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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130768, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392120

RESUMO

Apoptosis plays a critical role in sea cucumber autolysis. To investigate the ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis, sea cucumbers with and without injection of BAPTA-AM (cytosolic calcium chelator) were exposed to UV (15 W/m2) for 30 min. The results showed that UV irradiation caused several changes in sea cucumber coelomocytes, including calcium imbalance, abnormal morphology of endoplasmic reticulum, upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins CRT, CHOP, and caspases 9 and 3, and downregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. A comparison between the two groups showed that injection of the calcium chelator into sea cucumbers helped maintain coelomocyte intracellular calcium homeostasis and suppressed other abnormal changes caused by ER stress, indicating apoptosis in sea cucumbers is mediated by calcium imbalance and follows the activation of the ER stress pathway. Therefore, this study broadens understanding of the apoptotic mechanism involved in sea cucumber autolysis, which is helpful in developing preservative agents for sea cucumbers.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Stichopus , Animais , Autólise , Cálcio , Homeostase
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 1943-1950, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212598

RESUMO

In the areas with seasonal drought, water is the key factor affecting plant growth and development. Based on long-term continuous observation data, it is of great significance to explore plant water use patterns for vegetation construction in areas with seasonal drought. Taking Platycladus orientalis in Beijing mountainous area as the research object, stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope technique was applied to measure the isotopic composition of water from the soil, plant branches, and precipitation from 2012 to 2017. The relative contribution of soil water from different soil layers to P. orientalis was quantified by the MixSIAR model. The results showed that soil water in the deep layer (40-100 cm) was more stable than that in the shallow layer (0-40 cm). The variation of soil water content and water isotope values in the shallow layer were more obvious due to the effects of evaporation and precipitation. P. orientalis mainly absorbed stable deep soil water, with a relative contribution rate of 55.7%. In the dry season, with the decreases of soil water content, the absorption depth of plants to soil water gradually shifted to the shallow layer. Under conditions of moist, natural condition, mild drought and moderate drought, the relative contribution rates of deep soil water were 59.8%, 57.9%, 54.6%, 52.7%, respectively. To maintain higher transpiration in the wet season, P. orientalis relied more on deep soil water under mild and moderate drought conditions than in the dry season. Under the conditions of moist, natural condition, mild drought and moderate drought, the relative contribution rates of deep soil water were 58.9%, 57.6%, 56.4%, and 57.1%, respectively. The adaptive characteristic of P. orientalis, which adjusts the depth of root water absorption according to soil moisture condition, is of great significance for tree species selection in ecological afforestation and long-term management planning in areas with seasonal drought.


Assuntos
Secas , Árvores , Pequim , Estações do Ano , Solo , Água
3.
Food Chem ; 351: 129344, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647688

RESUMO

Protein oxidation is considered as an important factor affecting the texture quality of surimi. In this work, the myofibrillar protein (MP) from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) was subjected to a hydroxyl radical generating system at various concentrations of H2O2, to simulate the oxidative environment during surimi processing. After the hydroxyl radical oxidation, it was found that the carbonyl content, surface hydrophobicity, and MP aggregation increased. Meanwhile, the a-helix decreased, but ß-sheet increased after oxidation. The moderate oxidation led to a dense network microstructure, increased water holding capacity (WHC) and decreased water mobility, which ultimately enhanced textural (hardness and springiness increased by 0.51- and 0.06-fold, respectively) and rheological properties of MP gel (MPG). However, excessive oxidation could reduce the mechanical properties of MPG. The microstructure, WHC and water distribution played a key role in the mechanical properties of MPG. This study can provide a theoretical basis for processing of shrimp surimi products.


Assuntos
Anostraca , Fenômenos Químicos , Radical Hidroxila/química , Proteínas Musculares/química , Animais , Géis , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Oxirredução , Reologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Água/química
4.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2673-2680, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790209

RESUMO

The impact of protein oxidation and degradation on texture deterioration of ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimps during storage was investigated. The deterioration in texture during storage was manifested by decreased instrumental hardness, elasticity, chewiness, and recoverability. The occurrence of protein oxidation was revealed by a significant increase in the contents of free radicals and carbonyls. The increases in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide (TCA-soluble peptide) content and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) were also observed, suggesting the degradation of protein. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the decreased instrumental texture parameters were negatively correlated with the increased carbonyl content, TCA-soluble peptide, MFI, porosity, and pore size as well as the decreased water-holding capacity (WHC), thus, it was hypothesized that protein oxidation and degradation were responsible for changes in the microstructure and reduction of WHC, which ultimately resulted in texture deterioration of RTE shrimps.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Palaemonidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Fast Foods/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Radicais Livres/análise , Dureza , Miofibrilas/química , Oxirredução , Água/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 330: 127248, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531638

RESUMO

The effects of endogenous proteolysis and oxidation on mechanical properties of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) during thermal processing and storage and their control were investigated. The lactic acid (LA) + tea polyphenols (TP)-treated sea cucumbers showed relatively higher values in texture and rheological indicators than the blank control group after thermal processing. By contrast, the (LA + TP)-treated sea cucumbers also had lower values in water-soluble hydroxyproline, glycosaminoglycans and proteins, trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide content, and more orderly secondary structure of proteins, indicating that the additives affected the mechanical properties of thermally processed sea cucumbers by preventing the proteolysis of proteins. All texture and rheological indicators of thermally processed sea cucumbers decreased time-dependently during chilled storage. The additives (LA + TP) significantly prevented the progressive deterioration in mechanical properties by retarding the changes in microstructure as well as phase state and distribution of water through preventing protein oxidation.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Hidroxiprolina/química , Oxirredução , Proteólise
6.
Food Res Int ; 133: 109205, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466945

RESUMO

Live sea cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) were stored in a solution containing oxalic acid and tea polyphenols as natural metal ion chelators. The inhibitory effects of these chelators on the autolysis phenomenon and the underlying mechanism of action were investigated for the first time by using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and confocal laser scanning microscopy. External stimuli cause autolysis through the release of calcium ions (Ca2+) from cells into the extracellular connective tissue, initiating activity of the matrix metalloprotease (MMP) in the sea cucumber body wall (SCBW). MMP subsequently degrades the microfibrillar networks, that support the interconnecting collagen fibres and the interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges linking the collagen fibrils, to release the water restricted within the interspaces between collagen fibres and collagen fibrils, ultimately causing mucoid degeneration of SCBW. The natural metal ion chelators significantly inhibited the activation of MMP by chelating Ca2+, consequently effectively preventing the autolysis of SCBW.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Stichopus , Animais , Autólise , Quelantes , Colágeno
7.
Food Chem ; 323: 126790, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305808

RESUMO

Texture deterioration occurs in adductor muscle of scallop (Argopecten irradians) (AMS) after 5 d of cold storage. Principal component analysis indicated the texture deterioration resulted in significant decrease of hardness, springiness, adhesiveness and chewiness, but significantly increased cohesiveness. Endogenous proteases degraded structural proteins, among which cysteine proteases were mainly responsible for myofibrillar proteins (MPs) degradation, while serine proteases degraded both MPs and connective tissue proteins. Pearson coefficient analysis showed that texture indicators significantly correlated with structural protein indicators in AMS. To be more specific, the hardness, springiness, adhesiveness and chewiness negatively correlated with myofibrillar fragmentation index, soluble hydroxyproline (Hyp) and soluble glycosaminoglycans, but positively correlated with solubility of MPs and water holding capacity. Meanwhile, the cohesiveness positively correlated with soluble Hyp. The Taylor diagram and Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed that the inhibitors of cysteine and serine proteases could effectively retard textural deterioration of AMS during 5 d of cold storage.

8.
Food Chem ; 301: 125302, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387034

RESUMO

The autolysis of sea cucumber is caused by depolymerisation of collagen fibres and unfolding of fibrils. In order to highlight the role of collagenase in sea cucumber autolysis, collagen fibres from sea cucumber were hydrolysed with collagenase type I. Electron microscopy (EM) results indicated the collagenase caused partial depolymerisation of collagen fibres into fibrils due to the fracture of proteoglycan interfibrillar bridges, as well as uncoiling of collagen fibrils. Chemical analysis and SDS-PAGE both indicated collagenase induced a time-dependent release of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and soluble proteins, which further demonstrated the degradation of proteoglycan interfibrillar bridges. Collagenase also degraded collagens by releasing soluble hydroxyproline (Hpy), with the dissolution rate of Hyp reaching 11.11% after 72 h. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that collagenase caused the reduction of intermolecular interactions and structural order of collagen. Hence, collagenase participated in the autolysis of sea cucumber by deteriorating both macromolecular and monomeric collagens.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Colagenases/química , Stichopus/química , Animais , Autólise , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colagenases/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Proteoglicanas/química , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Stichopus/anatomia & histologia
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5752-5759, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is easy to autolysis in response to a variety of environmental and mechanical factors. In the current study, collagen fibres were extracted from fresh sea cucumber body wall and then incubated with endogenous matrix metalloprotease (MMP) of sea cucumber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), chemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis were utilized to demonstrate the changes in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and collagen proteins. Moreover, a verification experiment was also carried out to confirm the contribution of MMP to the autolysis of sea cucumber. RESULTS: Endogenous MMP caused complete depolymerization of collagen fibres into smaller collagen fibril bundles and collagen fibrils due to the fracture of proteoglycan interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, endogenous MMP also caused partial degradation of collagen fibrils by releasing soluble hydroxyproline and pyridinium cross-links. Furthermore, the treatment with MMP inhibitor (1,10-phenanthroline) prevented the autolysis of tissue blocks from S. japonicus dermis. CONCLUSION: Endogenous MMP was the key enzyme in the autolysis of sea cucumber, while its action still focused on high-level structures of collagens especially collagen fibres. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Autólise , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Stichopus/enzimologia , Stichopus/fisiologia , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Stichopus/ultraestrutura
10.
Yi Chuan ; 41(3): 262-270, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872262

RESUMO

It has always been a challenge to combine research progress with undergraduate laboratory teaching. Herein we designed a comprehensive experiment to compare classical Mendelian segregation and non-Mendelian distorted segregation by utilizing a rice material (DSSL) containing F1 hybrid male sterility locus S23 constructed previously in our research project. Using the four SSR markers located on two chromosomes of rice, the genotypes of the F2 population and the two parents were analyzed, and the phenotypes of the pollen fertility of the two parents and their F1 plants were investigated. The results not only verified segregation law at the molecular level, but also fully demonstrated the distorted segregation in both genotypes and phenotypes, thus deepening students' understandings of plant genetics and the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes, inspiring students' interests in genetics experiments, and enhancing students' consciousness and enthusiasm for experimental learning. On the basis of this, a sustainable development idea of transforming scientific research progress into teaching applications was conceived to promote the reform and innovation of genetics laboratory teaching.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Genética/educação , Aprendizagem , Oryza/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen , Estudantes
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(3): 727-734, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912363

RESUMO

Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important index to evaluate plant drought resistance. Studying the dynamics of WUE and its influencing factors can provide reference for the vegetation restoration in Beijing mountainous area. We measured WUE of Platycladus orientalis in growing season and investigated the influence of meteorological factors, soil factors, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on WUE, based on the stable carbon isotope techniques. The results showed that: 1) The short-term WUE decreased and then increased in the growing season, with minimum value (2.69 mmol·mol-1) in July and maximum value (13.88 mmol·mol-1) in October. 2) The vapor pressure deficit (VPD) had the most significant impacts on WUE, followed by air temperature (Ta), soil moisture (Ms), relative humidity (RH), and atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca), explaining 89.7% of the total variance. Solar radiation (Ra) and wind speed (Ws) had no impacts on WUE. 3) VPD and Ta are the most two important factors influencing short-term WUE, explaining 53.9% of the total variance. The effects of VPD on short-term WUE was higher than that of Ta. Ms and RH were the second important factors of the short-term WUE, explaining 25.4% of the total variance. The effects of Ms on short-term WUE was higher than that of RH. Ca had little effect on the short-term WUE and could explain 10.3% of the total variance.


Assuntos
Solo , Água , Pequim , Temperatura
12.
Food Chem ; 272: 109-116, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309519

RESUMO

Change in quality of mussels (Mytilus edulis) meat when stored at 4 °C was evaluated by determining volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total oxidation (TOTOX), lipid class, fatty acid (FA), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylcholine (PE) content, and glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species. After 4 days of storage, the percentages of triacylglycerol and polar lipid as well as the contents of PC, PE and major GP molecular species significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while the percentages of free FA and monoacylglycerol significantly increased (P < 0.05), indicating the hydrolysis of lipids. The increase in activities of phospholipase and lipase during storage suggests that they may contribute to the hydrolysis of lipids. The cold storage also resulted in significantly increased POV, TBARS and TOTOX as well as lipoxygenase activity (P < 0.05) but slightly decreased percentage of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), indicating the occurrence of lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Mytilus edulis/química , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicerofosfolipídeos/química , Hidrólise , Lipase/química , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/química
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 29(5): 1381-1388, 2018 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797868

RESUMO

In Zhangbei County, Hebei Province, poplar-dominated shelterbelts are degraded to different extents. Water availability is the main limiting factor for plant survival in arid areas. The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between water availability and poplar degradation. Based on the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope techniques, we explored the water sources of Populus simonii under different degradation degrees by comparing the isotopic values of P. simonii xylem water with that in potential water source, and calculated the utilization ratio of each water source. The results showed that the water sources of poplar trees varied with degradation degree. The water sources of P. simonii gradually transferred from the deep layer to the surface layer with the increases of degradation. P. simonii with no degradation mainly absorbed soil water in the range of 320-400 cm, with the utilization rate being 25.1%. P. simonii with slight degradation mainly used soil water at depth of 120-180, 180-240 and 240-320 cm. The total utilization rate of three layers was close to 50.0%, with less utilization of water from other layers. The moderately degraded P. simonii mainly used soil water at depth of 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm. The utilization rate of each layer was 17.5%-20.9%, and the contribution rate of soil water under 120 cm was less than 10.0%. The severely degraded P. simonii mainly used water from surface soil layer (0-20 cm), with the utilization rate being 30.4%, which was significantly higher than that of other water sources. The water sources of poplar shelter forests were gradually shallower during the process of degradation. However, the low soil water content in the shallow layer could not meet the normal water demand of poplar, which would accelerate the degradation and even decline of poplar.


Assuntos
Populus , Água , China , Florestas , Solo/química
14.
Food Chem ; 256: 113-118, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606426

RESUMO

Trypsin, a representative serine proteinase, was used to hydrolyse the collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to highlight the role of serine proteinase in the autolysis of sea cucumber. Partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils upon trypsin treatment occurred. The trypsin treatment also caused a time-dependent release of water-soluble glycosaminoglycans and proteins. Therefore, the degradation of the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils might account for the disaggregation of collagen fibrils. For trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h), the collagen fibrils still kept their structural integrity and showed characteristic D-banding pattern, and the dissolution rate of hydroxyproline was just 0.21%. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the collagen within trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h) still retaining their triple-helical conformation. These results suggested that serine proteinase participated in the autolysis of S. japonicus body wall by damaging the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils and disintegrating the latter.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Stichopus/química , Tripsina/metabolismo , Animais , Hidrólise , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo
15.
Europace ; 20(11): 1741-1749, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253159

RESUMO

Optogenetics is a cell-type specific and high spatial-temporal resolution method that combines genetic encoding of light-sensitive proteins and optical manipulation techniques. Optogenetics technology provides a novel approach for research on cardiac arrhythmia treatment, including pacing, recovering the conduction system, and achieving cardiac resynchronization with precise and low-energy optical control. Photosensitive proteins, which usually act as ion channels, pumps, or receptors, are delivered to target cells, where they respond to light pulses of specific wavelengths, evoke transient flows of transmembrane ion currents, and induce signal transmission. With the development of gene technology, the in vivo efficiency of optogenetics in cardiology has been trialed, and in vitro experiments have been performed to test its potential in cardiac electrophysiology. Challenges for applying optogenetics in large animals and humans include the effectiveness, safety, and long-term expression of photosensitive proteins, unscattered and unattenuated exogenous light stimulation, and the need for implantable miniature light stimulators. Photosensitive proteins, genetic engineering technology, and light equipment are essential for experiments in cardiac optogenetics. Optogenetics may provide an alternative method for evaluating the mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias, testing hypotheses, and treating cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Optogenética/métodos , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca/métodos , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca/tendências , Humanos
16.
Food Chem ; 240: 1254-1261, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946250

RESUMO

The autolysis of sea cucumber body wall is caused by endogenous proteolysis of its structural elements. However, changes in collagen fibrils, collagen fibres and microfibrils, the major structural elements in sea cucumber body wall during autolysis are less clear. Autolysis of sea cucumber (S. japonicus) was induced by cutting the body wall, and the structural and biochemical changes in its dermis were investigated using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electrophoresis, and chemical analysis. During autolysis, both collagen fibres and microfibrils gradually degraded. In contrast, damage to microfibrils was more pronounced. Upon massive autolysis, collagen fibres disaggregated into collagen fibril bundles and individual fibrils due to the fracture of interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, excessive unfolding of collagen fibrils occurred. However, there was only slight damage to collagen monomers. Therefore, structural damage in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and microfibrils rather than monomeric collagen accounts for autolysis of S. japonicus dermis.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Autólise , Colágeno , Derme , Stichopus
17.
Neural Regen Res ; 12(11): 1905-1910, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239338

RESUMO

Sympathetic nerve and vagus nerve remodeling play an important part in cardiac function post-myocardial infarction (MI). Increasing evidence indicates that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) improves cardiac function following heart failure. Since its impact on cardiac function and neural remodeling post-MI is poorly understood, we aimed to investigate the role of NRG-1 in autonomic nervous system remodeling post-MI. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into three groups: sham (with the left anterior descending coronary artery exposed but without ligation), MI (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation), and MI plus NRG-1 (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation followed by intraperitoneal injection of NRG-1 (10 µg/kg, once daily for 7 days)). At 4 weeks after MI, echocardiography was used to detect the rat cardiac function by measuring the left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter, left ventricular diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-systolic volume, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, and left ventricular fractional shortening. mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, growth associated protein-43 (neuronal specific protein), nerve growth factor, choline acetyltransferase (vagus nerve marker), and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cardiac vagal nerve fiber marker) in ischemic myocardia were detected by real-time PCR and western blot assay to assess autonomous nervous remodeling. After MI, the rat cardiac function deteriorated significantly, and it was significantly improved after NRG-1 injection. Compared with the MI group, mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and growth associated protein-43, as well as choline acetyltransferase mRNA level significantly decreased in the MI plus NRG-1 group, while mRNA and protein levels of nerve growth factor and vesicular acetylcholine transporters, as well as choline acetyltransferase protein level slightly decreased. Our results indicate that NRG-1 can improve cardiac function and regulate sympathetic and vagus nerve remodeling post-MI, thus reaching a new balance of the autonomic nervous system to protect the heart from injury.

18.
Food Chem ; 232: 10-18, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490052

RESUMO

Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that ECP caused partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils by disrupting interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increased structural disorder of fibrillar collagen caused by ECP. SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis indicated that ECP can liberate glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline and collagen fragments from collagen fibres. Thus ECP can cause disintegration of collagen fibres by degrading interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Cisteína Proteases , Derme/química , Pepinos-do-Mar/enzimologia , Animais , Derme/citologia , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Pepinos-do-Mar/citologia , Stichopus
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 28(10): 3174-3180, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692134

RESUMO

This research investigated shelterbelt structure indices using the standard sampling method, to study the dynamic changes of different tree species including Ulmus pumila, Populus simonii and Pinus tabuliformis in the depression area in Xiaobazi Township of Fengning County, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that the average age of U. pumila, P. simonii and P. tabuliformis pure forests was 10 years in this area. The average DBH and tree height of P. simonii pure forest were 2.3 times and 3.8 times as those of U. pumila pure forest, as well as, 2.3 times and 3.0 times as those of P. tabuliformis pure forest, respectively. The average DBH, tree height, LAI and height of first live branch of P. simonii pure forest were significantly larger than those of U. pumila pure forest and P. tabuliformis pure forest. Compared with P. simonii mixed forest, the stand density of P. simonii pure forest was 10.8% higher, average DBH of pure forest was 5.2% lower, and average tree height was 11.3% lower. Compared with U. pumila mixed forest, the stand density of U. pumila pure forest was 6.6% higher, average DBH and tree height of pure forest were 7.8% and 14.2% lower. Compared with P. tabuliformis mixed forest, the stand density of P. tabuliformis pure forest was 4.9% larger, but average DBH and tree height were 29.3% and 31.8% lower, respectively. The average DBH, tree height of different forest types showed significant negative correlation with the stand density. Average LAI showed significant positive correlation with density and height of first live branch, and significant negative correlation with the DBH, tree height. There was a significant positive relationship between the average height of first live branch and stand density. The increments of DBH and tree height of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were significantly higher than those of coniferous pure forest. The comprehensive growth potential of the shelterbelts tended to increase, and the lateral growth potential on the whole exhibited a declining trend.


Assuntos
Florestas , Traqueófitas , China , Pinus , Dinâmica Populacional , Árvores
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 28(7): 2128-2134, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741041

RESUMO

Water use efficiency (WUE) is different among species and regions. Few literatures have been reviewed related to long-term WUE of Platycladus orientalis in mountainous areas of Beijing, China. Tree-ring δ13C of P. orientalis was used to determine the long-term variation of annual intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) and its response to environmental change. Combining with quantification of tree-ring width, the relationship between net carbon sequestration and WUEi of P. orientalis was eventually explored. The results showed that mean annual temperature increased with the increase of time from 1918 to 2013, whereas annual precipitation fiercely fluctuated. Tree-ring δ13C decreased and WUEi increased over time. WUEi was positively related and more sensitive to air temperature increasing than temperature decreasing. Correlation between WUEi and fluctuated annualprecipitation was ambiguous, which indicated the precipitation was not the main factor affecting WUEi. The de-trend tree-ring width of P. orientalis increased initially and then decreased, especially in recent 20 years. According to the correlation between WUEi and environmental factors, temperature resulted in stomatal conductance (gs) decreasing, which caused a reduction in evapotranspiration and an increase in respiratory loss, leading to the increase of WUEi and a down trend in net carbon sequestration and tree growth.


Assuntos
Árvores , Água , Pequim , Isótopos de Carbono , China
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