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1.
Life Sci ; 284: 119906, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478761

RESUMO

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Cd exposure on lipid metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction and to explore the role of mitophagy in Cd-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in chicken embryo liver tissues and hepatocytes. To this end, seven-day-old chicken embryos were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and primary chicken embryo hepatocytes were treated with Cd at four different concentrations for 6 h. Furthermore, the mitophagy inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) was used to investigate the role of mitophagy in Cd-induced disruption of lipid metabolism. Lipid accumulation, the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitophagy were measured. The results demonstrated that Cd exposure increases hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation and the expression levels of lipogenic genes while decreasing those of lipolytic genes. Furthermore, Cd exposure was observed to alter mitochondrial morphology in terms of reduced size, excessive mitochondrial damage, and the formation of mitophagosomes. The co-localization of lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 and LC3 puncta was significantly increased in primary chicken embryo hepatocytes after Cd exposure. Moreover, Cd exposure increased LC3, PINK1, and Parkin protein expression levels. CsA effectively alleviated Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, blocked mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and suppressed PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Furthermore, CsA treatment reversed the Cd-induced TG accumulation in liver tissues but further increased it in hepatocytes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate (for the first time) the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy via the PINK1/Parkin pathway in Cd-induced disruption of lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Mitofagia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/embriologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/ultraestrutura , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127110, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523489

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a known nephrotoxic heavy metal and proximal tubules are the major target of Cd-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We previously demonstrated that lysosomal dysfunction and dysregulated autophagy contribute to Cd-induced AKI. Recent studies have revealed that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is a transcriptional repressor of autophagy and lysosomal function. Hence, in vivo and in vitro studies were performed to clarify the role of BRD4 in Cd-induced AKI. Firstly, Cd has no effect on BRD4 expression levels, but increases H4K16 acetylation. Resultantly, Cd promotes the recruitment of BRD4 to lysosomal gene promoter regions to make it as a transcriptional regulator. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of BRD4 alleviates Cd-inhibited lysosomal gene transcript levels and lysosomal function, leading to the alleviation of Cd-induced autophagy inhibition. Moreover, inhibition of BRD4 relieves Cd-induced oxidative stress and concurrent cytotoxicity, which is counteracted by the inhibition of autophagy via Atg5 knockdown, indicating that alleviation of oxidative stress by BRD4 inhibition is ascribed to its restoration of autophagic flux. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BRD4 acts as a transcriptional repressor to mediate lysosomal dysfunction, autophagy blockade and oxidative stress during Cd exposure, which may be a potential therapeutic target for Cd-induced AKI.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9451-9460, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372660

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a common toxic heavy metal pollutant in the environment that seriously endangers the health of animals. The liver is a key target organ affected by Pb toxicity. Plant extracts allicin and quercetin have a strong antioxidant capacity that can promote the excretion of heavy metals by improving the body's antioxidant defense and chelating heavy metal ions. To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of allicin and quercetin on Pb poisoning in chickens, 96 chickens were randomly divided into eight groups: control, Pb, allicin, quercetin, allicin + quercetin, Pb + allicin, Pb + quercetin, and Pb + allicin + quercetin groups. The chickens were given feed containing the above treatments for 90 days. The results indicated that Pb can affect the growth and development of the liver, damage the circulatory system, destroy the structure of mitochondria and nuclei in liver cells, cause an imbalance in the oxidation system, inhibit PI3K protein, and activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Allicin and quercetin, alone or in combination, can improve the antioxidant capacity of the liver and alleviate liver tissue damage caused by Pb. In summary, allicin and quercetin could alleviate oxidative damage and apoptosis in the Pb-poisoned chicken liver through the PI3K signaling pathway, with stronger effects achieved by their combination.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Quercetina , Animais , Galinhas , Dissulfetos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ácidos Sulfínicos
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356602

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a potential pathogenic factor in the nervous system associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Puerarin (Pur) is an isoflavone purified from the Chinese medical herb, kudzu root, and exhibits antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in the brain. In this study, the detailed mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective potential of Pur against Cd-induced neuronal injury was evaluated for the first time in vivo in a rat model and in vitro using primary rat cerebral cortical neurons. The results of the in vivo experiments showed that Pur ameliorated Cd-induced neuronal injury, reduced Cd levels in the cerebral cortices, and stimulated Cd excretion in Cd-treated rats. We also observed that the administration of Pur rescued Cd-induced oxidative stress, and attenuated Cd-induced apoptosis by concomitantly suppressing both the Fas/FasL and mitochondrial pathways in the cerebral cortical neurons of rats both in vivo and in vitro. Our results demonstrate that Pur exerted its neuroprotective effects by stimulating Cd excretion, ameliorating Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat cerebral cortical neurons.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio , Córtex Cerebral , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Córtex Cerebral/lesões , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Differentiation ; 121: 35-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454349

RESUMO

Osteoclastogenesis is induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and can be suppressed by osteoprotegerin (OPG). Beclin1 has a dual role in osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of Beclin1-mediated autophagy during OPG-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. Here, we found that Beclin1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression were increased during osteoclastogenesis. OPG (20, 40, and 80 ng/mL) decreased Src and MMP-9 expression, but augmented Beclin1 expression and fluorescence intensity. Similarly, treatment with the autophagy activator rapamycin increased Beclin1 expression during OPG-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Further, Beclin1 knockdown restored osteoclast numbers by reducing autophagy during OPG-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. These results indicate that Beclin1 has a positive role during OPG-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by regulating autophagy, which might provide a potential basis for osteoclastogenesis.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112620, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392152

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) has been described as a potential inflammatory inducer, while increasing evidence shows that inappropriate inflammation is a contributing factor to kidney injury. Hence, research on Cd-triggered inflammatory response is of great significance for elucidating the mechanism of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4) is an important epigenetic regulator involved in the development of many inflammatory diseases, but its regulatory roles in Cd-triggered inflammatory response remain to be clarified. Here, we found that treatment with Cd in Sprague-Dawley rats (2 mg/kg bw, i.p., 5 consecutive days) and in rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E, 0-10 µM, 12 h) induced the transcription of inflammatory cytokines, which could be reduced by JQ1 (BRD4 inhibitor, 25 mg/kg bw, i.p., 3 consecutive days in vivo; 0.5 µM, 12 h in vitro) or BRD4 small interfering RNA (siRNA, in vitro), suggesting that BRD4 participates in Cd-triggered inflammatory response. Next, our study clarified the roles of BRD4 in Cd-triggered inflammatory response. The inhibition of BRD4 decreased Cd-promoted NF-κB nuclear translocation and activation in vivo and in vitro. Cd increased the acetylation level of RelA K310 and enhanced BRD4 binding to acetylated NF-κB RelA in vivo and in vitro, which were abrogated by inhibiting BRD4. In summary, our study suggests that BRD4 is involved in Cd-triggered transcription of inflammatory cytokines by mediating the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and increasing itself binding to acetylated NF-κB RelA in rat kidney, therefore, BRD4 could be a potential therapeutic target for Cd-induced renal diseases.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117514, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261220

RESUMO

Based on the fact that mycotoxins and the food-borne bacteria coexist in the natural environment and pose a significant health hazard to humans and animals, it is important to investigate the immunosuppressive mechanism of ZEA (zearalenone), DON (deoxynivalenol), and their combination in bacterial infections. In this study, we established a mouse model of mycotoxin low-dose exposure combined with Listeria monocytogenes infection and investigated the effects of ZEA, DON and their combination on Th1-mediated anti-intracellular bacterial infection based on CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation using both in vitro and in vivo analyses. The present study showed that both ZEA and DON aggravated Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice and affected the activation of CD4+ T cells and Th1 differentiation, including the effects on costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD152 and on cross-linking of IL-12 and IL-12R, by inhibiting T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. When compared with ZEA, DON was found to have a greater impact on many related indicators. Surprisingly, the combined effects of ZEA and DON did not appear to enhance toxicity compared to treatment with the individual mycotoxins. Our findings more clearly revealed that exposure to low-dose ZEA and DON caused immunosuppression in the body by mechanisms including inhibition of CD4+ T cells activation and reduction of Th1 cell differentiation, thus exacerbating infection of animals by Listeria monocytogenes.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Zearalenona , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Diferenciação Celular , Imunidade Celular , Camundongos , Linfócitos T , Tricotecenos
8.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 104, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256834

RESUMO

In bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs), a cascade of inflammatory reactions induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to result in cell injury and apoptosis. The present study aims to reveal the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA) on LPS-induced BMEC apoptosis and explore its potential molecular mechanisms. First, we showed that FA had low cytotoxicity to BMECs and significantly decreased cell apoptosis and the proinflammatory response induced by LPS. Next, FA blocked LPS-induced oxidative stress by restoring the balance of the redox state and inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction, the main contributor to LPS-induced apoptosis and ROS generation. Furthermore, the relief of inflammation and redox disturbance in the FA preconditioning group were accompanied by weaker NF-κB activation, enhanced Nrf2 activation and maintained cell viability compared to the LPS group. When BMECs were treated with FA alone, we observed that Nrf2 activation was induced before the inhibition of NF-κB activation and that the Keap1-Nrf2 relationship was disturbed. We concluded that FA prevented LPS-induced BMEC apoptosis by reversing the dominant relationship between NF-κB and Nrf2.

9.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308505

RESUMO

Mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) play a key role in several physiological functions, including calcium ion (Ca2+) transfer and autophagy; however, the molecular mechanism controlling this interaction in cadmium (Cd)-induced neurotoxicity is unknown. This study shows that Cd induces alterations in MAMs and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Ablation or silencing of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in PC12 cells or primary neurons blocks the colocalization of ER and mitochondria while reducing the efficiency of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Moreover, Mfn2 defects reduce interactions or colocalization between GRP75 and VDAC1. Interestingly, the enhancement of autophagic protein levels, colocalization of LC3 and Lamp2, and GFP-LC3 puncta induced by Cd decreased in Mfn2-/- or Grp75-/- PC12 cells and Mfn2- or Grp75-silenced primary neurons. Notably, the specific Ca2+ uniporter inhibitor RuR blocked both mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and autophagy induced by Cd. Finally, this study proves that the mechanism by which IP3R-Grp75-VDAC1 tethers in MAMs is associated with the regulation of autophagy by Mfn2 and involves their role in mediating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake from ER stores. These results give new evidence into the organelle metabolic process by demonstrating that Ca2+ transport between ER-mitochondria is important in autophagosome formation in Cd-induced neurodegeneration.

10.
Metallomics ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185081

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal and an environmental pollutant and can cause neurotoxicity by inducing apoptosis. Fas (CD95/Apo-1) is a cell-surface receptor that triggers apoptosis upon ligand binding, mediated through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of Fas in Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis remain understudied. Here, we demonstrate that activation of caspase-8 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway are mechanisms underlying Cd-induced Fas-mediated activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in rat cerebral cortical neurons. In vitro, Cd induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons by activating caspase-8, JNK, and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Fas knockdown enhanced cell viability in the presence of Cd and inhibited apoptosis by blocking Cd-activated Fas, caspase-8, and JNK. Fas knockdown also inhibited the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, cleavage of caspase-9/3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, and impaired nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. In vivo, Fas knockdown alleviated Cd-induced neuronal injury and inhibited apoptosis, activation of caspase-8, JNK, and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in rat cerebral cortical neurons. In summary, our results demonstrate that Cd-activated Fas relays apoptotic signals from the cell surface to the mitochondria via caspase-8 and JNK activation in rat cerebral cortical neurons, leading to aggravation of the neuronal injury.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112367, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052758

RESUMO

Zearalenone, which is ubiquitous in grains and animal feed, is a mycotoxin that can cause serious damage to animals and humans. Sertoli cells (SCs) can be used to study ZEA male reproductive toxicity in vitro. SCs provide energy for germ cells, where AMPK regulates intracellular energy. In order to explore the regulatory effect of AMPK on ZEA-induced lactate decline, we activated AMPK by AICAR and then inhibited AMPK by Compound C with ZEA-treated SCs for 24 h to detect intracellular lactate production-related indicators. Cell viability in the presence of 20 µmol/L ZEA and either 50 µmol/L AICAR or 5 µmol/L Compound C, respectively, did not damage SCs, and could effectively either activate or inhibit AMPK. Inhibition of AMPK promoted the production of pyruvate and lactate via increased expression of the glycolysis-related genes Pgam1 and the lactate production-related proteins GLUT1, LDHA, and MCT4. Activating AMPK inhibited the production of lactate and pyruvate by suppressing the expression of glycolysis-related genes HK1, Pgam1, and Gpi1 and that of lactate production-related proteins LDHA and MCT4. Zearalenone destroys the energy balance in SCs, activates P-AMPK, which inhibit the production of lactate and pyruvate in SCs. This also leads to the decrease of energy supply of SCs to spermatogenic cells, damages to reproductive system.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/genética , Masculino , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ratos , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112306, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984557

RESUMO

Cadmium is an environmental pollutant that has extensive deleterious effects on the reproductive system. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of cadmium on preimplantation embryos are unclear. Here, we used a mouse model to investigate the effects of maternal cadmium (32 mg/l) exposure in drinking water for 2 days on early embryonic development, and studied the mechanisms associated with epigenetic modifications and DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. We observed that maternal cadmium exposure impaired preimplantation embryo development by inducing embryo death, fragmentation, or developmental blockade. After cadmium exposure, the most survived embryos were at the 8-cell stage, which were used for all measurements. Histone acetylation, not methylation, was disturbed by increasing histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) levels after cadmium exposure. Cadmium also disrupted DNA methylation of H19; however genomic DNA methylation can be normally reprogrammed in embryos. Furthermore, cadmium increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and DNA damage, and partly inhibited gene expression related to DNA repair. The distribution and activity of mitochondria was increased; therefore, embryos maintain intracellular homeostasis for survival. Collectively, our findings revealed that maternal cadmium exposure impairs preimplantation embryo development by disturbing the epigenetic modification and inducing DNA damage.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Histona Desacetilase 1 , Camundongos , Gravidez
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112058, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714136

RESUMO

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a nuclear transcription factor of great concern which is widely involved in physiological and pathological processes of the organism, but the role and regulatory mechanism of Nrf2 in kidney exposed to cadmium (Cd) remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that Cd exposure induced injury in primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells and NRK-52E cell line, which was accompanied by autophagic flux blockade and subsequent accumulation of p62. Cd-activated nucleus translocation of Nrf2 depended on p62, which promoted antioxidant genes transcription, but it failed to against Cd-induced cell injury and ultimately succumbed to Cd toxicity. CDDO Methyl Ester (CDDO-ME) or ML385 treatment aggravated or alleviated rPT cells injury induced by Cd respectively, indicating that Nrf2 nucleus translocation played a negative role during Cd-induced rPT cells injury. Phosphorylation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) decreased together with enhanced Nrf2 nucleus translocation in rPT cells exposed to Cd. Dephosphorylation of AMPK induced by Cd were facilitated or restored by CDDO-ME or ML385 treatment, which confirmed AMPK is a downstream factor of Nrf2. Simultaneously, CDDO-ME further enhanced Phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT which increased during Cd exposure. While, Cd-induced phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT were reversed by ML385 treatment. These results illustrated that Cd mediated Nrf2 nucleus translocation depends on p62 accumulation which results from autophagic flux inhibition. The enhanced nucleus translocation of Nrf2 suppresses phosphorylation of AMPK to inactivate AKT/mTOR signaling, and results in rPT cells injury finally.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
15.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 415: 115441, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556388

RESUMO

The immunotoxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), two of the most common environmental mycotoxins, has been well investigated. However, due to the complexity of the immune system, especially during bacterial infection, many types of immune cells are involved in invasion resistance and bacterial clearance. Of these, T helper 2 (Th2) cells, which are members of the helper T cell family, assist B cells to activate and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells, participate in humoral immune response, and, ultimately, eliminate pathogens. Thus, it is important to identify the stage at which these toxins affect the immune function, and to clarity the underlying mechanisms. In this study, mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) were used to study the effects of ZEA, DON, and ZEA + DON on Th2 differentiation, Interleukin-4 Receptor (IL-4R) expression, costimulatory molecules expression and cytokine secretion after Listeria infection. Naive CD4+ T cells, isolated from mice, were used to verify the in vivo effects and the associated mechanisms. In vivo experiments showed that these toxins aggravated spleen damage after Listeria infection and reduced the differentiation of Th2 cells by affecting the synthesis of IL-4R of CD4+ T cells. In addition, the level of the costimulatory molecule CD154 decreased. Consistent with this, in vitro studies showed that these toxins inhibited the differentiation of mouse naive CD4+ T cell into Th2 subtype and decreased IL-4R levels. In addition, the levels of costimulatory molecules CD154, CD278 and the Th2 cells secrete cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 decreased. Based on our in vivo and in vitro experiments, we suggest that ZEA, DON, and ZEA + DON inhibit the expression of costimulatory molecules on CD4+ T cell, and inhibit the IL-4R-mediated Th2 cell differentiation. This may indicate that the body cannot normally resist or clear the pathogen after mycotoxin poisoning.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Listeriose/induzido quimicamente , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Listeriose/imunologia , Listeriose/metabolismo , Listeriose/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/microbiologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Células Th2/microbiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144646, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485206

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental contaminant that causes severe bone metabolism disease, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and osteomalacia. The present review aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced bone injury starting from bone cell function and teeth development. Cd inhibits the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts, and directly causes BMSC apoptosis. In the case of osteoporosis, Cd mainly affects the activation of osteoclasts and promotes bone resorption. Cd-induces osteoblast injury and oxidative stress, which causes DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, resulting in apoptosis. In addition, the development of osteoarthritis (OA) might be related to Cd-induced chondrocyte damage. The high expression of metallothionein (MT) might reduce Cd toxicity toward osteocytes. The toxicity of Cd toward teeth mainly focuses on enamel development and dental caries. Understanding the effect of Cd on bone cell function and teeth development could contribute to revealing the mechanisms of Cd-induced bone damage. This review explores Cd-induced bone disease from cellular and molecular levels, and provides new directions for removing this heavy metal from the environment.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Cárie Dentária , Apoptose , Osso e Ossos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Humanos , Osteoclastos , Osteócitos
17.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(5): 945-957, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404196

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) interferes with the function of the male reproductive system; however, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of puerarin (PU) on Cd-induced testicular lactic acid metabolism disorder. Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-fed for 7 days, weighed, and randomly divided into four groups: Control group, CdAc2 group, CdAc2 + PU group, PU group. The results showed that Cd accumulated in the testis, the testicles became congested and shrank, and the testis index decreased in the rats treated in the CdAc2 group. Cadmium exposure reduced the serum concentration of testosterone, and the concentration of lactic acid and pyruvate in the testis. Cd decreased testicular superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity, and increased testicular malondialdehyde levels. Cd reduced the level of ATP, glycolytic gene expression, and lactate production-related proteins in the testis. Cd also decreased the expression of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway-related proteins in the testis. However, these negative effects were attenuated by PU administration. In summary, Cd reduces the production of lactic acid in the testis of rats, while PU administration restores the production of lactic acid and reduces the toxicity of Cd to the testis of rats.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Testículo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Isoflavonas , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/genética
18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(2): 937-945, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277741

RESUMO

Osteoclastogenesis requires the involvement of transcription factors and degrading enzymes, and is regulated by upstream and downstream signalling. However, c-Fos how regulates osteoclastogenesis through autophagy remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the role of c-Fos during osteoprotegerin (OPG)-mediated suppression of osteoclastogenesis. We found that the number of osteoclasts and the expression of c-Fos, MMP-9, CAⅡ, Src and p62 were decreased after treated with OPG, including attenuation the PI3K/Akt and the TAK1/S6 signalling pathways, but the expression of Beclin1 and LC3Ⅱ were increased. Knockdown of Beclin1 could reverse the expression of c-Fos and MMP-9 by activating the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, but inhibiting the autophagy and the TAK1/S6 signalling pathway. In addition, inhibition of autophagy using the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 did not rescues OPG-mediated suppression of osteoclastogenesis, but caused reduction of the expression of c-Fos and CAⅡ by attenuating the autophagy, as well as the PI3K/Akt and the TAK1/S6 signalling pathways. Furthermore, continuous activation of c-Fos could reverse OPG-mediated suppression of osteoclastogenesis by activating the autophagy and the PI3K/Akt and the TAK1/S6 signalling pathways. Thus, overexpression of c-Fos could reverse OPG-mediated suppression of osteoclastogenesis via activation of Beclin1-induced autophagy, indicating c-Fos might serve as a new candidate for bone-related basic studies.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124251, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168313

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant, induces osteoporosis by directly destroying bone tissue, but its direct damaging effect on bone cells is not fully illustrated. Here, we treated mouse bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and bone marrow macrophages (BMM) with Cd, and gave BALB/c mice Cd in water. Long-term Cd exposure significantly inhibited BMSC osteogenesis and osteoclast differentiation in vitro, and induced osteoporosis in vivo. Cd exposure also reduced P2X7 expression dramatically. However, P2X7 deletion significantly inhibited osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation; P2X7 overexpression obviously reduced the suppression effect of Cd on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. The suppression of P2X7-PI3K-AKT signaling aggravated the effect of Cd. In mice, short-term Cd exposure did not result in osteoporosis, but bone formation was inhibited, RANKL expression was increased, and osteoclasts were significantly increased in vivo. In vitro, short-term Cd exposure not only increased osteoclast numbers, but also promoted osteoclast adhesion function at late-stage osteoclast differentiation. Cd exposure also reduced P2X7 expression in vivo and in vitro. Our results demonstrate that short-term Cd exposure does not affect osteoblast and osteoclast apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, but long-term Cd exposure significantly increases bone tissue apoptosis. Overall, our results describe a novel mechanism for Cd-induced osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Osteoporose , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteoclastos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases
20.
J Inorg Biochem ; 214: 111310, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221601

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of naringenin (Nar) on cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged 5 weeks were used. Rats were administered with 0.9% NaCl (control group), CdCl2 (2 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally), Nar (50 mg/kg b.w, orally), and CdCl2 + Nar (2 mg/kg b.w intraperitoneally and 50 mg/kg b.w. orally, respectively) for 4 weeks. Results showed that body weight, relative testis weights, and sperm quality decreased in the Cd-treated group, and Cd accumulated in serum and testes. Pathological examination showed that Cd can cause testicular damage. Cd decreased the serum concentrations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. It also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Moreover, exposure to Cd resulted in decreased content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) concentrations, as well as increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents. Cd also provoked testis autophagy by upregulating the expression of the autophagy-related proteins P62 and LC3 II. However, the combined administration of Nar and Cd significantly attenuated the Cd-induced negative effects by increasing the body weight, relative testis weights, and sperm quality and by decreasing testicular damage. Simultaneous supplementation of Nar and Cd markedly restored the decreased levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, testosterone, GSH, and T-AOC and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx caused by Cd treatment. Nar further suppressed MDA and H2O2 production and protected the testes from Cd-induced autophagy by downregulating P62 and LC3 II expression. Therefore, Nar protected the testes from Cd-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testículo/patologia
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