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3.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(1): 34-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with an acute heart failure (AHF) episode triggered by infection present different outcomes compared to patients with no trigger and the effects of early antibiotic administration (EAA) and hospitalisation. METHODS: Two groups were made according to the AHF trigger: infection (G1) or none identified (G2). The primary outcome was 13-week (91-days) all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were 13-week post-discharge mortality, readmission or combined endpoint. Comparisons are presented as unadjusted and adjusted (MEESSI risk score) hazard ratios (uHR/aHR) for G1 compared to G2 patients, also estimated by weeks. Stratified analysis by EAA (provided/not provided) and patient disposition (discharged/hospitalised) was performed. RESULTS: We included 6727 patients (G1 = 3973; G2 = 2754). The 13-week mortality uHR was 1.11 (0.99-1.25; p = 0.06; with significant increases in the first 3 weeks), and the aHR was 0.91 (0.81-1.02; p = 0.11). There were no differences in unadjusted secondary post-discharge outcomes; however, G1 outcomes significantly improved after adjustment: aHR 0.83 (0.71-0.96; p = 0.01) for mortality, 0.92 (0.84-0.99; p = 0.04) for readmission, and 0.92 (0.85-0.99; p = 0.04) for the combined endpoint. We found a differentiated effect of hospitalisation (p < 0.05 for interaction; better post-discharge readmission and combined outcomes in G1), and a trend (p = 0.06) to lower mortality in G1 patients with EAA. Additionally, there were some differences between groups in baseline and acute episode characteristics. CONCLUSION: AHF triggered by infection is not associated with a higher mid-term mortality and has better post-discharge outcomes; however, the first 3 weeks are an extremely vulnerable period. Since hospitalisation could have a role in limiting adverse post-discharge events, and EAA in reducing mortality, these relationships should be prospectively explored in further studies.

4.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(6): 407-412, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185139

RESUMO

Objetivo. Identificar el patrón de práctica clínica habitual respecto al tratamiento crónico con sacubitrilo-valsartán (SV) durante los episodios de insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA), sus determinantes y su efecto sobre la evolución. Método. Estudio exploratorio de pacientes con ICA incluidos en el Registro EAHFE-6 en tratamiento crónico con SV. Se recogieron características basales, del episodio y del tratamiento con SV, y se identificaron factores relacionados con la interrupción de SV y su asociación con eventos adversos 180 días postevento índice (mortalidad por cualquier causa) y postalta (reconsulta a urgencias u hospitalización por ICA, muerte o evento combinado). Resultados. Se incluyeron 50 pacientes (mediana desde inicio de SV: 81 días; RIC: 43-284) y SV se interrumpió en 19 casos (38%; 5 en urgencias, 14 en hospitalización). Se identificó un motivo de retirada en 16 casos (4 por insuficiencia renal; y 3 por hipotensión arterial, hiperpotasemia, debilidad/mareo y empeoramiento de ICA, respectivamente). La retirada de SV se asoció con edad avanzada, no estar en tratamiento con betabloqueantes e hiperpotasemia. No hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos en eventos adversos a los 180 días postevento índice o postalta. Conclusión. En los pacientes en tratamiento crónico con SV que presentan ICA, este es suspendido en más de un tercio de casos, si bien ello no se asocia con cambios evolutivos


Objectives. To describe the pattern of care usually given to patients with acute heart failure (AHF) who are taking sacubitril/valsartan (SV) and to explore the effects of care characteristics on clinical outcomes. Methods. Exploratory study of AHF cases in patients taking SV who were included in the register for the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments during the sixth period of data collection (EAHFE-6). We extracted baseline and episode variables and information related to SV treatment. We also analyzed associations between the discontinuation of SV therapy and adverse events within 180 days (all-cause mortality) and after discharge (emergency revisits, admission for AHF, death from any cause, or a composite event). Results. Fifty patients on SV were included. The median time on SV therapy was 81 days (interquartile range, 43-284 days). SV was discontinued in 19 cases (38%; 5 in the emergency department and 14 on the ward). Sixteen records specified the reason for discontinuing SV: renal insufficiency, 4 cases; arterial hypotension, 3; weakness/dizziness, 3; and exacerbated AHF, 3. SV discontinuation was associated with older age, absence of treatment with a betablocker, and hyperkalemia. The EAHFE-6 cases did not reveal significant differences related to SV discontinuation with respect to the rates of adverse events within 180 days or on discharge after the index event. Conclusions. Long-term SV therapy is discontinued in over a third of patients who present with exacerbated AHF even though no association with clinical outcomes could be identified


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hospitalização , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Emergencias ; 31(6): 407-412, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern of care usually given to patients with acute heart failure (AHF) who are taking sacubitril/valsartan (SV) and to explore the effects of care characteristics on clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Exploratory study of AHF cases in patients taking SV who were included in the register for the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments during the sixth period of data collection (EAHFE-6). We extracted baseline and episode variables and information related to SV treatment. We also analyzed associations between the discontinuation of SV therapy and adverse events within 180 days (all-cause mortality) and after discharge (emergency revisits, admission for AHF, death from any cause, or a composite event). RESULTS: . Fifty patients on SV were included. The median time on SV therapy was 81 days (interquartile range, 43-284 days). SV was discontinued in 19 cases (38%; 5 in the emergency department and 14 on the ward). Sixteen records specified the reason for discontinuing SV: renal insufficiency, 4 cases; arterial hypotension, 3; weakness/dizziness, 3; and exacerbated AHF, 3. SV discontinuation was associated with older age, absence of treatment with a betablocker, and hyperkalemia. The EAHFE-6 cases did not reveal significant differences related to SV discontinuation with respect to the rates of adverse events within 180 days or on discharge after the index event. CONCLUSION: Long-term SV therapy is discontinued in over a third of patients who present with exacerbated AHF even though no association with clinical outcomes could be identified.

6.
Emergencias ; 31(5): 318-326, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chest radiographs can contribute to prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with AHF were enrolled by the participating emergency departments. Radiographic variables assessed were the presence or absence of evidence of cardiomegaly and pleural effusion and the pulmonary parenchymal pattern observed (vascular redistribution, interstitial edema, and/or alveolar edema). We gathered variables for the AHF episode and the patient's baseline state. Outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality; hospital stay longer than 7 days, and a composite of events within 30 days of discharge (revisit, rehospitalization, and/or death). Crude and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for the 3 categories of radiographic variables. The variables were also studied in combination. RESULTS: A total of 2703 patients with a mean (SD) age of 81 (19) years were enrolled; 54.5% were women. Cardiomegaly was observed in 1711 cases (76.8%) and pleural effusion in 992 (36.7%). A pulmonary parenchymal pattern was observed in all cases, as follows: vascular redistribution in 1672 (61.9%), interstitial edema in 629 (23.3%) and alveolar edema in 402 (14.9%). The adjusted hazard ratios showed that cardiomegaly lacked prognostic value. However, the presence of pleural effusion was associated with a 23% (95% CI, 2%-49%) higher rate of the 30- day composite outcome; in-hospital mortality was 89% (30%-177%) higher in the presence of alveolar edema, and 1-year mortality was 38% (14%-67%) higher in association with vascular redistribution. The results for the variables in combination were consistent with the results for individual variables. CONCLUSION: A diagnostic chest radiograph can also contribute to the prediction of adverse events. Pleural effusion is associated with a higher rate of events after discharge, and alveolar edema is associated with higher mortality.

7.
Emergencias ; 31(5): 335-340, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the safety of electric cardioversion performed for recent-onset atrial fibrillation in a hospital emergency department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational retrospective analysis of consecutive emergency department cases of atrial fibrillation of less than 48 hours' duration in hemodynamically stable patients. All included cases were either treated with emergency electric cardioversion or referred for evaluation and scheduling of outpatient cardioversion. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a thromboembolic or hemorrhagic event within 90 days. RESULTS: A total of 718 cardioversions in 570 patients were analyzed. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 64 (13.5) years. Four hundred seventy-nine emergency cardioversions (66.7%) and 239 (33.3%) scheduled cardioversions were performed. Eleven adverse events (1.5% of the cohort) occurred: 2 were thromboembolic events (0.3%) and 9 were hemorrhagic (1.3%). All bleeds were minor. There were no statistically significant differences in the rate of adverse events between the emergency and scheduled cardioversion groups. CONCLUSION: Emergency cardioversion for recent-onset atrial fibrillation is safe.

8.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 318-326, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184121

RESUMO

Objetivos. Investigar si la radiografía de tórax en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda (ICA) puede contribuir a establecer el pronóstico. Método. Se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados de ICA en urgencias. Se valoró: cardiomegalia radiológica (CR), derrame pleural (DP) y el patrón parenquimatoso pulmonar (PPP: redistribución vascular, edema intersticial, edema alveolar). Se recogieron variables del estado basal del paciente y del episodio. Las variables de resultado evaluadas fueron mortalidad intrahospitalaria y al año, ingreso prolongado (> 7 días) y evento combinado (reconsulta, rehospitalización o muerte) a 30 días postalta, para las cuales se calcularon las hazard ratio crudas y ajustadas para las tres variables radiológicas y su combinación entre ellas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 2.703 pacientes con una edad media de 81 (DE 19) años; el 54,5% eran mujeres. Se observó CR en 1.711 casos (76,8%), DP en 992 (36,7%) y todos los pacientes mostraron PPP (redistribución vascular el 61,9%, edema intersticial el 23,3% y edema alveolar el 14,9%). El análisis ajustado mostró que la CR no tuvo valor pronóstico; el DP incrementó un 23% (IC 95% 2-49%) los eventos combinados a los 30 días postalta; y el PPP edema alveolar aumentó un 89% (30-177%) la mortalidad intrahospitalaria y un 38% (14-67%) la mortalidad al año respecto al PPP redistribución vascular (referencia). El estudio de la combinación de estos tres hallazgos radiológicos mostró resultados similares y congruentes con los hallazgos del estudio individualizado. Conclusiones. La radiografía de tórax, además de ayudar a establecer el diagnóstico de ICA, puede contribuir a estimar el pronóstico de eventos adversos. Así, el DP se asocia a un incremento de eventos adversos postalta y el PPP edema alveolar a una mayor mortalidad


Objective. To determine whether chest radiographs can contribute to prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Methods. Consecutive patients with AHF were enrolled by the participating emergency departments. Radiographic variables assessed were the presence or absence of evidence of cardiomegaly and pleural effusion and the pulmonary parenchymal pattern observed (vascular redistribution, interstitial edema, and/or alveolar edema). We gathered variables for the AHF episode and the patient’s baseline state. Outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality; hospital stay longer than 7 days, and a composite of events within 30 days of discharge (revisit, rehospitalization, and/or death). Crude and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for the 3 categories of radiographic variables. The variables were also studied in combination. Results. A total of 2703 patients with a mean (SD) age of 81 (19) years were enrolled; 54.5% were women. Cardiomegaly was observed in 1711 cases (76.8%) and pleural effusion in 992 (36.7%). A pulmonary parenchymal pattern was observed in all cases, as follows: vascular redistribution in 1672 (61.9%), interstitial edema in 629 (23.3%) and alveolar edema in 402 (14.9%). The adjusted hazard ratios showed that cardiomegaly lacked prognostic value. However, the presence of pleural effusion was associated with a 23% (95% CI, 2%-49%) higher rate of the 30-day composite outcome; in-hospital mortality was 89% (30%-177%) higher in the presence of alveolar edema, and 1-year mortality was 38% (14%-67%) higher in association with vascular redistribution. The results for the variables in combination were consistent with the results for individual variables. Conclusions. A diagnostic chest radiograph can also contribute to the prediction of adverse events. Pleural effusion is associated with a higher rate of events after discharge, and alveolar edema is associated with higher mortality


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Cardiomegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/complicações , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/complicações , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 335-340, oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184123

RESUMO

Objetivo. Analizar la seguridad de la cardioversión de la fibrilación auricular (FA) de reciente comienzo realizada en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH). Método. Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico en un SUH. Se recogieron de forma consecutiva los episodios de FA de menos de 48 horas de evolución y hemodinámicamente estables, en los que se realizó una cardioversión urgente (CVU) y los episodios derivados para valorar cardioversión programada ambulatoria (CVP). La variable de resultado fue la presencia de eventos embólicos (EE) o hemorrágicos (EH) a los 90 días. Resultados. Se analizaron 718 cardioversiones en 570 pacientes. La edad media fue de 64 años (DE 13,5). Se realizaron 479 (66,7%) CVU y 239 (33,3%) CVP. Se recogieron un total de 11 (1,5%) eventos: dos EE (0,3%) y 9 EH (1,3%). Todos los EH fueron hemorragias menores. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos. Conclusión. La CVU de la FA de reciente comienzo en los SUH es una estrategia segura


Objective. To analyze the safety of electric cardioversion performed for recent-onset atrial fibrillation in a hospital emergency department. Methods. Observational retrospective analysis of consecutive emergency department cases of atrial fibrillation of less than 48 hours’ duration in hemodynamically stable patients. All included cases were either treated with emergency electric cardioversion or referred for evaluation and scheduling of outpatient cardioversion. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a thromboembolic or hemorrhagic event within 90 days. Results. A total of 718 cardioversions in 570 patients were analyzed. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 64 (13.5) years. Four hundred seventy-nine emergency cardioversions (66.7%) and 239 (33.3%) scheduled cardioversions were performed. Eleven adverse events (1.5% of the cohort) occurred: 2 were thromboembolic events (0.3%) and 9 were hemorrhagic (1.3%). All bleeds were minor. There were no statistically significant differences in the rate of adverse events between the emergency and scheduled cardioversion groups. Conclusion. Emergency cardioversion for recent-onset atrial fibrillation is safe


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/tendências , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Multivariada
10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(10): 834-845, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether systemic corticosteroids (new onset) administered to patients with acute heart failure (AHF) have any association with outcomes, with differentiated analyses for patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a comorbidity. BACKGROUND: Patients with undiagnosed dyspnea frequently receive corticosteroids in emergency departments while determining a final diagnosis, but their effect on the outcomes of patients with AHF without overt COPD exacerbation is unknown. METHODS: We selected patients with AHF from the EAHFE (Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in the Emergency Departments) registry, recording key data (new-onset corticosteroid therapy, COPD condition). Patients with and without COPD were analyzed separately. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted ratios for corticosteroid-treated compared with corticosteroid-untreated patients for 2 coprimary endpoints: 90-day all-cause mortality (from index episode) and 90-day post-discharge combined endpoint (all-cause mortality or readmission for AHF), with intermediate time-point estimations. Other secondary endpoints were calculated, and some sensitive and stratified analyses were performed. RESULTS: We analyzed 11,356 patients: 8,635 without COPD (841 corticosteroid-treated, 9.7%) and 2,721 with COPD (753 corticosteroid-treated, 27.7%). There were several differences between treated and untreated patients, essentially because corticosteroid-treated patients were sicker. Although unadjusted outcomes were worse in corticosteroid-treated patients, especially in patients without COPD, these differences disappeared after adjustment: hazard ratios for 90-day mortality (without/with COPD) were 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 to 1.10)/0.99 (95% CI: 0.78 to 1.26), and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.28)/1.02 (95% CI: 0.86 to 1.21) for the post-discharge combined endpoint. Analyses of intermediate time-point coprimary endpoints and secondary outcomes rendered similar estimations. Sensitivity and stratified analysis did not significantly modify these results. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of harm related to the new onset of systemic corticosteroid therapy during an episode of AHF, either in patients with or without concomitant COPD.

11.
Maturitas ; 129: 50-56, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine functional changes and factors affecting 180-day functional prognosis among older patients attending a hospital emergency department (ED) after a fall. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis from a prospective cohort study (FALL-ER Registry) spanning one year that included individuals aged ≥65 years attending four Spanish EDs after a fall. We collected 9 baseline and 6 fall-related factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Barthel Index (BI) was measured at baseline, discharge and 30, 90 and 180 days after the index fall. Absolute and relative BI changes were calculated. Absolute difference of ≥10 points between BI at baseline and at 180 days was considered a clinically significant functional decline. RESULTS: 452 patients (mean age 80 ±â€¯8 years; 70.8% women) were included. Baseline BI was 79.3 ±â€¯23.1 points. Compared with baseline, functional status was significantly lower at the 4 follow-up time points (-8.7% at discharge; and -6.9%, -7.9% and -9.5% at 30, 90 and 180 days; p < 0.001 for all comparisons in relation to baseline; p = 0.001 for change over time). One hundred and thirty-three (29.6%) patients had a clinically significant functional decline at 180 days. Age ≥85 years (OR = 2.24, 95%CI 1.23-4.08; p = 0.008), fall-related fracture (OR = 2.45, 95%CI 1.43-4.28; p = 0.001), hospitalization (OR = 1.91; 95%CI 1.11-3.29; p = 0.019) and post-fall syndrome (OR = 1.77, 95%CI 1.13-2.77; p = 0.013) were independently associated with 180-day clinically significant functional decline. CONCLUSION: Patients ≥65 years attending EDs after a fall experience a consistent and persistent negative impact on their functional status. Several factors may help identify patients at increased risk of functional impairment.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Atividades Cotidianas , Nível de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 70: 24-32, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between length of hospitalisation (LOH) and post-discharge outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF) patients and to ascertain whether there are different patterns according to department of initial hospitalisation. METHODS: Consecutive AHF patients hospitalised in 41 Spanish centres were grouped based on the LOH (<6/6-10/11-15/>15 days). Outcomes were defined as 90-day post-discharge all-cause mortality, AHF readmissions, and the combination of both. Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted by chronic conditions and severity of decompensation, were calculated for groups with LOH >6 days vs. LOH <6 days (reference), and stratified by hospitalisation in cardiology, internal medicine, geriatrics, or short-stay units. RESULTS: We included 8563 patients (mean age: 80 (SD = 10) years, 55.5% women), with a median LOH of 7 days (IQR 4-11): 2934 (34.3%) had a LOH <6 days, 3184 (37.2%) 6-10 days, 1287 (15.0%) 11-15 days, and 1158 (13.5%) >15 days. The 90-day post-discharge mortality was 11.4%, readmission 32.2%, and combined endpoint 37.4%. Mortality was increased by 36.5% (95%CI = 13.0-64.9) when LOH was 11-15 days, and by 72.0% (95%CI = 42.6-107.5) when >15 days. Conversely, no differences were found in readmission risk, and the combined endpoint only increased 21.6% (95%CI = 8.4-36.4) for LOH >15 days. Stratified analysis by hospitalisation departments rendered similar post-discharge outcomes, with all exhibiting increased mortality for LOH >15 days and no significant increments in readmission risk. CONCLUSIONS: Short hospitalisations are not associated with worse outcomes. While post-discharge readmissions are not affected by LOH, mortality risk increases as the LOH lengthens. These findings were similar across hospitalisation departments.

13.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(7): 667-680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and prognostic value of the most common triggering factors in acute heart failure. METHODS: Patients with acute heart failure from 41 Spanish emergency departments were recruited consecutively in three time periods between 2011 and 2016. Precipitating factors were classified as: (a) unrecognized; (b) infection; (c) atrial fibrillation; (d) anaemia; (e) hypertension; (f) acute coronary syndrome; (g) non-adherence; and (h) two or more precipitant factors. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between 30-day mortality and each precipitant factor. The risk of dying was further evaluated by week intervals over the 30-day follow-up to assess the period of higher vulnerability for each precipitant factor. RESULTS: Approximately 69% of our 9999 patients presented with a triggering factor and 1002 died within the first 30 days (10.0%). The most prevalent factors were infection and atrial fibrillation. After adjusting for 11 known predictors, acute coronary syndrome was associated with higher 30-day mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-3.42), whereas atrial fibrillation (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.56-0.94) and hypertension (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.21-0.55) were significantly associated with better outcomes when compared to patients without precipitant. Patients with infection, anaemia and non-compliance were not at higher risk of dying within 30 days. These findings were consistent across gender and age groups. The 30-day mortality time pattern varied between and within precipitant factors. CONCLUSIONS: Precipitant factors in acute heart failure patients are prevalent and have a prognostic value regardless of the patient's gender and age. They can be managed with specific treatments and can sometimes be prevented.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(10): 1231-1244, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the natural history of patients after a first episode of acute heart failure (FEAHF) requiring emergency department (ED) consultation, focusing on: the frequency of ED visits and hospitalisations, departments admitting patients during the first and subsequent hospitalisations, and factors associated with difficult disease control. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included consecutive patients diagnosed with FEAHF (either with or without previous heart failure diagnosis) in four EDs during 5 months in three different time periods (2009, 2011, 2014). Diagnosis was adjudicated by local principal investigators. The clinical characteristics of the index event were prospectively recorded, and all post-discharge ED visits and hospitalisations [related/unrelated to acute heart failure (AHF)], as well as departments involved in subsequent hospitalisations were retrospectively ascertained. 'Uncontrolled disease' during the first year after FEAHF was considered if patients were attended at ED (≥ 3 times) or hospitalised (≥ 2 times) for AHF or died. Overall, 505 patients with FEAHF were included and followed for a mean of 2.4 years. In-hospital mortality was 7.5%. Among 467 patients discharged alive, 288 died [median survival 3.9 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-4.4], 421 (90%) revisited the ED (2342 ED visits; 42.4% requiring hospitalisation, 34.0% AHF-related) and 357 (77%) were hospitalised (1054 hospitalisations; 94.1% through ED, 51.4% AHF-related). AHF-related hospitalisations were mainly in internal medicine (28.0%), short-stay unit (26.3%), cardiology (20.8%), and geriatrics (14.1%). Only 47.4% of AHF-related hospitalisations were in the same department as the FEAHF, and internal medicine involvement significantly increased with subsequent hospitalisations (P = 0.01). Uncontrolled disease was observed in 31% of patients, which was independently related to age > 80 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.77], systolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg at ED arrival (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.26-5.38) and anaemia (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.51-3.78). CONCLUSION: In the present aged cohort of AHF patients from Barcelona, Spain, the natural history after FEAHF showed different patterns of hospital department involvement. Advanced age, low systolic blood pressure and anaemia were factors related to uncontrolled disease during the year after debut.

15.
Eur J Intern Med ; 67: 89-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) presenting renal dysfunction (RD) or hyperkalaemia (Hk) alone or in combination. METHOD: We analysed the data of the EAHFE registry, a multicentre, non interventionist cohort with prospective follow-up of patients with AHF. Four groups were defined based on the presence or not of RD or Hk alone or in combination. The primary endpoint was 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 11,935 of the 13,791 patients included in the EAHFE registry were analysed. Of these, 5088 (42.6%) did not have RD or Hk (NoRD-NoHk), 150 (1.3%) had no RD but had Hk (NoRD-Hk), 6012 (50.4%) had RD but not Hk (RD-NoHk) and 685 (5.7%) had both RD and Hk (RD-Hk). Thirty-day all-cause mortality was greatest in the RD-Hk group with an adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of 2.44 (confidence interval 95% [CI95%] 1.67-3.55; p < 0.001) and in the RD-NoHk group with an adjusted HR of 1.34 (CI95% 1.04-1.71; p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality and reconsultation at 30 days for HF. For the combined endpoint of 30-day all-cause mortality the adjusted HR was 1.33 (CI95% 1.04-1.70); (p = 0.021) for the RD-Hk group. CONCLUSIONS: The association of 30-day all-cause mortality with the presence of RD and Hk in patients presenting AHF at admission is greater than in those without this combination.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 137-142, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) reflects the severity of ongoing myocardial damage. In acute heart failure (AHF), its additive prognostic value over B-type natriuretic peptides is unclear. METHODS: Individual data of 1499 AHF patients with admission hs-TnT were collected from 3 cohorts. RESULTS: Patients (78 ±â€¯10 years, 51% men, N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide - NT-proBNP - 5660 [2693-12,466], hs-TnT 43 ng/L [26-69]) experiencing in-hospital death (n = 187, 13%) had significantly higher hs-TnT and NT-proBNP on admission (both p < 0.001). Patients with hs-TnT ≥43 ng/L and NT-proBNP ≥5660 ng/L had a 2.7-fold higher risk of in-hospital death (relative risk - RR 2.7, 95% confidence interval - CI 1.7-4.5). Among discharged patients, 1024 deaths (81%) occurred over 11 months (4-22). In the whole population, hs-TnT ≥43 ng/L predicted all-cause death at 6, 12 and 24 months independently from NT-proBNP ≥5660 ng/L. The best NT-proBNP cut-off for in-hospital mortality (4382 ng/L) independently predicted this endpoint, while the best hs-TnT cut-off (55 ng/L) did not. Patients with NT-proBNP ≥4382 ng/L and hs-TnT ≥55 ng/L had a 12-fold higher risk of in-hospital death (RR 11.7, 95% CI 6.9-19.7). The best hs-TnT cut-offs independently predicted all post-discharge outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The best NT-proBNP cut-off (4382 ng/L) independently predicts outcome, while the best hs-TnT (55 ng/L) does not; patients with both biomarkers ≥best cut-offs have a 12-fold higher risk of in-hospital mortality. Admission hs-TnT ≥43 ng/L and the best hs-TnT cut-offs hold independent prognostic significance for post-discharge outcome, while hs-TnT seems less predictive than NT-proBNP when considering absolute values.

17.
Ann Emerg Med ; 74(2): 204-215, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147102

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The Multiple Estimation of Risk Based on the Emergency Department Spanish Score in Patients With Acute Heart Failure (MEESSI-AHF) is a validated clinical decision tool that characterizes risk of mortality in emergency department (ED) acute heart failure patients. The objective of this study is to compare the distribution of risk categories between hospitalized and discharged ED patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: We included consecutive acute heart failure patients from 34 Spanish EDs. Patients were retrospectively classified according to MEESSI-AHF risk categories. We calculated the odds of hospitalization (versus direct discharge from the ED) across MEESSI-AHF risk categories. Next, we assessed the following 30-day postdischarge outcomes: ED revisit, hospitalization, death, and their combination. We used Cox hazards models to determine the adjusted association between ED disposition decision and the outcomes among patients who were stratified into low- and increased-risk categories. RESULTS: We included 7,930 patients (80.5 years [SD 10.1 years]; women 54.7%; hospitalized 75.3%). Compared with that for low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients, odds ratios for hospitalization of patients in intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk categories were 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64 to 2.05), 3.05 (95% CI 2.48 to 3.76), and 3.98 (95% CI 3.13 to 5.05), respectively. However, almost half (47.6%) of all discharged patients were categorized as being at increased risk by MEESSI-AHF, and 19.0% of all the increased-risk patients were discharged from the ED. Among the low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients, the 30-day postdischarge mortality did not differ by ED disposition (hazard ratio [HR] for discharged patients with respect to hospitalized ones 0.65; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.11), nor did it differ in the increased-risk group (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.23). The discharged low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients had higher risks of 30-day ED revisit and hospitalization (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.20; and HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.40, respectively) compared with the admitted patients, as did the discharged patients in the increased-risk group (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.89; and HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.68, respectively), with similar results for the combined endpoint. CONCLUSION: The disposition decisions made in current clinical practice for ED acute heart failure patients calibrate with MEESSI-AHF risk categories, but nearly half of the patients currently discharged from the ED fall into increased-risk MEESSI-AHF categories.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1353-1365, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) according to clinical profiles based on congestion and perfusion determined in the emergency department (ED). METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 11 261 unselected AHF patients from 41 Spanish EDs were classified according to perfusion (normoperfusion = warm; hypoperfusion = cold) and congestion (not = dry; yes = wet). Baseline and decompensation characteristics were recorded as were the main wards to which patients were admitted. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were need for hospitalisation during the index AHF event, in-hospital all-cause mortality, prolonged hospitalisation, 7-day post-discharge ED revisit for AHF and 30-day post-discharge rehospitalisation for AHF. A total of 8558 patients (76.0%) were warm + wet, 1929 (17.1%) cold + wet, 675 (6.0%) warm + dry, and 99 (0.9%) cold + dry; hypoperfused (cold) patients were more frequently admitted to intensive care units and geriatrics departments, and warm + wet patients were discharged home without admission. The four phenotypes differed in most of the baseline and decompensation characteristics. The 1-year mortality was 30.8%, and compared to warm + dry, the adjusted hazard ratios were significantly increased for cold + wet (1.660; 95% confidence interval 1.400-1.968) and cold + dry (1.672; 95% confidence interval 1.189-2.351). Hypoperfused (cold) phenotypes also showed higher rates of index episode hospitalisation and in-hospital mortality, while congestive (wet) phenotypes had a higher risk of prolonged hospitalisation but decreased risk of rehospitalisation. No differences were observed among phenotypes in ED revisit risk. CONCLUSIONS: Bedside clinical evaluation of congestion and perfusion of AHF patients upon ED arrival and classification according to phenotypic profiles proposed by the latest European Society of Cardiology guidelines provide useful complementary information and help to rapidly predict patient outcomes shortly after ED patient arrival.

19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 65: 69-77, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence and impact of risk of malnutrition on short-term mortality among seniors presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) in emergency setting. The objective was to determine the impact of risk of malnutrition on 30-day mortality risk among older patients who attended in Emergency Departments (EDs) for AHF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the OAK-3 Registry including all consecutive patients ≥65 years attending in 16 Spanish EDs for AHF. Risk of malnutrition was defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) < 12 points. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 749 patients (mean age: 85 (SD 6); 55.8% females). Risk of malnutrition was observed in 594 (79.3%) patients. The rate of 30-day mortality was 8.8%. After adjusting for MEESSI-AHF risk score clinical categories (model 1) and after adding all variables showing a significantly different distribution among groups (model 2), the risk of malnutrition was an independent factor associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted OR by model 1 = 3.4; 95%CI 1.2-9.7; p = .020 and adjusted OR by model 2 = 3.1; 95%CI 1.1-9.0; p = .033) compared to normal nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of malnutrition assessed by the MNA-SF is associated with 30-day mortality in older patients with AHF who were attended in EDs. Routine screening of risk of malnutrition may help emergency physicians in decision-making and establishing a care plan.

20.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(6-7): 390-399, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The absence of cardiac troponin (cTn) determination in an episode of acute heart failure (AHF) is frequent. The characteristics of these patients are not well known; nor is it known whether they have a better prognosis than patients in whom cTn is determined. AIM: The objective of the EAHFE-TROPICA3 study was to analyse the characteristics of patients consulting for AHF in whom cTn was not determined (nocTn), and to evaluate the relationship of cTn determination (wcTn) with patient outcomes. METHODS: This was an analysis of the multipurpose prospective EAHFE registry of patients with AHF consulting at the emergency departments of 34 Spanish hospitals. RESULTS: Data from 8850 patients with AHF were analysed; cTn was not determined in 4216 of these patients (47.6%), who had a lower prevalence of ischaemic heart disease, more frequent use of loop diuretics at baseline, a greater rate of oedema in the acute episode, more frequent history of heart failure, and less use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or aldosterone receptor antagonists and beta-blockers at baseline. Compared with the wcTn group, the nocTn group had the same in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.50), mortality at 30 days (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.90-1.28) and reconsultation at 30 days (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with AHF with and without cTn determination have different characteristics. These differences are not related to a better prognosis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Troponina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Nível de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
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