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1.
BJU Int ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with and without abdominal wall complications after open partial nephrectomy (OPN) via flank incision. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PROMs were collected in 2017 from all patients operated on with OPN via flank incision between 2004 and 2016 in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Patients were mailed the ventral hernia pain questionnaire (VHPQ) and an abdominal wall asymmetry (AWA) questionnaire to evaluate postoperative AWA, attributed to bulge or incisional hernia. Demographic and follow-up data were retrieved from patient records. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients were eligible for the study. 146 questionnaires were returned (74 %). Forty-five patients (31 %) reported postoperative AWA and 27 (18 %) reported ongoing pain. Three patients who reported AWA had a known incisional hernia. Pain and abdominal wall stiffness were more common in patients with AWA than in those without (p<0.01 and p<0.01 respectively). Of the 45 patients with AWA, 25 (56 %) reported this as being negative cosmetically and 16 (36 %) as negative regarding activities. Patients that reported AWA were younger and had a higher BMI at surgery (p=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Abdominal wall asymmetry is a common sequel after flank incision for OPN and is associated with a higher incidence of chronic pain and abdominal stiffness compared to patients without postoperative AWA. Some patients reported that the effect on daily activities and the cosmetic effect caused by abdominal wall asymmetry had a negative impact on their quality of life.

2.
Qual Life Res ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846957

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the hypothesized four-factor structure of the 19-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI-19) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument in a sample of surgically treated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients and examine if an alternative factor structure with good psychometric properties may be derived from the available items. METHODS: The model fit of the hypothesized four-factor structure was examined using confirmatory factor analysis on cohort data from 1731 individuals included in the National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register who had undergone surgery for RCC during the three years 2016-2018 and answered the FKSI-19 instrument within 6-12 months after surgery. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the same dataset to derive a possible alternative factor solution. RESULTS: The four-factor structure did not reach the thresholds for good model fit using the normed χ2-value or the Comparative Fit Index, although the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation measures indicated good and acceptable model fits, respectively. An alternative 14-item trimmed FKSI version (FKSI-14) with a two-factor structure derived from the available FKSI-19 items was found to measure the same aspects of HRQoL as the full FKSI-19 instrument. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to use psychometric methods for examining the factor structure of the FKSI-19 instrument. The hypothesized four-factor structure of FKSI-19 provided a barely acceptable model fit. The two-factor FKSI-14 structure may be used as an alternative or complement to the four-factor structure when interpreting the FKSI-19 instrument.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for more than 80% of kidney cancers in adults and obesity is a known risk factor. Regular consumption of sweetened beverages has been linked to obesity and several chronic diseases including some types of cancer. It is uncertain whether soft drink and juice consumption is associated with risk of RCC. We investigated the associations of soft drink and juice consumption with RCC incidence and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: 389,220 EPIC participants with median age 52 years at recruitment (1991-2000) were included. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for RCC incidence and mortality in relation to intakes of juices and total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially-sweetened soft drinks. RESULTS: 888 incident RCCs and 356 RCC deaths were identified. In models including adjustment for body mass index and energy intake, there was no higher risk of incident RCC associated with consumption of juices (HR per 100 g/day increment=1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09), total soft drinks (HR=1.01, 0.98-1.05), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR=0.99, 0.94-1.05), or artificially-sweetened soft drinks (HR=1.02, 0.96-1.08). In these fully-adjusted models, none of the beverages were associated with RCC mortality (HR, 95% CI per 100 g/day increment 1.06, 0.97-1.16; 1.03, 0.98-1.09; 0.97, 0.89-1.07; and 1.06, 0.99-1.14, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of juices or soft drinks was not associated with RCC incidence or mortality after adjusting for obesity. IMPACT: Soft drink and juice intakes are unlikely to play an independent role in RCC development or mortality.

4.
World J Urol ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Currently there are no specific guidelines for the post-operative follow-up of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC). We aimed to evaluate the pattern, location and timing of recurrence after surgery for non-metastatic chRCC and establish predictors of recurrence and cancer-specific death. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive surgically treated non-metastatic chRCC cases from the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust (UK, 2015-2019) and the international collaborative database RECUR (15 institutes, 2006-2011). Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted. The association between variables of interest and outcomes were analysed using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models with shared frailty for data source. RESULTS: 295 patients were identified. Median follow-up was 58 months. The five and ten-year recurrence-free survival rates were 94.3% and 89.2%. Seventeen patients (5.7%) developed recurrent disease, 13 (76.5%) with distant metastases. 54% of metastatic disease diagnoses involved a single organ, most commonly the bone. Early recurrence (< 24 months) was observed in 8 cases, all staged ≥ pT2b. 30 deaths occurred, of which 11 were attributed to chRCC. Sarcomatoid differentiation was rare (n = 4) but associated with recurrence and cancer-specific death on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, UICC/AJCC T-stage ≥ pT2b, presence of coagulative necrosis, and positive surgical margins were predictors of recurrence and cancer-specific death. CONCLUSION: Recurrence and death after surgically resected chRCC are rare. For completely excised lesions ≤ pT2a without coagulative necrosis or sarcomatoid features, prognosis is excellent. These patients should be reassured and follow-up intensity curtailed.

5.
Scand J Urol ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769206

RESUMO

PURPOSE: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a known risk factor for the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This case-control study was performed to assess the risk in a nationwide cohort and evaluate tumor characteristics and survival in the ESRD-RCC population. METHODS: In this study, 9,299 patients with RCC identified in the National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register from 2005 until 2014 and 93,895 matched controls were linked to the Swedish Renal Registry and the National Patient Register. ESRD was defined as chronic kidney disease stage 5, kidney transplantation or kidney dialysis 0-40 years before the diagnosis of RCC. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients with ESRD and subsequent RCC were identified and compared with 9,087 patients with RCC. There was a 4.5-times increased risk for RCC among ESRD patients (95% CI = 3.6-5.6; p < 0.001) compared to matched controls. Longer time with ESRD increased the risk of RCC (ESRD > 9 years, OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 7.0-14.8). The ESRD-RCC patients were younger (p = 0.002), had smaller tumors (p < 0.001) and had lower tumor stage (p = 0.045). The incidence of papillary and chromophobe RCC was higher and clear cell RCC lower among the ESRD patients (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival was 50% in ESRD-RCC patients and 63% in RCC-only patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: More than 9 years with ESRD increased the risk of developing RCC 10-times compared to individuals without ESRD and the tumors showed a different histopathological pattern. Despite a less advanced tumor stage at diagnosis, the overall survival in ESRD-RCC patients was lower compared to patients with RCC-only.

6.
World J Urol ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is sparse evidence on outcomes of resected occult LN metastases at the time of nephrectomy (synchronous disease). We sought to analyse a large international cohort of patients and to identify clinico-pathological predictors of long-term survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data of consecutive patients who underwent nephrectomy and LND for Tany cN0-1pN1 and cM0-1 RCC at 7 referral centres between 1988 and 2019. Patients were stratified into four clinico-pathological groups: (1) cN0cM0-pN1, (2) cN1cM0-pN1(limited, 1-3 positive nodes), (3) cN1cM0-pN1(extensive, > 3 positive nodes), and (4) cM1-pN1. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and associations with all-cause mortality (ACM) were evaluated using Cox models with multiple imputations. RESULTS: Of the 4370 patients with LND, 292 patients with pN1 disease were analysed. Median follow-up was 62 months, during which 171 patients died. Median OS was 21 months (95% CI 17-30 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 24% (95% CI 18-31%). Patients with cN0cM0-pN1 disease had a median OS of 57 months and a 5-year OS rate of 43%. 5-year OS (median OS) decreased to 29% (33 months) in cN1cM0-pN1(limited) and to 23% (23 months) in cN1cM0-pN1(extensive) patients. Those with cM1-pN1 disease had the worst prognosis, with a 5-year OS rate of 13% (9 months). On multivariable analysis, age (p = 0.034), tumour size (p = 0.02), grade (p = 0.02) and clinico-pathological group (p < 0.05) were significant predictors of ACM. CONCLUSION: Depending on clinico-pathological group, grade and tumour size, 5-year survival of patients with LN metastases varies from 13 to 43%. Patients with resected occult lymph node involvement (cN0/pN1 cM0) have the best prognosis with a considerable chance of long-term survival.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588385

RESUMO

Prostate cancer surgery risks erectile problems and incontinence for the patient. An instrument for guiding surgeons to avoid nerve bundle damage and ensure complete cancer removal is desirable. We present a tactile resonance sensor made of PZT ceramics, mounted in a 3D motorized translation stage for scanning and measuring tissue stiffness for detecting cancer in human prostate. The sensor may be used during surgery for guidance, scanning the prostate surface for the presence of cancer, indicating migration of cancer cells into surrounding tissue. Ten fresh prostates, obtained from patients undergoing prostate cancer surgery, were cut into 0.5 cm thick slices. Each slice was measured for tissue stiffness at about 25 different sites and compared to histology for validation cancer prediction by stiffness. The statistical analysis was based on a total of 148 sites with non-cancer and 40 sites with cancer. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), the stiffness data predicted cancer with an area under the curve of 0.74, after correcting for overfitting using bootstrap validation. Mean prostate stiffness on the logarithmic scale (p = 0.015) and standardized Z-scores (p = 0.025) were both significant predictors of cancer. This study concludes that stiffness measured by the tactile resonance sensor is a significant predictor of prostate cancer with potential for future development towards a clinical instrument for surgical guidance.

8.
Scand J Urol ; : 1-7, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register (NSKCR) was launched in 2005. It is used for health care quality improvement and research. The aim of this study was to validate the register's data quality by assessing the timeliness, completeness, comparability and validity of the register. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To assess timeliness we evaluated the number of days between date of diagnosis and date of reporting the patient to the NSKCR. For completeness, we used data on number of cancer cases reported to the NSKCR compared to cases reported to the Swedish Cancer Register. Comparability was evaluated by reviewing coding routines and comparing data collected in the NSKCR to national and international guidelines. Validity was assessed by reabstraction of data from medical charts from 431 randomly selected patients diagnosed in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016. RESULTS: Timeliness has improved since the register started. In 2016, 76.9% and 96.5% of the patients were reported within 6 and 12 months respectively. Completeness was high, with a 99.5% coverage between 2008 and 2017. Registration forms and manuals were updated according to national and European guidelines. Improvements have been made continuously to decrease the risk of reporting mistakes and misunderstandings. Validity was high where a majority of the variables demonstrated an exact agreement >90% and few missing values. CONCLUSION: Overall, the data quality of the NSKCR is high. Completeness, comparability and validity is high. Timeliness can be further improved, which will make it easier to follow changes and improve the care and research of RCC patients.

9.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(1): 22-41, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408053

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The epidemiological signature of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) during the past decades is explained by overdetection and overtreatment of indolent cancers; furthermore, a non-negligible proportion of patients undergoing surgery for suspected RCC harbour benign renal tumours. As the gold standard for RCC diagnosis remains histopathological analysis of surgical or biopsy specimens, implementation of noninvasive diagnostic strategies to discriminate between benign and malignant renal masses is an urgent unmet need. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review novel liquid biomarkers and imaging modalities for RCC diagnosis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the recent English-language literature was conducted according to the European Association of Urology guidelines and the PRISMA statement recommendations (PROSPERO ID: CRD42020190773) using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. Risk-of-bias assessment was performed according to the QUADAS 2 tool. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 15 studies (six on biomarkers and nine on imaging) and eight clinical trials were included. None of the biomarkers or imaging modalities has been validated or shown to have a distinct clinical value for RCC. Specific combinations of urinary cell-free and exosomal miRNAs, urinary miR-15a, and specific panels of urinary metabolites assessed by metabolomics appear promising. In addition, machine/deep learning algorithms and radiomics applied to cross-sectional images may have potential to improve RCC diagnosis. Most studies are limited by the retrospective design, size, and lack of external validation. CONCLUSIONS: Liquid biomarkers or imaging modalities are not ready for integration in the clinic and further well-designed studies must validate preliminary findings and explore utility in clinical decision-making. PATIENT SUMMARY: We provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available biomarkers (measured in blood or urine) and novel imaging tests (other than conventional imaging) to discriminate kidney cancer from benign renal masses in a noninvasive fashion. None of the biomarkers or imaging modalities studied was validated or added clinical value; therefore, none of them can be implemented in the clinic. However, these approaches appear to be promising for improving the diagnosis of kidney cancer in the future.

10.
Eur Urol ; 79(3): 339-342, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357997

RESUMO

Longer follow-up and new trial data from phase 3 randomised controlled trials investigating immune checkpoint blockade (PD-1 or its ligand PD-L1) in advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have recently become available. The CheckMate 9ER trial demonstrated an improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) benefit for the combination of cabozantinib plus nivolumab. A Keynote-426 update demonstrated an ongoing OS benefit for pembrolizumab plus axitinib in the intention-to-treat population, with a PFS benefit seen across all International Metastatic Database Consortium (IMDC) subgroups, while an update of CheckMate 214 confirmed the long-term benefit of ipilimumab plus nivolumab in IMDC intermediate and poor risk patients. The RCC Guidelines Panel continues to recommend these tyrosine kinase inhibitors + immunotherapy (IO) combination across IMDC risk groups in advanced first-line RCC and dual immunotherapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab in IMDC intermediate and poor risk. PATIENT SUMMARY: New data from trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced kidney cancer confirm a survival benefit with the combination of cabozantinib plus nivolumab and pembrolizumab plus axitinib and ipilimumab plus nivolumab. These combination therapies are recommended as first-line treatment for advanced kidney cancer.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential to improve disease outcomes. No screening program for sporadic RCC is in place. Given relatively low incidence, screening would need to focus on people at high risk of clinically meaningful disease so as to limit overdiagnosis and screen-detected false positives. METHODS: Among 192,172 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (including 588 incident RCC cases), we evaluated a published RCC risk prediction model (including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status) in terms of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (observed probability as a function of predicted probability). We used a flexible parametric survival model to develop an expanded model including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status, with the addition of self-reported history of hypertension and measured blood pressure. RESULTS: The previously published model yielded well-calibrated probabilities and good discrimination (C-statistic [95% CI]: 0.699 [0.679-0.721]). Our model had slightly improved discrimination (0.714 [0.694-0.735], bootstrap optimism-corrected C-statistic: 0.709). Despite this good performance, predicted risk was low for the vast majority of participants, with 70% of participants having 10-year risk less than 0.0025. CONCLUSIONS: Although the models performed well for the prediction of incident RCC, they are currently insufficiently powerful to identify individuals at substantial risk of RCC in a general population. IMPACT: Despite the promising performance of the EPIC RCC risk prediction model, further development of the model, possibly including biomarkers of risk, is required to enable risk stratification of RCC.

12.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 435, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastasized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is associated with a poor prognosis. Almost one-third of patients with non-metastatic tumors at diagnosis will later progress with metastatic disease. These patients need to be identified already at diagnosis, to undertake closer follow up and/or adjuvant treatment. Today, clinicopathological variables are used to risk classify patients, but molecular biomarkers are needed to improve risk classification to identify the high-risk patients which will benefit most from modern adjuvant therapies. Interestingly, DNA methylation profiling has emerged as a promising prognostic biomarker in ccRCC. This study aimed to derive a model for prediction of tumor progression after nephrectomy in non-metastatic ccRCC by combining DNA methylation profiling with clinicopathological variables. METHODS: A novel cluster analysis approach (Directed Cluster Analysis) was used to identify molecular biomarkers from genome-wide methylation array data. These novel DNA methylation biomarkers, together with previously identified CpG-site biomarkers and clinicopathological variables, were used to derive predictive classifiers for tumor progression. RESULTS: The "triple classifier" which included both novel and previously identified DNA methylation biomarkers together with clinicopathological variables predicted tumor progression more accurately than the currently used Mayo scoring system, by increasing the specificity from 50% in Mayo to 64% in our triple classifier at 85% fixed sensitivity. The cumulative incidence of progress (pCIP5yr) was 7.5% in low-risk vs 44.7% in high-risk in M0 patients classified by the triple classifier at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The triple classifier panel that combines clinicopathological variables with genome-wide methylation data has the potential to improve specificity in prognosis prediction for patients with non-metastatic ccRCC.

13.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current follow-up strategies for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after curative surgery rely mainly on risk models and the treatment delivered, regardless of the histological subtype. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of RCC histological subtype on recurrence and to examine the incidence, pattern, and timing of recurrences to improve follow-up recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study included consecutive patients treated surgically with curative intention (ie, radical and partial nephrectomy) for nonmetastatic RCC (cT1-4, M0) between January 2006 and December 2011 across 15 centres from 10 countries, as part of the euRopEan association of urology renal cell carcinoma guidelines panel Collaborative multicenter consortium for the studies of follow-Up and recurrence patterns in Radically treated renal cell carcinoma patients (RECUR) database project. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The impact of histological subtype (ie, clear cell RCC [ccRCC], papillary RCC [pRCC], and chromophobe RCC [chRCC]) on recurrence-free survival (RFS) was assessed via univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusting for potential interactions with important variables (stage, grade, risk score, etc.) Patterns of recurrence for all histological subtypes were compared according to recurrence site and risk criteria. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the 3331 patients, 62.2% underwent radical nephrectomy and 37.8% partial nephrectomy. A total of 2565 patients (77.0%) had ccRCC, 535 (16.1%) had pRCC, and 231 (6.9%) had chRCC. The median postoperative follow-up period was 61.7 (interquartile range: 47-83) mo. Patients with ccRCC had significantly poorer 5-yr RFS than patients with pRCC and chRCC (78% vs 86% vs 91%, p = 0.001). The most common sites of recurrence for ccRCC were the lung and bone. Intermediate-/high-risk pRCC patients had an increased rate of lymphatic recurrence, both mediastinal and retroperitoneal, while recurrence in chRCC was rare (8.2%), associated with higher stage and positive margins, and predominantly in the liver and bone. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The main histological subtypes of RCC exhibit a distinct pattern and dynamics of recurrence. Results suggest that intermediate- to high-risk pRCC may benefit from cross-sectional abdominal imaging every 6 mo until 2 yr after surgery, while routine imaging might be abandoned for chRCC except for abdominal computed tomography in patients with advanced tumour stage or positive margins. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this analysis of a large database from 15 countries around Europe, we found that the main histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma have a distinct pattern and dynamics of recurrence. Patients should be followed differently according to subtype and risk score.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012796, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several comparative randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed including combinations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors since the publication of a Cochrane Review on targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in 2008. This review represents an update of that original review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of targeted therapies for clear cell mRCC in patients naïve to systemic therapy. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search with no restrictions on language or publication status. The date of the latest search was 18 June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials, recruiting patients with clear cell mRCC naïve to previous systemic treatment. The index intervention was any TKI-based targeted therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the included studies and extracted data for the primary outcomes: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and serious adverse events (SAEs); and the secondary outcomes: health-related quality of life (QoL), response rate and minor adverse events (AEs). We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model and rated the certainty of evidence according to the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 RCTs reporting on 11,590 participants randomised across 18 comparisons. This abstract focuses on the primary outcomes of select comparisons. 1. Pazopanib versus sunitinib Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in PFS as compared to sunitinib (hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.23; 1 study, 1110 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 420 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 18 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 76 fewer to 38 more) per 1000 participants. Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in OS compared to sunitinib (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.06; 1 study, 1110 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 550 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 27 more OSs (95% CI 19 fewer to 70 more) per 1000 participants. Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in SAEs as compared to sunitinib (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.09; 1 study, 1102 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 734 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 7 more participants experiencing SAEs (95% CI 44 fewer to 66 more) per 1000 participants. 2. Sunitinib versus avelumab and axitinib Sunitinib probably reduces PFS as compared to avelumab plus axitinib (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.80; 1 study, 886 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 550 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 130 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 209 fewer to 53 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may result in little to no difference in OS (HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.79; 1 study, 886 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 890 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this would result in 29 fewer OSs (95% CI 78 fewer to 8 more) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may result in little to no difference in SAEs (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.10; 1 study, 873 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 705 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 7 more SAEs (95% CI 49 fewer to 71 more) per 1000 participants.  3. Sunitinib versus pembrolizumab and axitinib Sunitinib probably reduces PFS as compared to pembrolizumab plus axitinib (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.76; 1 study, 861 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 590 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 125 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 195 fewer to 56 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib probably reduces OS (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.65; 1 study, 861 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 880 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this would result in 96 fewer OSs (95% CI 167 fewer to 40 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may reduce SAEs as compared to pembrolizumab plus axitinib (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.02; 1 study, 854 participants; low-certainty evidence) although the CI includes the possibility of no effect. Based on the control event risk of 604 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 60 fewer SAEs (95% CI 115 fewer to 12 more) per 1000 participants.  4. Sunitinib versus nivolumab and ipilimumab Sunitinib may reduce PFS as compared to nivolumab plus ipilimumab (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.52; 1 study, 847 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 280 per 1000 in this trial at 30 months' follow-up, this corresponds to 89 fewer PFSs (95% CI 136 fewer to 37 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib reduces OS (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.89; 1 study, 847 participants; high-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk 600 per 1000 in this trial at 30 months, this would result in 140 fewer OSs (95% CI 219 fewer to 67 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib probably increases SAEs (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.53; 1 study, 1082 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 457 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 169 more SAEs (95% CI 101 more to 242 more) per 1000 participants. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the low to high certainty of evidence, several combinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be superior to single-agent targeted therapy in terms of PFS and OS, and with a favourable AE profile. Some single-agent targeted therapies demonstrated a similar or improved oncological outcome compared to others; minor differences were observed for AE within this group. The certainty of evidence was variable ranging from high to very low and all comparisons were based on single trials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/efeitos adversos , Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Viés , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico
15.
Scand J Urol ; 54(6): 487-492, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the CARMENA and SURTIME studies, suggested that upfront cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) should be abandoned for patients with intermediate and high-risk metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, CN remains an indication in low-risk and when immediate systemic treatment is not required. The aim was to evaluate the long-term overall survival (OS) in patients with primary mRCC, based on the first line treatment. METHODS: There were 1483 patients with primary mRCC in the National Kidney Cancer Registry from 2005 to 2013. Data on primary treatment, TNM stage, RCC type, tumor size, patient age and sex were extracted. Survival time was calculated from time of diagnosis to time of death or until July 2019. Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests, the Kaplan-Meyer method and Cox regression analyses were used. RESULTS: Patients primary treated with CN had a significantly longer OS (p < .001) than patients primary treated with systemic therapy or palliation. In a Cox regression multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for CN compared with no CN was 1.600, 95%Ci (1.492 - 1.691), p < .001. Also occurrence of lymph node metastases, T-stage, patients age and year of diagnosis, remained as independent predictors of OS. CONCLUSION: Patients primary treated with CN survived significantly longer than patients primary treated with systemic therapy or palliation, in all age groups. CN was an important first-line treatment option in mRCC patients.

16.
Eur Urol ; 78(1): 21-28, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376137

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unlike anything seen before by modern science-based medicine. Health systems across the world are struggling to manage it. Added to this struggle are the effects of social confinement and isolation. This brings into question whether the latest guidelines are relevant in this crisis. We aim to support urologists in this difficult situation by providing tools that can facilitate decision making, and to minimise the impact and risks for both patients and health professionals delivering urological care, whenever possible. We hope that the revised recommendations will assist urologist surgeons across the globe to guide the management of urological conditions during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Doenças Urológicas/terapia , Urologia/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Urológicas/complicações , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico
17.
Scand J Urol ; 54(3): 235-240, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436435

RESUMO

Introduction: In 2005, the National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register (NSKCR) was set up to collect data on newly diagnosed patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2015, the NSKCR was linked to a number of national healthcare and demographic registers to construct the Renal Cell Cancer Database Sweden (RCCBaSe). The aim was to facilitate research on trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival, with detailed data on tumour characteristics, treatment, pharmaceutical prescriptions, socioeconomic factors and comorbidity.Material and methods: All patients registered in the NSKCR between 2005 and 2014 were included. For each case, ten controls and first-degree relatives for cases and controls were identified. The RCCBaSe was created linking all cases, controls and first-degree relatives to a number of national registers with information on co-morbidity, socioeconomic factors and pharmaceutical prescriptions.Results: Between 2005 and 2014, a total of 9,416 patients with RCC were reported to the NSKCR. 94,159 controls and a total cohort of 575,007 individuals including cases, controls and first-degree relatives were identified. Linkage to the Swedish cancer register resulted in 106,772 matches. When linked to the National patient register, 432,677 out-patient and 471,359 in-patient matches were generated. When linked to the Swedish renal registry 1,778 matches were generated. Linkage to the Prescribed drug register resulted in 448,084 matches and linkage to the The Longitudinal integration database for health insurance and labour market studies database resulted in 450,017 matches.Conclusion: By linking the NSKCR to several Swedish national databases, a unique database for RCC research has been created.

18.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467322

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) includes diverse tumour types characterised by various genetic abnormalities. The genetic changes, like mutations, deletions and epigenetic alterations, play a crucial role in the modification of signalling networks, tumour pathogenesis and prognosis. The most prevalent RCC type, clear cell RCC (ccRCC), is asymptomatic in the early stages and has a poorer prognosis compared with the papillary and the chromophobe types RCCs. Generally, ccRCC is refractory to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Loss of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), the signature of most sporadic ccRCC, promote multiple growth factors. Hence, VHL/HIF and a variety of pathways, including phosphatase and TEnsin homolog on chromosome 10/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, are closely connected and contribute to the ontogeny of ccRCC. In the recent decade, multiple targeting agents have been developed based on blocking major signalling pathways directly or indirectly involved in ccRCC tumour progression, metastasis, angiogenesis and survival. However, most of these drugs have limitations; either metastatic ccRCC develops resistance to these agents, or despite blocking receptors, tumour cells use alternate signalling pathways. This review compiles the state of knowledge about the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway confined to ccRCC and its cross-talks with VHL/HIF pathway.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1654-1664, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. METHODS: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR≥5vs1 = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; P trend in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk. IMPACT: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.

20.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 3(4): 433-452, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245655

RESUMO

The European Association of Urology (EAU) Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Guideline Panel performed a protocol-driven systematic review (SR) on thermal ablation (TA) compared with partial nephrectomy (PN) for T1N0M0 renal masses, in order to provide evidence to support its recommendations. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and only comparative studies published between 2000 and 2019 were included. Twenty-six nonrandomised comparative studies were included, recruiting a total of 167 80 patients. Risk of bias (RoB) assessment revealed high or uncertain RoB across all studies, with the vast majority being retrospective, observational studies with poorly matched controls and short follow-up. Limited data showed TA to be safe, but its long-term oncological effectiveness compared with PN remains uncertain. A quality assessment of pre-existing SRs (n=11) on the topic, using AMSTAR, revealed that all SRs had low confidence rating, with all but two SRs being rated critically low. In conclusion, the current data are inadequate to make any strong and clear conclusions regarding the clinical effectiveness of TA for treating T1N0M0 renal masses compared with PN. Therefore, TA may be cautiously considered an alternative to PN for T1N0M0 renal masses, but patients must be counselled carefully regarding the prevailing uncertainties. We recommend specific steps to improve the evidence base based on robust primary and secondary studies. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we looked at the literature to determine the effectiveness of thermoablation (TA) in the treatment of small kidney tumours compared with surgical removal. We found that TA could cautiously be offered as an option due to many remaining uncertainties regarding its effectiveness.

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