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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 232, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431829

RESUMO

Contact tracing is critical to controlling COVID-19, but most protocols only "forward-trace" to notify people who were recently exposed. Using a stochastic branching-process model, we find that "bidirectional" tracing to identify infector individuals and their other infectees robustly improves outbreak control. In our model, bidirectional tracing more than doubles the reduction in effective reproduction number (Reff) achieved by forward-tracing alone, while dramatically increasing resilience to low case ascertainment and test sensitivity. The greatest gains are realised by expanding the manual tracing window from 2 to 6 days pre-symptom-onset or, alternatively, by implementing high-uptake smartphone-based exposure notification; however, to achieve the performance of the former approach, the latter requires nearly all smartphones to detect exposure events. With or without exposure notification, our results suggest that implementing bidirectional tracing could dramatically improve COVID-19 control.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , /diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Smartphone
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(1): e1008627, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465065

RESUMO

Heterogeneous exposure to mosquitoes determines an individual's contribution to vector-borne pathogen transmission. Particularly for dengue virus (DENV), there is a major difficulty in quantifying human-vector contacts due to the unknown coupled effect of key heterogeneities. To test the hypothesis that the reduction of human out-of-home mobility due to dengue illness will significantly influence population-level dynamics and the structure of DENV transmission chains, we extended an existing modeling framework to include social structure, disease-driven mobility reductions, and heterogeneous transmissibility from different infectious groups. Compared to a baseline model, naïve to human pre-symptomatic infectiousness and disease-driven mobility changes, a model including both parameters predicted an increase of 37% in the probability of a DENV outbreak occurring; a model including mobility change alone predicted a 15.5% increase compared to the baseline model. At the individual level, models including mobility change led to a reduction of the importance of out-of-home onward transmission (R, the fraction of secondary cases predicted to be generated by an individual) by symptomatic individuals (up to -62%) at the expense of an increase in the relevance of their home (up to +40%). An individual's positive contribution to R could be predicted by a GAM including a non-linear interaction between an individual's biting suitability and the number of mosquitoes in their home (>10 mosquitoes and 0.6 individual attractiveness significantly increased R). We conclude that the complex fabric of social relationships and differential behavioral response to dengue illness cause the fraction of symptomatic DENV infections to concentrate transmission in specific locations, whereas asymptomatic carriers (including individuals in their pre-symptomatic period) move the virus throughout the landscape. Our findings point to the difficulty of focusing vector control interventions reactively on the home of symptomatic individuals, as this approach will fail to contain virus propagation by visitors to their house and asymptomatic carriers.

3.
J R Soc Interface ; 17(173): 20200775, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292095

RESUMO

Controlling the regional re-emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after its initial spread in ever-changing personal contact networks and disease landscapes is a challenging task. In a landscape context, contact opportunities within and between populations are changing rapidly as lockdown measures are relaxed and a number of social activities re-activated. Using an individual-based metapopulation model, we explored the efficacy of different control strategies across an urban-rural gradient in Wales, UK. Our model shows that isolation of symptomatic cases or regional lockdowns in response to local outbreaks have limited efficacy unless the overall transmission rate is kept persistently low. Additional isolation of non-symptomatic infected individuals, who may be detected by effective test-and-trace strategies, is pivotal to reducing the overall epidemic size over a wider range of transmission scenarios. We define an 'urban-rural gradient in epidemic size' as a correlation between regional epidemic size and connectivity within the region, with more highly connected urban populations experiencing relatively larger outbreaks. For interventions focused on regional lockdowns, the strength of such gradients in epidemic size increased with higher travel frequencies, indicating a reduced efficacy of the control measure in the urban regions under these conditions. When both non-symptomatic and symptomatic individuals are isolated or regional lockdown strategies are enforced, we further found the strongest urban-rural epidemic gradients at high transmission rates. This effect was reversed for strategies targeted at symptomatic individuals only. Our results emphasize the importance of test-and-trace strategies and maintaining low transmission rates for efficiently controlling SARS-CoV-2 spread, both at landscape scale and in urban areas.

4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008292, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075052

RESUMO

The lack of effective vaccines for many endemic diseases often forces policymakers to rely on non-immunizing control measures, such as vector control, to reduce the massive burden of these diseases. Controls can have well-known counterintuitive effects on endemic infections, including the honeymoon effect, in which partially effective controls cause not only a greater initial reduction in infection than expected, but also large outbreaks during control resulting from accumulation of susceptibles. Unfortunately, many control measures cannot be maintained indefinitely, and the results of cessation are poorly understood. Here, we examine the results of stopped or failed non-immunizing control measures in endemic settings. By using a mathematical model to compare the cumulative number of cases expected with and without control, we show that deployment of control can lead to a larger total number of infections, counting from the time that control started, than without any control-the divorce effect. This result is directly related to the population-level loss of immunity resulting from non-immunizing controls and is seen in a variety of models when non-immunizing controls are used against an infection that confers immunity. Finally, we examine three control plans for minimizing the magnitude of the divorce effect in seasonal infections and show that they are incapable of eliminating the divorce effect. While we do not suggest stopping control programs that rely on non-immunizing controls, our results strongly argue that the accumulation of susceptibility should be considered before deploying such controls against endemic infections when indefinite use of the control is unlikely. We highlight that our results are particularly germane to endemic mosquito-borne infections, such as dengue virus, both for routine management involving vector control and for field trials of novel control approaches, and in the context of non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Culicidae , Vacinas contra Dengue/uso terapêutico , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Estações do Ano , Dengue Grave/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
5.
Trends Biotechnol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010965

RESUMO

Robust methods of predicting how gene drive systems will interact with ecosystems is essential for safe deployment of gene drive technology. We describe how quantitative tools can reduce risk uncertainty, streamline empirical research, guide risk management, and promote cross-sector collaboration throughout the process of gene drive technology development and implementation.

6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20201405, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781946

RESUMO

Combinations of intense non-pharmaceutical interventions (lockdowns) were introduced worldwide to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Many governments have begun to implement exit strategies that relax restrictions while attempting to control the risk of a surge in cases. Mathematical modelling has played a central role in guiding interventions, but the challenge of designing optimal exit strategies in the face of ongoing transmission is unprecedented. Here, we report discussions from the Isaac Newton Institute 'Models for an exit strategy' workshop (11-15 May 2020). A diverse community of modellers who are providing evidence to governments worldwide were asked to identify the main questions that, if answered, would allow for more accurate predictions of the effects of different exit strategies. Based on these questions, we propose a roadmap to facilitate the development of reliable models to guide exit strategies. This roadmap requires a global collaborative effort from the scientific community and policymakers, and has three parts: (i) improve estimation of key epidemiological parameters; (ii) understand sources of heterogeneity in populations; and (iii) focus on requirements for data collection, particularly in low-to-middle-income countries. This will provide important information for planning exit strategies that balance socio-economic benefits with public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Imunidade Coletiva , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças , Características da Família , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007743, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310958

RESUMO

Recent years have seen rising incidence of dengue and large outbreaks of Zika and chikungunya, which are all caused by viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In most settings, the primary intervention against Aedes-transmitted viruses is vector control, such as indoor, ultra-low volume (ULV) spraying. Targeted indoor residual spraying (TIRS) has the potential to more effectively impact Aedes-borne diseases, but its implementation requires careful planning and evaluation. The optimal time to deploy these interventions and their relative epidemiological effects are, however, not well understood. We used an agent-based model of dengue virus transmission calibrated to data from Iquitos, Peru to assess the epidemiological effects of these interventions under differing strategies for deploying them. Specifically, we compared strategies where spray application was initiated when incidence rose above a threshold based on incidence in recent years to strategies where spraying occurred at the same time(s) each year. In the absence of spraying, the model predicted 361,000 infections [inter-quartile range (IQR): 347,000-383,000] in the period 2000-2010. The ULV strategy with the fewest median infections was spraying twice yearly, in March and October, which led to a median of 172,000 infections [IQR: 158,000-183,000], a 52% reduction from baseline. Compared to spraying once yearly in September, the best threshold-based strategy utilizing ULV had fewer median infections (254,000 vs. 261,000), but required more spraying (351 vs. 274 days). For TIRS, the best strategy was threshold-based, which led to the fewest infections of all strategies tested (9,900; [IQR: 8,720-11,400], a 94% reduction), and required fewer days spraying than the equivalent ULV strategy (280). Although spraying twice each year is likely to avert the most infections, our results indicate that a threshold-based strategy can become an alternative to better balance the translation of spraying effort into impact, particularly if used with a residual insecticide.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Inseticidas , Modelos Teóricos , Mosquitos Vetores , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
8.
J Med Entomol ; 57(4): 1104-1110, 2020 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052026

RESUMO

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), is a peridomestic, container-ovipositing mosquito commonly found throughout the southeastern United States. In the United States, Ae. albopictus is typically considered a nuisance pest; however, it is capable of transmitting multiple pathogens. Ae. albopictus is an important pest species and the target of numerous mosquito control efforts in the United States. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness and spatial extent of Ae. albopictus population reduction using a bifenthrin (AI Bifen IT, 7.9%) barrier spray and larval habitat management (LHM) in a temperate, suburban setting. Sixteen pairs of adjoining neighbors were randomly assigned to treatment groups with one neighbor receiving a treatment and the other monitored for evidence of a spillover effect of the treatments. Ae. albopictus populations in both yards were monitored for 33 d, with treatments occurring on the eighth day. Barrier sprays, both alone and combined with LHM, resulted in a significant reduction in Ae. albopictus abundance posttreatment. While LHM alone did not result in a significant reduction over the entire posttreatment period, Ae. albopictus populations were observed to be in decline during this period. No treatments were observed to have any reduction in efficacy 25 d posttreatment, with treatments involving LHM having a significantly increased efficacy. Yards neighboring treated yards were also observed to have reduced population sizes posttreatment, but these differences were rarely significant. These results provide insights into the population dynamics of Ae. albopictus following two common treatments and will be useful for integrated pest management plans.

9.
Math Biosci ; 321: 108294, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836567

RESUMO

In mathematical epidemiology, a well-known formula describes the impact of heterogeneity on the basic reproductive number, R0, for situations in which transmission is separable and for which there is one source of variation in susceptibility and one source of variation in infectiousness. This formula is written in terms of the magnitudes of the heterogeneities, as quantified by their coefficients of variation, and the correlation between them. A natural question to ask is whether analogous results apply when there are multiple sources of variation in susceptibility and/or infectiousness. In this paper we demonstrate that with three or more coupled heterogeneities, R0 under separable transmission depends on details of the distribution of the heterogeneities in a way that is not seen in the well-known simpler situation. We provide explicit formulae for the cases of multivariate normal and multivariate log-normal distributions, showing that R0 can again be expressed in terms of the magnitudes of the heterogeneities and the pairwise correlations between them. The formulae, however, differ between the two multivariate distributions, demonstrating that no formula of this type applies generally when there are three or more coupled heterogeneities. We see that the results of the formulae are approximately equal when heterogeneities are relatively small and show that an earlier result in the literature (Koella, 1991) should be viewed in this light. We provide numerical illustrations of our results and discuss a setting in which coupled heterogeneities are likely to have a major impact on the value of R0. We also describe a rather surprising result: in a system with three heterogeneities, R0 can exhibit non-monotonic behavior with increasing levels of heterogeneity, in marked contrast to the familiar two heterogeneity setting in which R0 either increases or decreases with increasing heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15821, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676762

RESUMO

Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity on islands. While successes have been achieved using traditional removal methods, such as toxicants aimed at rodents, these approaches have limitations and various off-target effects on island ecosystems. Gene drive technologies designed to eliminate a population provide an alternative approach, but the potential for drive-bearing individuals to escape from the target release area and impact populations elsewhere is a major concern. Here we propose the "Locally Fixed Alleles" approach as a novel means for localizing elimination by a drive to an island population that exhibits significant genetic isolation from neighboring populations. Our approach is based on the assumption that in small island populations of rodents, genetic drift will lead to alleles at multiple genomic loci becoming fixed. In contrast, multiple alleles are likely to be maintained in larger populations on mainlands. Utilizing the high degree of genetic specificity achievable using homing drives, for example based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, our approach aims at employing one or more locally fixed alleles as the target for a gene drive on a particular island. Using mathematical modeling, we explore the feasibility of this approach and the degree of localization that can be achieved. We show that across a wide range of parameter values, escape of the drive to a neighboring population in which the target allele is not fixed will at most lead to modest transient suppression of the non-target population. While the main focus of this paper is on elimination of a rodent pest from an island, we also discuss the utility of the locally fixed allele approach for the goals of population suppression or population replacement. Our analysis also provides a threshold condition for the ability of a gene drive to invade a partially resistant population.


Assuntos
Alelos , Biodiversidade , Animais , Ilhas
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1914): 20191606, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690240

RESUMO

Invasive rodents impact biodiversity, human health and food security worldwide. The biodiversity impacts are particularly significant on islands, which are the primary sites of vertebrate extinctions and where we are reaching the limits of current control technologies. Gene drives may represent an effective approach to this challenge, but knowledge gaps remain in a number of areas. This paper is focused on what is currently known about natural and developing synthetic gene drive systems in mice, some key areas where key knowledge gaps exist, findings in a variety of disciplines relevant to those gaps and a brief consideration of how engagement at the regulatory, stakeholder and community levels can accompany and contribute to this effort. Our primary species focus is the house mouse, Mus musculus, as a genetic model system that is also an important invasive pest. Our primary application focus is the development of gene drive systems intended to reduce reproduction and potentially eliminate invasive rodents from islands. Gene drive technologies in rodents have the potential to produce significant benefits for biodiversity conservation, human health and food security. A broad-based, multidisciplinary approach is necessary to assess this potential in a transparent, effective and responsible manner.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético , Roedores , Animais , Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Ilhas , Reprodução
12.
Evol Appl ; 12(8): 1688-1702, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462923

RESUMO

Optimism regarding potential epidemiological and conservation applications of modern gene drives is tempered by concern about the possibility of unintended spread of engineered organisms beyond the target population. In response, several novel gene drive approaches have been proposed that can, under certain conditions, locally alter characteristics of a population. One challenge for these gene drives is the difficulty of achieving high levels of localized population suppression without very large releases in the face of gene flow. We present a new gene drive system, tethered homing (TH), with improved capacity for both localization and population suppression. The TH drive is based on driving a payload gene using a homing construct that is anchored to a spatially restricted gene drive. We use a proof-of-concept mathematical model to show the dynamics of a TH drive that uses engineered underdominance as an anchor. This system is composed of a split homing drive and a two-locus engineered underdominance drive linked to one part of the split drive (the Cas endonuclease). We use simple population genetic simulations to show that the tethered homing technique can offer improved localized spread of costly transgenic payload genes. Additionally, the TH system offers the ability to gradually adjust the genetic load in a population after the initial alteration, with minimal additional release effort. We discuss potential solutions for improving localization and the feasibility of creating TH drive systems. Further research with models that include additional biological details will be needed to better understand how TH drives would behave in natural populations, but the preliminary results shown here suggest that tethered homing drives can be a useful addition to the repertoire of localized gene drives.

13.
14.
Evol Appl ; 11(5): 794-808, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875820

RESUMO

Recent advances in research on gene drives have produced genetic constructs that could theoretically spread a desired gene (payload) into all populations of a species, with a single release in one place. This attribute has advantages, but also comes with risks and ethical concerns. There has been a call for research on gene drive systems that are spatially and/or temporally self-limiting. Here, we use a population genetics model to compare the expected characteristics of three spatially self-limiting gene drive systems: one-locus underdominance, two-locus underdominance and daisy-chain drives. We find large differences between these gene drives in the minimum release size required for successfully driving a payload into a population. The daisy-chain system is the most efficient, requiring the smallest release, followed by the two-locus underdominance system, and then the one-locus underdominance system. However, when the target population exchanges migrants with a nontarget population, the gene drives requiring smaller releases suffer from higher risks of unintended spread. For payloads that incur relatively low fitness costs (up to 30%), a simple daisy-chain drive is practically incapable of remaining localized, even with migration rates as low as 0.5% per generation. The two-locus underdominance system can achieve localized spread under a broader range of migration rates and of payload fitness costs, while the one-locus underdominance system largely remains localized. We also find differences in the extent of population alteration and in the permanence of the alteration achieved by the three gene drives. The two-locus underdominance system does not always spread the payload to fixation, even after successful drive, while the daisy-chain system can, for a small set of parameter values, achieve a temporally limited spread of the payload. These differences could affect the suitability of each gene drive for specific applications.

15.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(5): e1006965, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723307

RESUMO

Despite estimates that, each year, as many as 300 million dengue virus (DENV) infections result in either no perceptible symptoms (asymptomatic) or symptoms that are sufficiently mild to go undetected by surveillance systems (inapparent), it has been assumed that these infections contribute little to onward transmission. However, recent blood-feeding experiments with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes showed that people with asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic DENV infections are capable of infecting mosquitoes. To place those findings into context, we used models of within-host viral dynamics and human demographic projections to (1) quantify the net infectiousness of individuals across the spectrum of DENV infection severity and (2) estimate the fraction of transmission attributable to people with different severities of disease. Our results indicate that net infectiousness of people with asymptomatic infections is 80% (median) that of people with apparent or inapparent symptomatic infections (95% credible interval (CI): 0-146%). Due to their numerical prominence in the infectious reservoir, clinically inapparent infections in total could account for 84% (CI: 82-86%) of DENV transmission. Of infections that ultimately result in any level of symptoms, we estimate that 24% (95% CI: 0-79%) of onward transmission results from mosquitoes biting individuals during the pre-symptomatic phase of their infection. Only 1% (95% CI: 0.8-1.1%) of DENV transmission is attributable to people with clinically detected infections after they have developed symptoms. These findings emphasize the need to (1) reorient current practices for outbreak response to adoption of pre-emptive strategies that account for contributions of undetected infections and (2) apply methodologies that account for undetected infections in surveillance programs, when assessing intervention impact, and when modeling mosquito-borne virus transmission.


Assuntos
Dengue/transmissão , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/transmissão , Viremia/virologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(4): e0006378, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and urban yellow fever viruses. Indoor, ultra low volume (ULV) space spraying with pyrethroid insecticides is the main approach used for Ae. aegypti emergency control in many countries. Given the widespread use of this method, the lack of large-scale experiments or detailed evaluations of municipal spray programs is problematic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two experimental evaluations of non-residual, indoor ULV pyrethroid spraying were conducted in Iquitos, Peru. In each, a central sprayed sector was surrounded by an unsprayed buffer sector. In 2013, spray and buffer sectors included 398 and 765 houses, respectively. Spraying reduced the mean number of adults captured per house by ~83 percent relative to the pre-spray baseline survey. In the 2014 experiment, sprayed and buffer sectors included 1,117 and 1,049 houses, respectively. Here, the sprayed sector's number of adults per house was reduced ~64 percent relative to baseline. Parity surveys in the sprayed sector during the 2014 spray period indicated an increase in the proportion of very young females. We also evaluated impacts of a 2014 citywide spray program by the local Ministry of Health, which reduced adult populations by ~60 percent. In all cases, adult densities returned to near-baseline levels within one month. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that densities of adult Ae. aegypti can be reduced by experimental and municipal spraying programs. The finding that adult densities return to approximately pre-spray densities in less than a month is similar to results from previous, smaller scale experiments. Our results demonstrate that ULV spraying is best viewed as having a short-term entomological effect. The epidemiological impact of ULV spraying will need evaluation in future trials that measure capacity of insecticide spraying to reduce human infection or disease.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Inseticidas/análise , Masculino , Peru , Piretrinas/análise , Piretrinas/toxicidade
17.
Parasitology ; 145(1): 101-110, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345507

RESUMO

Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly recognized as a major cause of malaria in Southeast Asia. Anopheles leucosphyrous group mosquitoes transmit the parasite and natural hosts include long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Despite early laboratory experiments demonstrating successful passage of infection between humans, the true role that humans play in P. knowlesi epidemiology remains unclear. The threat posed by its introduction into immunologically naïve populations is unknown despite being a public health priority for this region. A two-host species mathematical model was constructed to analyse this threat. Global sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo methods highlighted the biological processes of greatest influence to transmission. These included parameters known to be influential in classic mosquito-borne disease models (e.g. vector longevity); however, interesting ecological components that are specific to this system were also highlighted: while local vectors likely have intrinsic preferences for certain host species, how plastic these preferences are, and how this is shaped by local conditions, are key determinants of parasite transmission potential. Invasion analysis demonstrates that this behavioural plasticity can qualitatively impact the probability of an epidemic sparked by imported infection. Identifying key vector sub/species and studying their biting behaviours constitute important next steps before models can better assist in strategizing disease control.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Macaca , Malária/transmissão , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Modelos Biológicos , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Método de Monte Carlo , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11038, 2017 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887462

RESUMO

A gene drive biases inheritance of a gene so that it increases in frequency within a population even when the gene confers no fitness benefit. There has been renewed interest in environmental releases of engineered gene drives due to recent proof of principle experiments with the CRISPR-Cas9 system as a drive mechanism. Release of modified organisms, however, is controversial, especially when the drive mechanism could theoretically alter all individuals of a species. Thus, it is desirable to have countermeasures to reverse a drive if a problem arises. Several genetic mechanisms for limiting or eliminating gene drives have been proposed and/or developed, including synthetic resistance, reversal drives, and immunizing reversal drives. While predictions about efficacy of these mechanisms have been optimistic, we lack detailed analyses of their expected dynamics. We develop a discrete time model for population genetics of a drive and proposed genetic countermeasures. Efficacy of drive reversal varies between countermeasures. For some parameter values, the model predicts unexpected behavior including polymorphic equilibria and oscillatory dynamics. The timing and number of released individuals containing a genetic countermeasure can substantially impact outcomes. The choice among countermeasures by researchers and regulators will depend on specific goals and population parameters of target populations.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Chaos ; 27(7): 073106, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764411

RESUMO

The identification of network connectivity from noisy time series is of great interest in the study of network dynamics. This connectivity estimation problem becomes more complicated when we consider the possibility of hidden nodes within the network. These hidden nodes act as unknown drivers on our network and their presence can lead to the identification of false connections, resulting in incorrect network inference. Detecting the parts of the network they are acting on is thus critical. Here, we propose a novel method for hidden node detection based on an adaptive filtering framework with specific application to neuronal networks. We consider the hidden node as a problem of missing variables when model fitting and show that the estimated system noise covariance provided by the adaptive filter can be used to localize the influence of the hidden nodes and distinguish the effects of different hidden nodes. Additionally, we show that the sequential nature of our algorithm allows for tracking changes in the hidden node influence over time.

20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 13(7): e1005655, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692642

RESUMO

Scientific analysis often relies on the ability to make accurate predictions of a system's dynamics. Mechanistic models, parameterized by a number of unknown parameters, are often used for this purpose. Accurate estimation of the model state and parameters prior to prediction is necessary, but may be complicated by issues such as noisy data and uncertainty in parameters and initial conditions. At the other end of the spectrum exist nonparametric methods, which rely solely on data to build their predictions. While these nonparametric methods do not require a model of the system, their performance is strongly influenced by the amount and noisiness of the data. In this article, we consider a hybrid approach to modeling and prediction which merges recent advancements in nonparametric analysis with standard parametric methods. The general idea is to replace a subset of a mechanistic model's equations with their corresponding nonparametric representations, resulting in a hybrid modeling and prediction scheme. Overall, we find that this hybrid approach allows for more robust parameter estimation and improved short-term prediction in situations where there is a large uncertainty in model parameters. We demonstrate these advantages in the classical Lorenz-63 chaotic system and in networks of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons before application to experimentally collected structured population data.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Biologia de Sistemas , Neurônios , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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