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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396611

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the relationship between APOE*4 carriage on cognitive decline, and whether these associations were moderated by sex, baseline age, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors. Participants were 19,225 individuals aged 54-103 years from 15 longitudinal cohort studies with a mean follow up duration ranging between 1.2 and 10.7 years. Two-step individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis was used to pool results of study-wise analyses predicting memory and general cognitive decline from carriage of one or two APOE*4 alleles, and moderation of these associations by age, sex, vascular risk factors and ethnicity. Separate pooled estimates were calculated in both men and women who were younger (i.e., 62 years) and older (i.e., 80 years) at baseline. Results showed that APOE*4 carriage was related to faster general cognitive decline in women, and faster memory decline in men. A stronger dose-dependent effect was observed in older men, with faster general cognitive and memory decline in those carrying two versus one APOE*4 allele. Vascular risk factors were related to an increased effect of APOE*4 on memory decline in younger women, but a weaker effect of APOE*4 on general cognitive decline in older men. The relationship between APOE*4 carriage and memory decline was larger in older-aged Asians than Whites. In sum, APOE*4 is related to cognitive decline in men and women, although these effects are enhanced by age and carriage of two APOE*4 alleles in men, a higher numbers of vascular risk factors during the early stages of late adulthood in women, and Asian ethnicity.

3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e524-e535, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, dementia prediction models have been exclusively developed and tested in high-income countries (HICs). However, most people with dementia live in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where dementia risk prediction research is almost non-existent and the ability of current models to predict dementia is unknown. This study investigated whether dementia prediction models developed in HICs are applicable to LMICs. METHODS: Data were from the 10/66 Study. Individuals aged 65 years or older and without dementia at baseline were selected from China, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. Dementia incidence was assessed over 3-5 years, with diagnosis according to the 10/66 Study diagnostic algorithm. Discrimination and calibration were tested for five models: the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia risk score (CAIDE); the Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia (AgeCoDe) model; the Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index (ANU-ADRI); the Brief Dementia Screening Indicator (BDSI); and the Rotterdam Study Basic Dementia Risk Model (BDRM). Models were tested with use of Cox regression. The discriminative accuracy of each model was assessed using Harrell's concordance (c)-statistic, with a value of 0·70 or higher considered to indicate acceptable discriminative ability. Calibration (model fit) was assessed statistically using the Grønnesby and Borgan test. FINDINGS: 11 143 individuals without baseline dementia and with available follow-up data were included in the analysis. During follow-up (mean 3·8 years [SD 1·3]), 1069 people progressed to dementia across all sites (incidence rate 24·9 cases per 1000 person-years). Performance of the models varied. Across countries, the discriminative ability of the CAIDE (0·52≤c≤0·63) and AgeCoDe (0·57≤c≤0·74) models was poor. By contrast, the ANU-ADRI (0·66≤c≤0·78), BDSI (0·62≤c≤0·78), and BDRM (0·66≤c≤0·78) models showed similar levels of discriminative ability to those of the development cohorts. All models showed good calibration, especially at low and intermediate levels of predicted risk. The models validated best in Peru and poorest in the Dominican Republic and China. INTERPRETATION: Not all dementia prediction models developed in HICs can be simply extrapolated to LMICs. Further work defining what number and which combination of risk variables works best for predicting risk of dementia in LMICs is needed. However, models that transport well could be used immediately for dementia prevention research and targeted risk reduction in LMICs. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust, WHO, US Alzheimer's Association, and European Research Council.

4.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 35(1): 29-36, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders in later life. Few population-based studies have investigated their potential impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study is to examine the associations between depression, anxiety, their comorbidity, and mortality in later life using a population-based cohort study across eight LMICs. METHODS: This analysis was based on the 10/66 cohort study including 15 991 people aged 65 years or above in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, China, and India, with an average follow-up time of 3.9 years. Subthreshold and clinical levels of depression were determined using EURO-D and ICD-10 criteria, and anxiety was based on Geriatric Mental State (GMS)-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT). Cox proportional hazard modelling was used to estimate how having depression, anxiety, or both was associated with mortality adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors. RESULTS: Participants with clinical depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24-1.70) and subthreshold anxiety (HR: 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15-1.38) had higher risk of mortality than those without the conditions after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health conditions. Comorbidity of depression and anxiety was associated with a 30% increased risk of mortality but the effect sizes varied across countries (Higgins I2  = 58.8%), with the strongest association in India (HR: 1.99; 95% CI, 1.21-3.27). CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety appear to be associated with mortality in older people living in LMICs. Variation in effect sizes may indicate different barriers to health service access across countries. Future studies may investigate underlying mechanisms and identify potential interventions to reduce the impact of common mental disorders.

5.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
6.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(10): 1072-1079, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Frailty and depression are highly comorbid conditions, but the casual direction is unclear and has not been explored in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential impact of depression on incident frailty in older people living in Latin America. METHODS: This study was based on a population-based cohort of 12,844 people aged 65 or older from six Latin American countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, and Peru), part of the 10/66 cohort study. Two types of frailty measures were used: a modified Fried frailty phenotype and a multidimensional frailty criterion, which included measures from cognition, sensory, nutrition, and physical dimensions. Depression was assessed using EURO-D and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria. A competing risk model was used to examine the associations between baseline depression and incidence of frailty in the 3-5 years of follow-up, accounting for sociodemographic and health factors and the competing event of frailty-free death. RESULTS: Depression was associated with a 59% increased hazard of developing frailty using the modified Fried phenotype (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40, 1.80) and 19% for multidimensional frailty (SHR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.33) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, physical impairments, and dementia. The associations between depression and the multidimensional frailty criteria were homogenous across all the sites (Higgins I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: Depression may play a key role in the development of frailty. Pathways addressing the association between physical and mental health in older people need to be further investigated in future research.

7.
J Aging Health ; : 898264319825767, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate healthy life expectancies in eight low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), using two indicators: disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and dependence-free life expectancy (DepFLE). METHOD: Using the Sullivan method, healthy life expectancy was calculated based on the prevalence of dependence and disability from the 10/66 cohort study, which included 16,990 people aged 65 or above in China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, India, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela, and country-specific life tables from the World Population Prospects 2017. RESULTS: DFLE and DepFLE declined with older age across all sites and were higher in women than men. Mexico reported the highest DFLE at age 65 for men (15.4, SE = 0.5) and women (16.5, SE = 0.4), whereas India had the lowest with (11.5, SE = 0.3) in men and women (11.7, SE = 0.4). DISCUSSION: Healthy life expectancy based on disability and dependency can be a critical indicator for aging research and policy planning in LMICs.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. Cross-sectional studies indicate inverse associations with dementia risk, but there have been few prospective studies. METHODS: Population-based cohort studies in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken, with ascertainment of incident dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. RESULTS: Of the original at risk cohort of 13,587 persons aged 65 years and over, 2,443 (18.0%) were lost to follow-up; 10,540 persons with skull circumference assessments were followed up for 40,466 person years, and 10,400 with leg length assessments were followed up for 39,954 person years. There were 1,009 cases of incident dementia, and 1,605 dementia free deaths. The fixed effect pooled meta-analysed adjusted subhazard ratio (ASHR) for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.66-0.97) and for skull circumference was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.84-1.25), with no heterogeneity of effect between sites (I2 = 0%). Leg length measurements tended to be shorter at follow-up, particularly for those with baseline cognitive impairment and dementia. However, leg length change was not associated with dementia incidence (ASHR, per cm 1.006, 95% CI 0.992-1.020), and the effect of leg length was little altered after adjusting for baseline frailty (ASHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-0.99). A priori hypotheses regarding effect modification by gender or educational level were not supported. However, the effect of skull circumference was modified by gender (M vs F ASHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98), but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized with a greater protective effect of larger skull dimensions in men. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent findings across settings provide quite strong support for an association between adult leg length and dementia incidence in late-life. Leg length is a relatively stable marker of early life nutritional programming, which may confer brain reserve and protect against neurodegeneration in later life through mitigation of cardiometabolic risk. Further clarification of these associations could inform predictive models for future dementia incidence in the context of secular trends in adult height, and invigorate global efforts to improve childhood nutrition, growth and development.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192889, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. METHODS: Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. RESULTS: 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period influences dementia incidence in late life.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Paridade/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 19(4): 287-295.e4, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been few cross-national studies of the prevalence of the frailty phenotype conducted among low or middle income countries. We aimed to study the variation in prevalence and correlates of frailty in rural and urban sites in Latin America, India, and China. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based catchment area surveys conducted in 8 urban and 4 rural catchment areas in 8 countries; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India. We assessed weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low energy consumption, but not hand grip strength. Therefore, frailty phenotype was defined on 2 or more of 4 of the usual 5 criteria. RESULTS: We surveyed 17,031 adults aged 65 years and over. Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (95% confidence inteval 14.6%-15.7%). Prevalence was low in rural (5.4%) and urban China (9.1%) and varied between 12.6% and 21.5% in other sites. A similar pattern of variation was apparent after direct standardization for age and sex. Cross-site variation in prevalence of frailty indicators varied across the 4 indicators. Controlling for age, sex, and education, frailty was positively associated with older age, female sex, lower socioeconomic status, physical impairments, stroke, depression, dementia, disability and dependence, and high healthcare costs. DISCUSSION: There was substantial variation in the prevalence of frailty and its indicators across sites in Latin America, India, and China. Culture and other contextual factors may impact significantly on the assessment of frailty using questionnaire and physical performance-based measures, and achieving cross-cultural measurement invariance remains a challenge. CONCLUSIONS: A consistent pattern of correlates was identified, suggesting that in all sites, the frailty screen could identify older adults with multiple physical, mental, and cognitive morbidities, disability and needs for care, compounded by socioeconomic disadvantage and catastrophic healthcare spending.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Avaliação da Deficiência , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Vida Independente , Índia/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
MEDICC Rev ; 18(4): 9-13, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27829648

RESUMO

Dementia is a great challenge to public health in Cuba due to its impact on society and families. Cuba's National Intervention Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes is designed to address this challenge. The Strategy includes working guidelines for primary and secondary care, education about rights of people with cognitive impairment, professional development, research, and health promotion and dementia prevention. An associated action plan, focused on primary care, includes proposals for creation of memory clinics, day centers and comprehensive rehabilitation services for cognitive stimulation. Short-term measures proposed include increasing early detection; creating a dementia morbidity and mortality registry; promoting professional training; providing support for families; and promoting basic and clinical research on dementia. Medium-term proposals aim to reduce dementia incidence and mortality by controlling risk factors and promoting healthy lifestyles, offering new treatment options and optimizing early detection. A set of indicators has been developed to evaluate strategy implementation. With this strategy, Cuba joins the small number of developing countries that have responded to WHO's call to improve care for patients with dementia and alleviate its impact on society and families. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, aging, national health programs, social stigma, primary prevention, health promotion, civil rights, Cuba.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Demência/terapia , Política de Saúde , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Biomédica , Cuba , Demência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/métodos
13.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0149616, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26913752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7 mmol/L). RESULTS: Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control.


Assuntos
Demência , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Renda , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência
14.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 8(4)dez. 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-737363

RESUMO

Objective: In an admixed population of older Cubans, the incidence and association of APOE and sociodemographic risk factors with dementia incidence was estimated. Methods: A single-phase survey (baseline) of all over 65-year-olds residing in seven catchment areas in Cuba (n=2944) was conducted between 2003 and 2007. Dementia diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV and 10/66 criteria. APOE genotype was determined in 2520 participants. An incidence wave was conducted 4.5 years after cohort inception in order to estimate incidence and associations with sociodemographic risk factors of the APOE ?4 genotype. Results: The incidence rate of DSM IV dementia was 9.0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 7.2-11.3) and of 10/66 dementia was 20.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 17.6-23.5). Older age, a family history of dementia and APOE e4 genotype were independent risk factors for incident 10/66 dementia. APOE genotype was associated cross-sectionally with dementiaprevalence, but the effect on the incidence of dementia was attenuated, and only apparent among those in the youngest age group. Conclusion: The incidence of dementia in the older Cuban population is relatively high and similar to levels reported in Europe and North-America. The study showed that the relationship between APOE e4 and incident dementia is stronger in the younger-old than the older-old and that this change must be taken into account in models of dementia.


Objetivo: Em uma população miscigenada de cubanos idosos, estimamos a incidência de demência e a associação entre o genótipo da APOE e os fatores de risco sociodemográficos na incidência de demência. Métodos: Realizamos uma pesquisa de uma fase (linha de base) de todos os idosos com mais de 65 anos residentes em sete áreas de Cuba (n=2944), de 2003 a 2007. O diagnóstico de demência foi estabelecido de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV e do 10/66. O genótipo APOE foi determinado em 2520 participantes. Avaliação da incidência foi conduzida 4,5 anos após a linha de base, a fim de estimar a incidência e associações com fatores de risco sociodemográficos e o genótipo APOE 4. Resultados: A taxa de incidência de demência foi de 9,0 por 1000 pessoas-ano (IC 95% 7,2-11,3) de acordo com o DSM-IV e de 20,5 por 1000 pessoas-ano (IC95%, 17,6-23,5) de acordo com o 10/66. Idade avançada, história familiar de demência e genótipo APOE 4 foram fatores de risco independentes para a incidência de demência de acordo com os critérios do 10/66. O genótipo APOE foi associado com a prevalência de demência em estudo transversal, mas o efeito sobre a incidência de demência foi atenuado, e apenas aparente entre aqueles na faixa etária mais jovem. Conclusão: A incidência de demência na população cubana mais velha é relativamente alta, semelhante às relatadas na Europa e América do Norte. O estudo mostra que a relação entre APOE 4 incidente e demência é mais forte entre os idosos mais jovens e que esta alteração deve de ser considerada em modelos de demência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Apolipoproteínas E , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Demência , América Latina
15.
Br J Haematol ; 160(3): 387-98, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23228064

RESUMO

Anaemia among older people is increasingly recognized as a matter of public health concern. Data from low- and middle-income countries are sparse. We surveyed 10915 people aged 65 years and over (8423 with blood tests) in catchment areas in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Mexico, to assess prevalence and correlates of anaemia and impact on disability. Prevalence varied widely between sites, from 6·4% in rural Mexico to 9·2% in urban Mexico, 9·8% in Venezuela, 19·2% in Cuba, 32·1% in Puerto Rico and 37·3% in Dominican Republic. Prevalence was higher in men and increased with age, but sociodemographic composition did not account for prevalence differences between sites. Standardized morbidity ratios indicated a much higher prevalence in Cuba (173), Puerto Rico (280) and Dominican Republic (332) compared with USA National Health and National Examination Surveys. Anaemia was associated with undernutrition, physical impairments, and serum creatinine. There was an association with greater African admixture in Dominican Republic but not in Cuba. African admixture is therefore unlikely to fully explain the high prevalence in the Caribbean islands, which may also arise from environmental, possibly dietary factors. Given an important independent contribution of anaemia to disability, more research is needed to identify preventable and treatable causes.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuba/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Venezuela/epidemiologia
16.
Lancet ; 380(9836): 50-8, 2012 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22626851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3-5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. FINDINGS: 12,887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11,718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34,718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4-2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9-15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56-5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4-19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56-1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61-0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81-0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1·04; 0·95-1·13). INTERPRETATION: Our results provide supportive evidence for the cognitive reserve hypothesis, showing that in middle-income countries as in high-income countries, education, literacy, verbal fluency, and motor sequencing confer substantial protection against the onset of dementia. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust Health Consequences of Population Change Programme, WHO, US Alzheimer's Association, FONACIT/ CDCH/ UCV.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/mortalidade , Demência/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , América Central/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuba/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Saúde da População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana
17.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(7): 670-82, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22460403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In a multi-site population-based study in several middle-income countries, we aimed to investigate relative contributions of care arrangements and characteristics of carers and care recipients to strain among carers of people with dementia. Based on previous research, hypotheses focused on carer sex, care inputs, behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) and socioeconomic status, together with potential buffering effects of informal support and employing paid carers. METHODS: In population-based catchment area surveys in 11 sites in Latin America, India and China, we analysed data collected from people with dementia and care needs, and their carers. Carer strain was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview. RESULTS: With 673 care recipient/carer dyads interviewed (99% of those eligible), mean Zarit Burden Interview scores ranged between 17.1 and 27.9 by site. Women carers reported more strain than men. The most substantial correlates of carer strain were primary stressors BPSD, dementia severity, needs for care and time spent caring. Socioeconomic status was not associated with carer strain. Those cutting back on work experienced higher strain. There was tentative evidence for a protective effect of having additional informal or paid support. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underline the global impact of caring for a person with dementia and support the need for scaling up carer support, education and training. That giving up work to care was prevalent and associated with substantial increased strain emphasizes the economic impact of caring on the household. Carer benefits, disability benefits for people with dementia and respite care should all be considered.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/enfermagem , Renda , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , China , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , América Latina , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS Med ; 9(2): e1001179, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22389633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even in low and middle income countries most deaths occur in older adults. In Europe, the effects of better education and home ownership upon mortality seem to persist into old age, but these effects may not generalise to LMICs. Reliable data on causes and determinants of mortality are lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The vital status of 12,373 people aged 65 y and over was determined 3-5 y after baseline survey in sites in Latin America, India, and China. We report crude and standardised mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios comparing mortality experience with that in the United States, and estimated associations with socioeconomic factors using Cox's proportional hazards regression. Cause-specific mortality fractions were estimated using the InterVA algorithm. Crude mortality rates varied from 27.3 to 70.0 per 1,000 person-years, a 3-fold variation persisting after standardisation for demographic and economic factors. Compared with the US, mortality was much higher in urban India and rural China, much lower in Peru, Venezuela, and urban Mexico, and similar in other sites. Mortality rates were higher among men, and increased with age. Adjusting for these effects, it was found that education, occupational attainment, assets, and pension receipt were all inversely associated with mortality, and food insecurity positively associated. Mutually adjusted, only education remained protective (pooled hazard ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.98). Most deaths occurred at home, but, except in India, most individuals received medical attention during their final illness. Chronic diseases were the main causes of death, together with tuberculosis and liver disease, with stroke the leading cause in nearly all sites. CONCLUSIONS: Education seems to have an important latent effect on mortality into late life. However, compositional differences in socioeconomic position do not explain differences in mortality between sites. Social protection for older people, and the effectiveness of health systems in preventing and treating chronic disease, may be as important as economic and human development.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana
19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 82(10): 1074-1082, Oct. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | CUMED | ID: cum-49483

RESUMO

Objectives Despite the growing importance of stroke in developing countries, little is known of stroke burden in survivors. The authors investigated the prevalence of self-reported stroke, stroke-related disability, dependence and care-giver strain in Latin America (LA), China and India. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted on individuals aged 65+ (n=15 022) living in specified catchment areas. Self-reported stroke diagnosis, disability, care needs and care giver burden were assessed using a standardised protocol. For those reporting stroke, the correlates of disability, dependence and care-giver burden were estimated at each site using Poisson or linear regression, and combined meta-analytically.Results The prevalence of self-reported stroke ranged between 6 percent and 9 percent across most LA sites and urban China, but was much lower in urban India (1,9 percent), and in rural sites in India (1,1 percent), China (1,6 percent) and Peru (2.7 percent). The proportion of stroke survivors needing care varied between 20 percent and 39 percent in LA sites but was higher in rural China (44 percent), urban China (54 percent) and rural India (73 percent). Comorbid dementia and depression were the main correlates of disability and dependence. Conclusion The prevalence of stroke in urban LA and Chinese sites is nearly as high as in industrialised countries. High levels of disability and dependence in the other mainly rural and less-developed sites suggest underascertainment of less severe cases as one likely explanation for the lower prevalence in those settings. As the health transition proceeds, a further increase in numbers of older stroke survivors is to be anticipated. In addition to prevention, stroke rehabilitation and long-term care needs should be addressed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Comparação Transcultural , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Países em Desenvolvimento , América Latina , China , Índia
20.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 10(3): 319-327, jul.-set. 2011. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-615816

RESUMO

Prolongar la esperanza máxima de vida ha sido una aspiración permanente en todas las civilizaciones. Como resultado de tal incremento en la esperanza de vida, existe un progresivo y continuo crecimiento del número de personas mayores de 65 años. En este grupo etáreo, se origina una proliferación creciente de un número importante de enfermedades crónicas, entre las que el síndrome demencial ocupa un lugar relevante. Definir el envejecimiento cognitivo normal es complejo, pero la mayoría de los investigadores afirma que el anciano normal, es decir, sin ninguna enfermedad, no tiene deterioro cognitivo. Los síntomas en la fase inicial de la EA son leves y se superponen con los cambios atribuibles al envejecimiento. Se plantea, que el DCL sea un estado transicional entre las capacidades cognitivas normales y una claramente reconocible EA (continuum cognitivo). Identificar a los individuos con mayor riesgo de desarrollar este tipo de demencia, es actualmente un tópico de gran interés teórico y práctico. Las mediciones de memoria episódica y función ejecutiva son las más sensibles para detectar individuos que desarrollarán demencia. Es de suma importancia, entonces, poder evaluar tempranamente los cambios cognitivos que se presenten en los ancianos.


In every civilization to extend maximum life expectancy has been a perm.anent aspiration. As a result of the increasing in life expectancy there has been a progressive and continuum growing of the number of people older than 65 years old. In this aging group it is also originated a proliferation of chronic diseases among which dementia syndrome take a relevant place. To define normal cognitive aging is complex, but the majority of the researchers affirm that the normal elderly, it mind without any illness do no have any cognitive deterioration. The symptoms at the initial stated of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mild and superpose with the changes referable to aging. It been said that MCI is a transitional stated between the normal cognitive capacity and a clear identification of AD (continuum cognitive). To identify the individual with the major risk of development this type of dementia is now a topic of great theoretical and practical interest. The measurement of episodic memory and executive functions are the most sensible so as to detect individuals developing dementia. It is them of the great important the early evaluations of cognitive changes that appear in the elderly people.

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