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1.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 86: 279-291, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342846

RESUMO

The potential of molybdenum substances to cause genotoxic effects has been studied previously. However, a review of existing in vitro data, including an assessment of relevance and reliability, has shown that inconsistent results have been observed in the past. To resolve the inconsistencies, new studies were performed with the highly soluble sodium molybdate dihydrate according to OECD test guidelines. In a bacterial reverse mutation assay sodium molybdate dihydrate did not induce reverse mutations in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium. No mutagenic or clastogenic effect was observed at the tk locus of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. In a micronucleus test in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes no clastogenic or aneugenic effects were seen. These results can be read across to other inorganic molybdenum substances, that all release the molybdate ion [MoO4]2- under physiological conditions as the only toxicologically relevant species. In summary, a weight of evidence assessment of all available in vitro data shows no evidence of genotoxicity of molybdenum substances.


Assuntos
Testes para Micronúcleos , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Leucemia L5178 , Camundongos , Mutagênicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
2.
Mutat Res ; 809: 33-42, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692297

RESUMO

A range of fibrous materials, including several types of asbestos and carbon fibres with nano scale diameters that had reported positive genotoxicity data (predominantly clastogenicity), were tested in the in vitro micronucleus test (OECD 487) in GLP-compliant studies in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Out of eight materials tested, only one (crocidolite, an asbestos fibre) gave a positive response either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9) and at short (3h) or extended (24h) exposure times (p≤0.001). Our data suggest that the commonly used tests for clastogenicity in mammalian cells require extensive modification before fibrous materials are detected as positive, raising questions about the validity of these tests for detecting clastogenic and aneugenic fibrous materials.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Nanofibras/toxicidade , Animais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Células CHO , Carbono/toxicidade , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 97: 232-242, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27593899

RESUMO

Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of flavourings, perillaldehyde was selected by the European Food Safety Authority as a representative of a subgroup of alicyclic aldehyde flavouring substances to be evaluated for genotoxic potential. Perillaldehyde was tested in a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes, an HPRT assay in mouse lymphoma cells, and a micronucleus/comet assay in Han Wistar rats. In contrast to previously published results, perillaldehyde induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the absence of metabolic activation. The comet assay was negative for duodenum and weakly positive for liver but only at a hepatotoxic dose of perillaldehyde. All other genotoxicity assays were negative. These data do not provide an indication of any genotoxic potential for perillaldehyde, and they provide the primary basis for recent scientific opinions regarding perillaldehyde genotoxicity announced by several international organizations responsible for safety assessment of food additives and flavourings.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfoma/patologia , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma/genética , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutação/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Salmonella typhimurium
4.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 73(1): 311-38, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26210821

RESUMO

The genotoxicity of cobalt metal and cobalt compounds has been widely studied. Several publications show induction of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei or DNA damage in mammalian cells in vitro in the absence of S9. Mixed results were seen in gene mutation studies in bacteria and mammalian cells in vitro, and in chromosomal aberration or micronucleus assays in vivo. To resolve these inconsistencies, new studies were performed with soluble and poorly soluble cobalt compounds according to OECD-recommended protocols. Induction of chromosomal damage was confirmed in vitro, but data suggest this may be due to oxidative stress. No biologically significant mutagenic responses were obtained in bacteria, Tk(+/-) or Hprt mutation tests. Negative results were also obtained for chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow and spermatogonia) and micronuclei at maximum tolerated doses in vivo. Poorly soluble cobalt compounds do not appear to be genotoxic. Soluble compounds do induce some DNA and chromosomal damage in vitro, probably due to reactive oxygen. The absence of chromosome damage in robust GLP studies in vivo suggests that effective protective processes are sufficient to prevent oxidative DNA damage in whole mammals. Overall, there is no evidence of genetic toxicity with relevance for humans of cobalt substances and cobalt metal.


Assuntos
Cobalto/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 817: 35-54, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22147567

RESUMO

The mouse lymphoma TK assay (MLA) is part of an in vitro battery of tests designed to predict risk assessment prior to in vivo testing. The test has the potential to detect mutagenic and clastogenic events at the thymidine kinase (tk) locus of L5178Y mouse lymphoma tk ( +/- ) cells by measuring resistance to the lethal nucleoside analogue triflurothymidine (TFT). Cells may be plated for viability and mutation in semi-solid agar (agar assay) or in 96-well microtitre plates (microwell assay). When added to selective medium containing TFT, wild-type tk ( +/- ) cells die, but TFT cannot be incorporated into the DNA of mutant tk ( -/- ) cells, which survive to form colonies that may be large (indicative of gene mutation) or small (indicative of chromosomal mutation) in nature. Mutant frequency is expressed as the number of mutants per 10(6) viable cells.


Assuntos
Linfoma/genética , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Timidina Quinase/genética , Timidina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Loci Gênicos , Leucemia L5178/genética , Camundongos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mutat Res ; 702(2): 237-47, 2010 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20478394

RESUMO

The reference genotoxic agents 2-aminoanthracene (a metabolism dependent weak clastogen), 5-fluorouracil (a nucleoside analogue, characterised by a steep dose response profile), colchicine (an aneugen that inhibits tubulin polymerisation), benzo[a]pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon requiring metabolic activation), cadmium chloride (an inorganic carcinogen), and cytosine arabinoside (a nucleoside analogue that inhibits the gap-filling step of excision repair) were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay using the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate, UK. All chemicals were treated in the absence and presence of cytokinesis block (via addition of cytochalasin B) with this work forming part of a collaborative evaluation of the toxicity measures recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 on the In vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test (MNvit). The toxicity measures used, detecting a possible combination of both cytostasis and cell death (though not cell death directly), were relative population doubling, relative increase in cell counts and relative cell counts for treatments in the absence of cytokinesis block, and replication index in the presence of cytokinesis block. All of the chemicals tested either gave marked positive increases in the percentage of micronucleated cells with and without cytokinesis block, or did not induce micronuclei at concentrations giving approximately 50-60% toxicity (cytostasis and cell death) or less by all of the toxicity measures used. The outcome from this series of tests supports the use of relative increase in cell counts and relative population doubling, as well as relative cell counts, as appropriate measures of cytotoxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in vitro micronucleus assay.


Assuntos
Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Animais , Antracenos/toxicidade , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Células CHO , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células , Colchicina/toxicidade , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Citarabina/toxicidade , Citocalasina B/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/toxicidade , Guias como Assunto , Reino Unido
7.
Mutat Res ; 702(2): 230-6, 2010 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20438860

RESUMO

The reference genotoxic agents 5-fluorouracil (a nucleoside analogue, characterised by a steep dose response profile), colchicine (an aneugen that inhibits tubulin polymerisation), benzo[a]pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon requiring metabolic activation) and cytosine arabinoside (a nucleoside analogue that inhibits the gap-filling step of excision repair) were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay using the Chinese hamster V79 cell line at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate, UK. All chemicals were treated in the absence and presence of cytokinesis block (via addition of cytochalasin B) with this work forming part of a collaborative evaluation of the toxicity measures recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 on the In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test (MNvit). The toxicity measures used, detecting a possible combination of both cytostasis and cell death (though not cell death directly), were relative population doubling, relative increase in cell counts and relative cell counts for treatments in the absence of cytokinesis block, and replication index in the presence of cytokinesis block. All of the chemicals tested either gave marked increases in the percentage of micronucleated cells with and without cytokinesis block, or did not induce micronuclei at concentrations giving approximately 50-60% toxicity (cytostasis and cell death) or less by all of the toxicity measures used. The outcome from this series of tests supports the use of relative increase in cell counts and relative population doubling, as well as relative cell counts, as appropriate measures of cytotoxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in vitro micronucleus assay.


Assuntos
Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular , Colchicina/toxicidade , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Citarabina/toxicidade , Citocalasina B/farmacologia , Citocinese , Fluoruracila/toxicidade , Guias como Assunto , Reino Unido
8.
Mutat Res ; 627(1): 36-40, 2007 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17157054

RESUMO

The Mouse Lymphoma Assay (MLA) Workgroup of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), comprised of experts from Japan, Europe and the United States, met on September 9, 2005, in San Francisco, CA, USA. This meeting of the MLA Workgroup was devoted to reaching a consensus on issues involved with 24-h treatment. Recommendations were made concerning the acceptable values for the negative/solvent control (mutant frequency, cloning efficiency and suspension growth) and the criteria to define an acceptable positive control response. Consensus was also reached concerning the use of the global evaluation factor (GEF) and appropriate statistical trend analysis to define positive and negative responses for the 24-h treatment. The Workgroup agreed to continue their support of the International Committee on Harmonization (ICH) recommendation that the MLA assay should include a 24-h treatment (without S-9) in those situations where the short treatment (3-4 h) gives negative results.


Assuntos
Linfoma/genética , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutação , Timidina Quinase/genética , Animais , Camundongos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
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