-induced α-Syn protein on PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data demonstrated that the knockdown of α-Syn decreased the interaction between α-Syn and PINK1. The enhanced level of phosphorylated Parkin (p-Parkin) was due to the decrease of the interaction between α-Syn and PINK1. Moreover, the knockdown of α-Syn increased recruitment of p-Parkin to mitochondria. Collectively, these observations revealed that Mn-induced α-Syn overexpression repressed PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy and exacerbated mitochondrial damage.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802293

RESUMO

Bacterial reinfection and root fracture are the main culprits related to root canal treatment failure. This study aimed to assess the utility of quercetin solution as an adjunctive endodontic irrigant that does not weaken root canal dentin with commitment anti-biofilm activity and bio-safety. Based on a noninvasive dentin infection model, dentin tubules infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) were irrigated with sterile water (control group), and 0, 1, 2, 4 wt% quercetin-containing ethanol solutions. Live and dead bacteria percentages in E. faecalis biofilms were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Elastic modulus, hydroxyproline release and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization were tested to evaluate the irrigants' collagen-stabilizing effect. The cytotoxicity was tested by CCK-8 assay. Quercetin increased the proportion of dead bacteria volumes within E. faecalis and improved the flexural strength of dentin compared to control group (p < 0.05). Quercetin-treated dentin matrix had less elasticity loss and hydroxyproline release after collagenase degradation (p < 0.05). Moreover, quercetin solutions revealed an increase in the C-O peak area under both C1s and O1s narrow-scan spectra of XPS characterization, and no cytotoxicity (p > 0.05). Quercetin exhibited anti-biofilm activity, a collagen-stabilizing effect with cytocompatibility, supporting quercetin as a potential candidate for endodontic irrigant.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125830, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865111

RESUMO

The unique properties of heterostructure materials make them become a promising candidate for high-performance room-temperature (RT) NO2 sensing. Herein, a p-n heterojunction consisting of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanoflakes vertically grown on one-dimensional (1D) SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) was fabricated via electrospinning and subsequent hydrothermal route. The sulfur edge active sites are fully exposed in the MoS2@SnO2 heterostructure due to the vertically oriented thin-layered morphology features. Moreover, the interface of p-n heterojunction provides an electronic transfer channel from SnO2 to MoS2, which enables MoS2 act as the generous electron donor involved in NO2 gas senor detection. As a result, the optimized MoS2@SnO2-2 heterostructure presents an impressive sensitivity and selectivity for NO2 gas detection at RT. The response value is 34.67 (Ra/Rg) to 100 ppm, which is 26.5 times to that of pure SnO2. It also exhibits a fast response and recovery time (2.2 s, 10.54 s), as well as a low detection limit (10 ppb) and as long as 20 weeks of stability. This simple fabrication of high-performance sensing materials may facilitate the large-scale production of RT NO2 gas sensors.

6.
Ann Nutr Metab ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease (FLD) has become a rampant condition. It is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality in a population. The condition is commonly referred as FLD. Early prediction of FLD would allow patients to take necessary preventive, diagnosis, and treatment. The main objective of this research is to develop a machine learning (ML) model to predict FLD that can help medics to classify individuals at high risk of FLD, make novel diagnosis, management, and prevention for FLD. METHODS: Total of 3,419 subjects were recruited with 845 having been screened for FLD. Classification models were used in the detection of the disease. These models include logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), artificial neural networks (ANNs), k-nearest neighbors (KNNs), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Predictive accuracy was assessed by area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. RESULTS: We demonstrated that ML models give more accurate predictions, the best accuracy reached to 0.9415 in the XGBoost model. Feature importance analysis not only confirmed some well-known FLD risk factors, but also demonstrated several novel features for predicting the risk of FLD, such as hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: By implementing the XGBoost model, physicians can efficiently identify FLD in general patients; this would help in prevention, early treatment, and management of FLD.

7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829656

RESUMO

Histone methylation plays important roles in mediating the onset and progression of various cancers, and lysine-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B), as a histone demethylase, is reported to be an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism underlying its tumorigenesis remains undefined. Hence, we explored the regulatory role of KDM5B in HCC cells, aiming to identify novel therapeutic targets for HCC. Gene Expression Omnibus database and StarBase were used to predict important regulatory pathways related to HCC. Then, the expression of KDM5B and microRNA-448 (miR-448) in HCC tissues was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. The correlation between KDM5B and miR-448 expression was analysed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and ChIP experiments, and the targeting of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 3 (YTHDF3) by miR-448 was examined by luciferase assay. Additionally, the effect of KDM5B on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis as well as tumorigenicity of transfected cells was assessed using ectopic expression and depletion experiments. KDM5B was highly expressed in HCC cells and was inversely related to miR-448 expression. KDM5B demethylated H3K4me3 on the miR-448 promoter and thereby inhibited the expression of miR-448, which in turn targeted YTHDF3 and integrin subunit alpha 6 (ITGA6) to promote the malignant phenotype of HCC. Moreover, KDM5B accelerated HCC progression in nude mice via the miR-448/YTHDF3/ITGA6 axis. Our study uncovered that KDM5B regulates the YTHDF3/ITGA6 axis by inhibiting the expression of miR-448 to promote the occurrence of HCC.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111612, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915505

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Gupi Xiaoji Prescription (GXP) on hepatitis B virus(HBV)-related liver cancer through network pharmacology coupled with in vitro experiments and explore their related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gupi Xiaoji Prescription's chemical constituents and the action targets of its six medicinal components were identified using several databases. These included the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP), the Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM), and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID), while GeneCards and OMIM were used to compile relevant liver cancer disease targets. Pathway enrichment of gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), analysis of potential targets, and analysis of the enriched pathways in literature were executed in R. The Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived HepG2.2.15 cell line stably expresses and replicates HBV. In vitro experiments with HepG2.2.15 were used to verify GXP's effects on HBV-related liver cancer, while the human liver cancer cell line HepG2 was used as the control. RESULTS: 171 active ingredients and 259 potential drug targets were screened from GXP, involving 181 pathways in vitro. These assays identified Polyphyllin I as an effective GXP component. Notably, GXP inhibited cell proliferation and metastasis in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.01). In comparison with the vehicle group, the fluorescence intensity of each drug group was significantly weakened (P < 0.01), while the drug group Mitofusins 1(MFN1) and protein expression level of Mitofusins 2 (MFN2) increased significantly. The protein expression level of Mitochondrial fission protein 1 (FIS1) and Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) also showed significant decreases (P < 0.01). Molecular docking revealed Fructus saponins I's high affinity with FIS1, MFN1, MFN2, and OPA1. CONCLUSION: The network pharmacology results indicate that Gupi Xiaoji Prescription may treat liver cancer by regulating mitochondrial division and fusion of key genes to disrupt liver cancer cells' energy metabolism. In vitro experiments also verified that GXP could inhibit the proliferation and migration of HepG2.2.15 cells by up-regulating MFN1 and MFN2, down-regulating the expression of FIS1 and OPA1 in addition to damaging mitochondria. Consistent with network pharmacology and molecular docking results, Polyphyllin I may be the most active compound of the formula's components. It also shows that Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a significant, targeted role in the treatment of HBV-related liver cancer.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844143

RESUMO

Activation is an important pathway that can enhance the adsorption capacity of biochar. In this study, a modified tea waste biochar (MTWBC) was prepared via a two-step pyrolysis approach with KHCO3 activation. Pristine tea waste biochar (TWBC) was also produced as control via one-step pyrolysis without activation. Various characterizations were undertaken to investigate the influence of modification on the morphology, composition, carbon structure, surface area, and functional group of biochar, including scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface area and pore analyzer, element analysis, point of zero charge (pHPZC), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After KHCO3 activation treatment, the surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume of MTWBC reached 1981 m2·g-1, 0.8547 cm3·g-1, and 0.6439 cm3·g-1 which were 7.34-fold, 7.27-fold, and 7.30-fold increases, respectively, compared with TWBC. The aromaticity, hydrophilicity, and polarity of the MTWBC increased after modification. More graphitization with less defective structures occurred in MTWBC after modification. The C-, O-, and N-containing groups in MTWBC also changed after the reaction of KHCO3. The pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models best described the adsorption process on biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity of tetracycline (TC) on MTWBC reached 293.46 mg·g-1, which was 15-fold more than that of TWBC (19.68 mg·g-1). An alkaline environment decreased the TC adsorption on biochars. The presence of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ inhibited TC adsorption onto biochars. The influence of Cu2+ on TC adsorption by biochars depends on its initial concentration. The enhanced adsorption capacity of TC on MTWBC was mainly attributable to the large surface area, the improved pore volume, and more aromatic structure. The adsorption mechanism was based on pore filling and π-π EDA interaction. Therefore, KHCO3 activated biochar has the potential to remove TC from aquatic environments.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9321, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927308

RESUMO

The prognostic factors and optimal treatment for the elderly patient with glioblastoma (GBM) were poorly understood. This study extracted 4975 elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) with histologically confirmed GBM from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Firstly, Cumulative incidence function and cox proportional model were utilized to illustrate the interference of non-GBM related mortality in our cohort. Then, the Fine-Gray competing risk model was applied to determine the prognostic factors for GBM related mortality. Age ≥ 75 years old, white race, size > 5.4 cm, frontal lobe tumor, and overlapping lesion were independently associated with more GBM related death, while Gross total resection (GTR) (HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.80-0.94, P = 0.010), radiotherapy (HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.55-0.74, P < 0.001), chemotherapy (HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.59-0.90, P = 0.003), and chemoRT (HR 0.43, 95%CI 0.38-0.48, P < 0.001) were identified as independently protective factors of GBM related death. Based on this, a corresponding nomogram was conducted to predict 3-, 6- and 12-month GBM related mortality, the C-index of which were 0.763, 0.718, and 0.694 respectively. The calibration curve showed that there was a good consistency between the predicted and the actual mortality probability. Concerning treatment options, GTR followed by chemoRT is suggested as optimal treatment. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy alone also provide moderate clinical benefits.

11.
Oncologist ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive capability of neutrophil-to-apolipoprotein A1 ratio (NAR) for predicting overall survival (OS) among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the clinical features of 554 patients with HCC receiving TACE and assessed NAR's predictive value for OS with 222 patients (the discovery cohort) and 332 patients (the validation cohort). The association of NAR with circulation lectin-type oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1-positive (LOX-1+ ) polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) was illustrated. RESULTS: Multivariate Cox regression revealed that lymphocyte count; Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) stage; and NAR were independent prognostic factors in the discovery cohort. The validation cohort confirmed the independent prognostic value of TNM stage and NAR. Patients with low NAR (<2.7) displayed significantly increased OS in the discovery cohort (59.8 months vs. 21 months), the validation group (38.0 months vs. 23.6 months), and the total cohort (44.1 months vs. 22.0 months). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to combine Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score with discretized NAR. C-index illustrated that NAR-integrated CLIP score was the best model compared with NAR and CLIP score. Furthermore, NAR-CLIP presented superior predictive capacity for 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, 50-, and 60-month survival compared with CLIP score by survival receiver-operator characteristic analysis in the discovery cohort, validation cohort, and total cohort. NAR was significantly associated with LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs by linear regression. CONCLUSION: This study identified NAR as an independent predictor for OS among patients with HCC receiving TACE. NAR reflected circulation LOX-1+ PMN-MDSC level. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The present study identified neutrophil-to-apolipoprotein A1 ratio (NAR) as an independent predictor for overall survival among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving transarterial chemoembolization. NAR reflected circulation level of lectin-type oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1-positive polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 603158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679615

RESUMO

Introduction: In clinical practice, the ideal time at which to perform a Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer (FET) after a failed In-vitro Fertilization-embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) is still unclear to most practicing physicians. In addition, physicians often delay the introduction of FET due to concerns on the possible residual effects of ovarian hyperstimulation, which may interfere with the regular menstrual cycle. Moreover, given that most of the published studies on the topic are retrospective with contradictory findings, it is crucial to provide evidence-based randomized control guides for clinical practice. Methods/analysis: The study is a randomized, non-inferiority, parallel-group, controlled trial that will enroll a total of 732 women undergoing their first FET after a failed fresh embryo transfer (ET) cycle. The participants will then be randomized into two groups based on a computer-generated randomized list. The two groups include: (i) an immediate group were FET will be carried out during the first menstrual cycle after a failed fresh ET cycle and (ii) a delayed group where FET will be carried out during the second menstrual cycle after a failed fresh ET cycle. Primary outcomes will be defined as viable pregnancies with fetal heartbeats, diagnosed through pelvic ultrasonography after twelve weeks of gestation. Ethics and dissemination: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Assisted Reproductive Medicine at the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (SDTCM/E-2020.2.01). In addition, written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants before the study. The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal. Discussion: Currently, there is no consensus with regard to the duration after which the effects of ovarian stimulation are observed after a failed fresh ET and the optimal time required to begin FET. Moreover, no randomized controlled trial exists that compares the ongoing pregnancy rates after immediate versus delayed FET following a failed fresh ET cycle. Therefore, it is important to conduct a well-designed randomized trial to determine whether it is necessary to delay FET for at least one menstrual cycle after the failure of fresh ET. Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR2000033313 (http://www.chictr.org.cn/enIndex.aspx).

13.
Global Spine J ; : 2192568220980716, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648363

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) level on the surgical outcomes in ankylosing spondylitis-related thoracolumbar kyphosis with the same curve pattern. METHODS: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis, who underwent 1-level lumbar PSO between March 2006 and June 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. Criteria for curve-matched thoracolumbar kyphosis were: (1) have same level of preoperative apex (pre-apex); (2) have similar global kyphosis (GK, the angle between the superior/inferior endplate of the maximally tilted upper and lower end vertebra) (the difference of GK less than 15˚). The radiographic parameters measured were sagittal vertical axis (SVA, the horizontal distance between the C7 plumb line and the posterosuperior corner of the S1), GK, thoracic kyphosis (TK, the angle between the T5 superior endplate and the T12 inferior endplate), lumbar lordosis (LL, the angle between the L1 and S1 superior endplate), sacral slope (SS, the angle between the sacral endplate and the horizontal line), pelvic tilt (PT, the angle between the vertical and the line joining the midpoint of the sacral plate and hip axis), and pelvic incidence (PI, the angle between the line vertical to the superior margin of S1 and the line connecting the sacral plate midpoint with the hip joint axis). All of these parameters and health-related quality of life (HRQoL, evaluated by preoperative and the last follow-up questionnaires including ODI and VAS) scores were collected before surgery and at the last follow-up. According to their osteotomy level, patients were devided into 2 sub-groups (L1 group and L2 group), and differences of these mentioned parameters between 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: 26 curve-matched patients were recruited with a mean follow-up of 37.2 months. All patients improved significantly after surgery in HRQoL scores (VAS 1.6 vs 5.4, P < 0.001; ODI 11.9 vs 26.4, P < 0.001). Except for TK and PI, those radiographic parameters were also observed to be significantly changed after surgery. Compared to L2 group, PSO at L1 may have larger correction of TK (ΔTK -6.8 vs -0.3°, P = 0.164), PI (ΔPI -7.4 vs -0.7°, P = 0.364) and smaller correction of SVA (ΔSVA -105.3 vs -128.5 mm, P = 0.096), LL (ΔLL -31.1 vs -43.0°, P = 0.307) and SS (ΔSS 6.9 vs 12.2°, P = 0.279) but had no statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation showed that in AS-related thoracolumbar kyphosis patients with the same curve pattern, the different levels of osteotomy had little effect on the improvement of surgical outcomes. However, osteotomy at L2 is more likely to obtain a larger correction of SVA compared to osteotomy at L1.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1306-1314, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742927

RESUMO

Taking the typical heavy air pollution process in Yangquan from December 26, 2018 to January 20, 2019 as an example, the characteristics and cause analysis of heavy air pollution in a mountainous city in winter were analyzed in this study. The results showed that fine particle mass (PM2.5) was the primary pollutant during the heavy pollution period. The water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components were the main components of PM2.5. The secondary ions of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ had the lager contribution to water-soluble ions (87.7%), and the secondary organic carbon (SOC) was the main component of the carbonaceous components (71.6%). The concentration of the secondary ions during the heavy pollution period increased by 5.3 times compared to levels before the heavy pollution period, and was an important component resulting in the fast increase of PM2.5. An analysis of meteorological conditions showed that PM2.5 and its main components had a significantly positive relationship with humidity and a significantly negative relationship with wind speed. And that pollution became stronger with an increase in humidity and a decrease in wind speed. The typical meteorological characteristics of mountainous cities are high relative humidity and large temperature variations, which can accelerate the formation of secondary pollutants and are the main reasons for the rapid aggravation of PM2.5. In addition, the lower average wind speed caused by the relatively closed terrain in mountainous cities makes the diffusion conditions of air pollutants relatively poor, which is one of the reasons for the accumulation of pollutants. The source apportionment results showed that the secondary sources (46.0%) were the most important source of PM2.5, followed by coal combustion (32.6%), vehicle exhaust (19.8%), and fugitive dust (1.6%). Therefore, mountainous cities should pay more attention to controlling secondary components, especially secondary ions.

15.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; : 960327121993213, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588632

RESUMO

Tectorigenin (TEC) is an effective compound that derived from many plants, such as Iris unguicularis, Belamcanda chinensis and Pueraria thunbergiana Benth. Evidence suggested that TEC has anti-tumor, anti-oxidant activity, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, there has some evidence indicated that TEC is a potential anti-stroke compound; however, its specific roles and associated mechanism have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant activity and anti-apoptosis effects of TEC on oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced HT-22 cells, and clarified the relevant mechanisms. Here, we observed that TEC significantly promoted cell survival, impeded cell apoptosis, inhibited ROS and inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α production in OGD/R-induced HT-22 cells. Moreover, TEC activated PI3K/AKT signal pathway, increased PPARγ expression and inhibited NF-κB pathway activation in OGD/R-induced HT-22 cells. Further studies indicated that PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 activated NF-κB pathway after TEC treatment in OGD/R-induced HT-22 cells. Also, PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002, PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 and NF-κB activator LPS both reversed the effects of TEC on OGD/R-induced HT-22 cell biology. Taken together, this research confirmed that TEC benefit to HT-22 cell survival and against OGD/R damage through the PI3K/AKT and PPARγ/NF-κB pathways. These results indicated that TEC might be an effective compound in the treatment for ischemic brain injury.

16.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598893

RESUMO

Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome caused by testosterone deficiency. Hypogonadism can be caused by testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction (secondary hypogonadism). The present strategy for treating hypogonadism is the administration of exogenous testosterone. But exogenous testosterone is reported to have negative side effects including adverse cardiovascular events and disruption of physiological spermatogenesis probably due to its inability to mimic the physiological circadian rhythm of testosterone secretion in vivo. In recent years, a growing number of articles demonstrated that stem Leydig cells (SLCs) can not only differentiate into functional Leydig cells (LCs) in vivo to replace chemically disrupted LCs, but also secrete testosterone in a physiological pattern. The proliferation and differentiation of SLCs are regulated by various factors. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating the development of SLCs remain to be summarized. Factors involved in the regulation of SLCs can be divided into environmental pollutants, growth factors, cytokine and hormones. Environmental pollutants such as Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and Triphenyltin (TPT) could suppress SLCs proliferation or differentiation. Growth factors including FGF1, FGF16, NGF and activin A are essential for the maintenance of SLCs self-renewal and differentiation. Interleukin 6 family could inhibit differentiation of SLCs. Among hormones, dexamethasone suppresses SLCs differentiation, while aldosterone suppresses their proliferation. The present review focuses on new progress about factors regulating SLC's proliferation and differentiation which will undoubtedly deepen our insights into SLCs and help make better clinical use of them. Different factors affect on the proliferation and differentiation of stem Leydig cells. Firstly, each rat was intraperitoneally injected EDS so as to deplete Leydig cells from the adult testis. Secondly, the CD51+ or CD90+ cells from the testis of rats are SLCs, and the p75+ cells from human adult testes are human SLCs. These SLCs in the testis start to proliferate and some of them differentiate into LCs. Thirdly, during the SLCs regeneration period, researchers could explore different function of those factors (pollutants, growth factors, cytokines and hormones) towards SLCs.

17.
J Pept Sci ; 27(4): e3297, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462944

RESUMO

The ginseng has been used for over hundred years, in the belief of promoting longevity. However, the anticancer activity of ginseng leaf peptide (GP) has been never explored. In current study, we isolated the GPs and explored the anti-colon cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. MTT results showed that the GP-1 (GP-1~FKEHGY) performed most antiproliferative activity against colon cancer CT-26 cells with an IC50 of 86.4 ± 9.46 µM (48 h). Further study indicated that GP-1 activated the caspases, regulated the p53/murine double minute 2 (MDM2) state, and induced the CT-26 cells apoptosis in a mitochondrial pathway. Meanwhile, the GP-1 arrested the CT-26 cells in G0/G1 phase accompanied with cyclin expression regulation. In addition, GP-1 significantly suppressed the tumor growth and induced the tumor cells apoptosis in vivo. Notably, the GP-1 would be a potential anti-colon cancer candidate.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 89, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397958

RESUMO

The RNA-binding protein QKI belongs to the hnRNP K-homology domain protein family, a well-known regulator of pre-mRNA alternative splicing and is associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. Qki is found highly expressed in developing and adult hearts. By employing the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) to cardiomyocyte differentiation system and generating QKI-deficient hESCs (hESCs-QKIdel) using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, we analyze the physiological role of QKI in cardiomyocyte differentiation, maturation, and contractile function. hESCs-QKIdel largely maintain normal pluripotency and normal differentiation potential for the generation of early cardiogenic progenitors, but they fail to transition into functional cardiomyocytes. In this work, by using a series of transcriptomic, cell and biochemical analyses, and the Qki-deficient mouse model, we demonstrate that QKI is indispensable to cardiac sarcomerogenesis and cardiac function through its regulation of alternative splicing in genes involved in Z-disc formation and contractile physiology, suggesting that QKI is associated with the pathogenesis of certain forms of cardiomyopathies.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Contração Miocárdica/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Actinina/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Precursores de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 895: 173861, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465356

RESUMO

Clinical studies have shown that diabetes can present with underlying depression, and a combination of the two can lead to emotional, memory and cognitive disorders, closely associated with hippocampal neuroinflammation. However, the mechanism underlying the development of hippocampal neuroinflammation under the above condition remains elusive. The aims of this study were to explore the pathogenesis of diabetes combined with depression, and the effect of dexamethasone (Dex), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist, on hippocampal neuroinflammation in diabetic rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Therefore, rats were intragastrically fed on a high-fat diet (10% cholesterol 10 ml/kg) for 14 days and thereafter injected with 38 mg/kg of streptozotocin on the 15th day to induce diabetes. Dex treatment of the diabetic and CUMS rats ameliorated the depression-associated behavior in the respective rats. Apart from enhanced depressive behavior, diabetes-depressed condition also up-regulated the expression of hippocampus microglia chemokine Ⅰ receptor (CX3CR1) and secretion of several pro-inflammatory factors, in particular, interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor - α (TNF-α). Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed inflammatory damages in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis further revealed repression of GR proteins converse to the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) proteins, which were up-regulated. Intriguingly, Dex reversed the above events by inhibiting inflammatory reactions in the hippocampus. Consequently, played an antidepressant effect in diabetic and CUMS model rats. Overall, findings of this research suggest that the physiopathology of diabetes with stress cormobity are mediated by inflammatory reactions in the hippocampus. In particular, the responses are associated with regulation of GR/NF-κB signaling pathway.

20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(3): 722-728, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective ART is crucial for combating the HIV pandemic. Clinically, plasma viral load monitoring to achieve virological suppression is the guide for an optimal ART. The presence of low-level viraemia (LLV) below the definition level of virological failure is a risk factor for ART failure. However, there is no treatment consensus over LLV yet, mainly due to the limitation of standard HIV-RNA genotyping and the resultant insufficient understanding of LLV characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To better profile drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and the associated factors in cases experiencing LLV. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted from 2017 to 2019. HIV-DNA was used as an alternative to HIV-RNA for HIV genotyping coupled with deep sequencing for ART-naive and ART-failure cases, as well as those with LLV. RESULTS: Eighty-one ART-naive, 18 ART-failure and 16 LLV cases received HIV genotyping in the study. Three-quarters (12/16) of cases experiencing LLV harboured DRMs. Cases with LLV had higher prevalence of DRMs to NNRTIs than the ART-naive group (69% versus 20%, P < 0.001), but lower DRM prevalence to NRTIs than the ART-failure group (25% versus 61%, P < 0.001). Approximately half of the LLV cases had issues of suboptimal ART compliance/ART interruption, and 68.8% (11/16) did not display drug resistance to their ART at the time of LLV. CONCLUSIONS: HIV DRM profiles in LLV cases were significantly different to those in ART-naive and ART-failure cases. Approaches to consolidate ART compliance and early exploration of potential ART resistance may be needed for cases experiencing LLV episodes.

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