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1.
Chemosphere ; : 133126, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861266

RESUMO

Microbe induced iron (Fe) reduction play an important role in arsenic (As) transformation and the related secondary mineral formation. Meanwhile biochar could react as electron transfer shuttle for this process. Impact of biochar and model electron transfer shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) on the chemical/biological iron reduction of As (Ⅲ)-adsorbed ferrihydrite and the solid-liquid redistribution of As in M1 buffer were studied. Fe reduction results in the release of As adsorbed on ferrihydrite into the solution. Under abiogenic conditions, both biochar and AQDS promoted ferrous production, the chemical oxidation of As(III) and As release. Inoculate with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, AQDS has greater electronic shuttle function than biochar (with the maximum Fe (Ⅱ) contents: 154 mg/L > 76.6 mg/L respectively). However, only 12.8 mg/L As was released in the presence of AQDS, which was much lower than that in the presence of biochar (21.6 mg/L), and may be associated with the transformation of As speciation and the formation of secondary minerals. XRD and EDX-SEM confirmed that the As could be fixed by the generated secondary mineral vivianite. The relative contents of vivianite in biological control and AQDS addition were 2.7% and 18.4%, respectively. This study provides information on the transformation and migration of As and Fe with the addition of biochar under anaerobic conditions, which is potential to understand the mechanism of As(III)-contaminated soil remediation.

2.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(11): 1038-1044, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809744

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming plays a very important role in the immunoregulatory process, and T cells, as the indispensable part in the immune response, realize the change of function and state through metabolic reprogramming. And endothelial cells exhibit similar metabolic reprogramming. This review explores the interaction between endothelial cells and T cells to reveal the mechanism of the former as non-professional antigen presenting cells to recruit and activate the latter and the specific mechanism of cytokines produced by the latter in inflammatory response to regulate the function and state of the former, aiming to find the potential therapeutic targets for chronic inflammation and provide new ideas for the treatment.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação
3.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839571

RESUMO

Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an important histone demethylase that mediates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). The E239K mutation of LSD1 is identified in a luminal breast cancer patient from COSMIC Breast Cancer dataset. To investigate the functional effects of the E239K mutation of LSD1, a stable LSD1 knockdown MCF7 cell line was generated. Rescued with the wild-type LSD1, but not the E239K mutated LSD1, suppressed the invasion and migration of the LSD1 knockdown cells, demonstrating that the E239K mutation abolished the suppressive effects of LSD1 on the invasion and migration of MCF7 cells. Further analysis showed that the E239K mutation abolished LSD1-mediated invasion and migration of MCF7 cells through downregulation of ERα. Most importantly, the E239K mutation disrupted the interaction between LSD1 and GATA3, which reduced the enrichment of LSD1 at the promoter region of ERα gene, and the reduced enrichment of LSD1 at the promoter region of ERα gene caused enhanced histone H3K9 methylation, which suppressed the transcription of ERα gene subsequently. In summary, the E239K mutation abolishes the suppressive function of LSD1 on migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by disrupting the interaction between LSD1 and GATA3.

4.
J Orthop Translat ; 30: 112-121, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722154

RESUMO

Background/Objective: We seek to figure out the effect of stable and powerful mechanical microenvironment provided by Ti alloy as a part of subchondral bone scaffold on long-term cartilage regeneration.Methods: we developed a bilayered osteochondral scaffold based on the assumption that a stiff subchondral bony compartment would provide stable mechanical support for cartilage regeneration and enhance subchondral bone regeneration. The subchondral bony compartment was prepared from 3D printed Ti alloy, and the cartilage compartment was created from a freeze-dried collagen sponge, which was reinforced by poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). Results: In vitro evaluations confirmed the biocompatibility of the scaffold materials, while in vivo evaluations demonstrated that the mechanical support provided by 3D printed Ti alloy layer plays an important role in the long-term regeneration of cartilage by accelerating osteochondral formation and its integration with the adjacent host tissue in osteochondral defect model at rabbit femoral trochlea after 24 weeks. Conclusion: Mechanical support provided by 3D printing Ti alloy promotes cartilage regeneration by promoting subchondral bone regeneration and providing mechanical support platform for cartilage synergistically. Translational potential statement: The raw materials used in our double-layer osteochondral scaffolds are all FDA approved materials for clinical use. 3D printed titanium alloy scaffolds can promote bone regeneration and provide mechanical support for cartilage regeneration, which is very suitable for clinical scenes of osteochondral defects. In fact, we are conducting clinical trials based on our scaffolds. We believe that in the near future, the scaffold we designed and developed can be formally applied in clinical practice.

5.
Chemosphere ; : 132705, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710448

RESUMO

Atmospheric reaction mechanism and dynamics of phenol with nitrogen dioxide dimer were explored by the density functional theory and high-level quantum chemistry combined with statistical kinetic calculations within 220-800 K. The nitric acid and phenyl nitrite, the typical aerosol precursors, are the preponderant products because of the low formation free energy barrier (∼8.7 kcal/mol) and fast rate constants (∼10-15 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K). Phenyl nitrate is the minor product and it would be also formed from the transformation of phenyl nitrite in NO2-rich environment. More importantly, kinetic effects and catalytic mechanism of a series of metal-free catalysts (H2O, NH3, CH3NH2, CH3NHCH3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH) on the title reaction were investigated at the same level. The results indicate that CH3NH2 and CH3NHCH3 can not only catalyze the title reaction by lowering the free energy barrier (about 1.4-6.5 kcal/mol) but also facilitate the production of organic ammonium nitrate via acting as a donor-acceptor of hydrogen. Conversely, the other species are non-catalytic upon the title reaction. The stabilization energies and donor-acceptor interactions in alkali-catalyzed product complexes were explored, which can provide new insights to the properties of aerosol precursors. Moreover, the lifetime of phenol determined by nitrogen dioxide dimer in the presence of dimethylamine may compete with that of determined by OH radicals, indicating that nitrogen dioxide dimer is responsible for the elimination of phenol in the polluted atmosphere. This work could help us thoroughly understand the removal of nitrogen oxides and phenol as well as new aerosol precursor aggregation in vehicle exhaust.

6.
J Adv Res ; 33: 215-225, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603791

RESUMO

Introduction: Longxuetongluo Capsule (LTC) is wildly applied to treat ischemic stroke in clinical practice in China. However, the pharmacological mechanism of LTC on ischemic stroke is still unstated. Objective: Our research was designed to study the protective effect of LTC against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and reveal the underlying mechanism both in vivo and in vitro. Methods: PC12 cells treated with glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) were used to simulate in vitro ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The cell viability, apoptosis rate, and protein expressions of PC12 cells were evaluated. In vivo validation of the protective effect of LTC was carried out by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion treatment, and the underlying mechanism of its anti-apoptosis ability was further revealed by immunohistochemistry staining and Western blotting. Results: In the current study, we observed that LTC effectively inhibited oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced apoptosis of PC12 cells through suppressing the cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase-3, and caspase-9. Further investigation revealed that OGD/R insult remarkably triggered the endoplasmic reticulum stress responses (ER stress) to induce PC12 cell apoptosis. LTC treatment alleviated OGD/R induced ER stress by inhibiting the activation of protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) and inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)/tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) pathways. Additionally, LTC also restrained the OGD/R-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by reversing the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) through IRE1/TRAF2 pathway. Animal studies demonstrated LTC significantly restricted the infarct region induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion, the activation of ER stress and apoptosis of neuronal cells had also been suppressed by LTC in the penumbra region. Conclusion: LTC protects the cerebral neuronal cell against ischemia/reperfusion injury through ER stress and MAPK-mediated mechanisms.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 704112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483906

RESUMO

Metformin is the first-line anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes. It has been found to significantly reduce liver aminotransferase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether metformin improves NAFLD progression remains controversial. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, plays a vital role in hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Here, we investigated the effect of metformin on steatohepatitis and the role of SIRT1 in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The results showed that metformin significantly reduced body weight and fat mass of DIO mice. In addition, metformin also alleviated adiposity and hepatic steatosis, and greatly upregulated uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in adipose tissues of DIO mice. Unexpectedly, the effects of metformin on reducing body weight and alleviating hepatic steatosis were not impaired in Sirt1 heterozygous knockout (Sirt1 +/- ) mice. However, SIRT1-deficiency remarkably impaired the effects of metformin on lowering serum transaminases levels, downregulating the mRNA expression of proinflammatory factors, and increasing the protein level of hepatic Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase (CH25H), a cholesterol hydroxylase in cholesterol catabolism. In summary, we demonstrated that metformin alleviates steatohepatitis in a SIRT1-dependent manner, and modulation of M1 polarization and cholesterol metabolism may be the underlying mechanism.

8.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 736063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589474

RESUMO

For achieving early intervention treatment to help patients delay or avoid joint replacement surgery, a personalized scaffold should be designed coupling the effects of mechanical, fluid mechanical, chemical, and biological factors on tissue regeneration, which results in time- and cost-consuming trial-and-error analyses to investigate the in vivo test and related experimental tests. To optimize the fluid mechanical and material properties to predict osteogenesis and cartilage regeneration for the in vivo and clinical trial, a simulation approach is developed for scaffold design, which is composed of a volume of a fluid model for simulating the bone marrow filling process of the bone marrow and air, as well as a discrete phase model and a cell impingement model for tracking cell movement during bone marrow fillings. The bone marrow is treated as a non-Newtonian fluid, rather than a Newtonian fluid, because of its viscoelastic property. The simulation results indicated that the biofunctional bionic scaffold with a dense layer to prevent the bone marrow flow to the cartilage layer and synovia to flow into the trabecular bone area guarantee good osteogenesis and cartilage regeneration, which leads to high-accuracy in vivo tests in sheep . This approach not only predicts the final bioperformance of the scaffold but also could optimize the scaffold structure and materials by their biochemical, biological, and biomechanical properties.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 712045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458150

RESUMO

EIF4A3, a member of the DEAD-box protein family, is a nuclear matrix protein and a core component of the exon junction complex (EJC). Under physiological conditions, EIF4A3 participates in post-transcriptional gene regulation by promoting EJC control of precursor mRNA splicing, thus influencing nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. In addition, EIF4A3 maintains the expression of significant selenoproteins, including phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase 1. Several recent studies have shown that EIF4A3 promotes tumor growth in multiple human cancers such as glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer. Molecular biology studies also showed that EIF4A3 is recruited by long non-coding RNAs to regulate the expression of certain proteins in tumors. However, its tumor-related functions and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we review the physiological role of EIF4A3 and the potential association between EIF4A3 overexpression and tumorigenesis. We also evaluate the protein's potential utility as a diagnosis biomarker, therapeutic target, and prognosis indicator, hoping to provide new ideas for future research.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388259

RESUMO

Exosomes are released from a variety of immune cells and nonimmune cells, the phospholipid vesicle bilayer membrane structure actively secreted into tissues. Recently, exosomes were demonstrated to be effectively delivered proteins, cholesterol, lipids, and amounts of DNA, mRNA, and noncoding RNAs to a target cell or tissue from a host cell. These can be detected in blood, urine, exhaled breath condensates, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), ascites, and cerebrospinal fluid. BALF is a clinical examination method for obtaining alveolar cells and biochemical components, reflecting changes in the lungs, so it is also called liquid biopsy. Exosomes from BALF become a new method for intercellular communication and well-documented in various pulmonary diseases. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), BALF exosomes can predict the degree of COPD damage and serve as an effective monitoring indicator for airflow limitation and airway remodeling. It also mediates antigen presentation in the airways to the adaptive immune system as well as costimulatory effects. Furthermore, BALF exosomes from acute lung injury and infective diseases are closely related to various infections and lack of oxygen status. BALF exosomes play an important role in the diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer. The effect of immunomodulatory role for BALF exosomes in adaptive and innate immune responses has been studied in sarcoidosis. The intercellular communication in the microenvironment of BALF exosomes in pulmonary fibrosis and lung remodeling have been studied. In this review, we summarize the novel findings of exosomes in BALF, executed function by protein, miRNA, DNA cytokine, and so on in several pulmonary diseases.

11.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3451-3461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408399

RESUMO

Purpose: Erianin is a small chemical compound extracted from Dendrobium chrysotoxum and has excellent antineoplastic effects against a variety of cancers. Combretastatin A-4 (CA4) is the most effective member of natural phenolic stilbene compounds isolated from the African willow tree Combretum caffrum. Ecust004 (Chemical Formula: C18H21NO7S) is a drug candidate optimized from structure-activity relationship studies of the sulfamate derivatives of Erianin and CA4, which has better bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles than Erianin and CA4. Methods: To investigate the antitumor activity of Ecust004 in different types of breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells were treated with Ecust004. MTT and CCK8 were used to determine the effects of Ecust004 on cell proliferation. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were used to evaluate the migration and invasion level of cells treated with Ecust004. The expression of genes and proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. In vivo studies further clarified the functional effects of Ecust004. Results: Ecust004 treatment decreased the growth and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells at a lower dosage than Erianin. In addition, compared to Erianin and CA4, Ecust004 can better inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. Accordingly, the expression of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, such as E-cadherin and vinculin, was increased. Finally, compared with Erianin and CA4, Ecust004 exhibited a better anti-tumor activity in vivo. Conclusion: Ecust004 inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of breast cancer cells, and therefore represents a potential agent for development as an antitumor drug.

12.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1316-1326, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of PPM1K rs1440581 and rs7678928 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: Anthropometric and biochemical examinations were performed at baseline and the end of 4 years in 234 individuals who were randomly recruited from the Diabetes Prevention Programme in Huai'an and received lifestyle intervention and follow up for 4 years. Serum BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine and valine (Val)) levels were measured by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method and the PPM1K rs1440581 and rs7678928 were detected by high-throughput SNP genotyping at baseline. The associations of rs1440581 and rs7678928 with serum BCAA levels and risk for CVD after 4 years were further evaluated. RESULTS: The distribution frequencies of PPM1K rs1440581 and rs7678928 met the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p> .05). The baseline serum levels of Val (p = .022) and total BCAAs (p = .026) in subjects with rs1440581 CC genotype were higher than in those with TT genotype. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of BCAAs among subjects with different genotypes of rs7678928. After 4-year follow-up, the subjects with rs1440581 CC genotype had higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = .027), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p = .019), triglycerides (TGs) (p = .019) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (p = .008) than those with TT genotype, and had higher AST level than those with TT (p = .030) or TC (p = .003) genotype; the subjects with rs7678928 TT genotype had higher SBP (p = .039) and DBP (p = .019) and lower HDL-c than those with CC (p = .017) genotype. Lifestyle intervention had little influence on the serum levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TG, HDL-c, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), AST and creatinine (CREA) in subjects with rs1440581 CC genotype or rs7678928 TT genotype (p> .05). The incidences of CVD and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in subjects with rs1440581 CC genotype were higher than in those with TT genotype; the incidence of CVD in subjects with rs7678928 TT genotype was higher than in those with CC (p < .05) genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Allele C of PPM1K rs1440581 was associated with elevated serum Val, total BCAAs and CVD risks. rs1440581 CC genotype may be a better marker than baseline serum BCAAs in predicting the risk for CVD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Diabetes Prevention Programme in Huai'an of Huai'an Second People's Hospital, ChiCTR-TRC-14005029.KEY MESSAGEAllele C of PPM1K rs1440581 was relevant to elevated serum Val and total BCAAs.PPM1K rs1440581 CC and rs7678928 TT genotypes were associated with CVD risk.PPM1K rs1440581 CC genotype carriers were more likely to have liver injury and develop NAFLD.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 692509, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335602

RESUMO

Hantaan virus (HTNV) infects humans and causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The development of well-characterized animal models of HFRS could accelerate the testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents and provide a useful tool for studying the pathogenesis of HFRS. Because NLRC3 has multiple immunoregulatory roles, we investigated the susceptibility of Nlrc3-/- mice to HTNV infection in order to establish a new model of HFRS. Nlrc3-/- mice developed weight loss, renal hemorrhage, and tubule dilation after HTNV infection, recapitulating many clinical symptoms of human HFRS. Moreover, infected Nlrc3-/- mice showed higher viral loads in serum, spleen, and kidney than wild type C57BL/6 (WT) mice, and some of them manifested more hematological disorders and significant pathological changes within multiple organs than WT mice. Our results identify that HTNV infected Nlrc3-/- mice can develop clinical symptoms and pathological changes resembling patients with HFRS, suggesting a new model for studying the pathogenesis and testing of candidate vaccines and therapeutics.

14.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 158, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193839

RESUMO

Plant glandular trichomes (GTs) are epidermal outgrowths with the capacity to biosynthesize and secrete specialized metabolites, that are of great scientific and practical significance. Our understanding of the developmental process of GTs is limited, and no single plant species serves as a unique model. Here, we review the genetic mechanisms of GT initiation and development and provide a summary of the biosynthetic pathways of GT-specialized metabolites in nonmodel plant species, especially horticultural crops. We discuss the morphology and classification of GT types. Moreover, we highlight technological advancements in methods employed for investigating GTs. Understanding the molecular basis of GT development and specialized metabolites not only offers useful avenues for research in plant breeding that will lead to the improved production of desirable metabolites, but also provides insights for plant epidermal development research.

15.
Food Chem ; 365: 130508, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247046

RESUMO

Efforts to obtain organic trace elements have been made, including yeast enrichment and transformation, but the application of yeast for this purpose is restricted by poor tolerance and low enrichment. Siderophores play an important role in iron transport. Thus, the role of siderophores in iron transport under high-iron conditions and the application of siderophores in the enrichment of elements was explored. The results showed that some siderophores from iron-tolerant strains promoted yeast growth and increased its intracellular iron content. Among them, siderophore TZT-12 (from LK1110) was the best for promoting yeast growth and iron conversion. The siderophore-iron-enriched yeast (S-iron-enriched yeast) effectively restored the iron concentration, and an iron concentration of 59.40 mg/g was obtained by adding TZT-12. Iron deficiency anemia in rats was significantly mitigated with S-iron-enriched yeast compared with ferrous sulfate. These findings provide a new perspective on the preparation of organic trace elements for supplementation or food fortification.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Oligoelementos , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ferro , Ratos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sideróforos
16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(16): e2100965, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174177

RESUMO

Rapid progress has been made to identify and study the causative agent leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but many questions including who is most susceptible and what determines severity remain unanswered. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key factor in the infection process of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, molecularly specific positron emission tomography imaging agents for targeting ACE2 are first developed, and these novel agents are evaluated in vitro, in preclinical model systems, and in a first-in-human translational ACE2 imaging of healthy volunteers and a SARS-CoV-2 recovered patient (NCT04422457). ACE2 expression levels in different organs in live subjects are quantitatively delineated and observable differences are measured in the patient recovered from COVID-19. Surprising sites of uptake in the breast, reproductive system and very low uptake in pulmonary tissues are reported. This novel method can add a unique tool to facilitate SARS-CoV-2 related research and improve understanding of this enigmatic disease. Molecular imaging provides quantitative annotation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor, to noninvasively monitor organs impacted by the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Radioisótopos de Gálio/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 12: 507-516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136326

RESUMO

Safety concerns require the frequently check for leaks in gas pipelines. Also, in coal mines the type gases permeating from the ground need to be monitored. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) can be applied for gas sensing without external power supply. In this paper, a two-dimensional model of a TENG was established, and a gas jet a rectangular cross section was added between two triboelectric materials. The TENG could generate distinguishable electrical signals according to the different types of gas and the different gas injection areas. This work contributes to the area of self-powered gas sensing.

18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 652, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079056

RESUMO

Hantaan viruses (HTNVs) are zoonotic pathogens transmitted mainly by rodents and capable of infecting humans. Increasing knowledge of the human response to HTNV infection can guide the development of new preventative vaccines and therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that HTNV can infect CD8+ T cells in vivo in patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Electron microscopy-mediated tracking of the life cycle and ultrastructure of HTNV-infected CD8+ T cells in vitro showed an association between notable increases in cytoplasmic multivesicular bodies and virus production. Notably, based on a clinical cohort of 280 patients, we found that circulating HTNV-infected CD8+ T cell numbers in blood were proportional to disease severity. These results demonstrate that viral infected CD8+ T cells may be used as an adjunct marker for monitoring HFRS disease progression and that modulating T cell functions may be explored for new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Vírus Hantaan/imunologia , Vírus Hantaan/patogenicidade , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/ultraestrutura , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/ultraestrutura , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Vírus Hantaan/fisiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/sangue , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Vírion/imunologia , Vírion/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(15): 18237-18246, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843205

RESUMO

Membrane separation has been considered as one of the most revolutionary technologies for the removal of oils, dyes, or other pollutants from wastewater. However, most membranes still face great challenges in water permeability, antifouling property, and even antibiotic ability. Possessing a pathogen-repellent surface is of great significance as it can enable membranes to minimize the presence of active viral pathogens. Herein, we demonstrate a distinct design with a molecular dynamics simulation-guided experiment for the surface domination of antibiotic zwitterionic nanogel membranes. The zwitterionic nanoparticle gel (ZNG)/Cu2+/glutaraldehyde (GA) synergy system is first simulated by introducing a ZNG into a preset CuCl2 brine solution and into a GA ethanol solution, in which the nanogel is observed to initially swell and subsequently shrink with the increase of GA concentration, leading to the membrane surface structure transition. Then, the corresponding experiments are performed under strict conditions, and the results suggest the surface structure transition from nanoparticles to network nanoflowers, which are consistent with the simulated results. The obtained network structure membrane with superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic abilities can significantly enhance the water permeability as high as almost 40% with its original rejection rate in comparison with unoptimizable ZNG-PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membranes. Moreover, the obtained membrane achieves additional excellent antibiofouling capacity with the antibiotic efficiency exceeding 99.3%, manifesting remarkable potential for disinfection applications. By comparison, the conventional antibiotic methods generally improve the membrane's antibiotic property solely but can hardly improve the other properties of the membrane. That is to say, our simulation combined with the experimental strategy significantly improved the zwitterionic membrane property in this work, which provides a new perspective on the design of high-performance functional materials.

20.
Nano Lett ; 21(9): 3887-3893, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904733

RESUMO

Far-field super-resolution optical microscopies have achieved incredible success in life science for visualization of vital nanostructures organized in single cells. However, such resolution power has been much less extended to material science for inspection of human-made ultrafine nanostructures, simply because the current super-resolution optical microscopies modalities are rarely applicable to nonfluorescent samples or unlabeled systems. Here, we report an antiphase demodulation pump-probe (DPP) super-resolution microscope for direct optical inspection of integrated circuits (ICs) with a lateral resolution down to 60 nm. Because of the strong pump-probe (PP) signal from copper, we performed label-free super-resolution imaging of multilayered copper interconnects on a small central processing unit (CPU) chip. The label-free super-resolution DPP optical microscopy opens possibilities for easy, fast, and large-scale electronic inspection in the whole pipeline chain for designing and manufacturing ICs.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Nanoestruturas , Humanos
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