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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(17): 8261-8268, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962370

RESUMO

Proactive policing, the strategic targeting of people or places to prevent crimes, is a well-studied tactic that is ubiquitous in modern law enforcement. A 2017 National Academies of Sciences report reviewed existing literature, entrenched in deterrence theory, and found evidence that proactive policing strategies can reduce crime. The existing literature, however, does not explore what the short and long-term effects of police contact are for young people who are subjected to high rates of contact with law enforcement as a result of proactive policing. Using four waves of longitudinal survey data from a sample of predominantly black and Latino boys in ninth and tenth grades, we find that adolescent boys who are stopped by police report more frequent engagement in delinquent behavior 6, 12, and 18 months later, independent of prior delinquency, a finding that is consistent with labeling and life course theories. We also find that psychological distress partially mediates this relationship, consistent with the often stated, but rarely measured, mechanism for adolescent criminality hypothesized by general strain theory. These findings advance the scientific understanding of crime and adolescent development while also raising policy questions about the efficacy of routine police stops of black and Latino youth. Police stops predict decrements in adolescents' psychological well-being and may unintentionally increase their engagement in criminal behavior.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Hispano-Americanos , Delinquência Juvenil , Polícia/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Water Res ; 144: 642-655, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096690

RESUMO

The consumption of saline groundwater has contributed to a growing incidence of renal diseases, particularly in coastal communities of India. Although reverse osmosis (RO) is routinely used to remove salt from groundwater, conventional RO systems (i.e. centralized systems using spiral wound RO elements) have limited utility in these communities due to high capital and maintenances costs, and lack of infrastructure to distribute the water. Consequently, there is a need to develop an appropriate solution for groundwater treatment based on small-scale, mobile and community-led systems. In this work, we designed a mobile desalination system to provide a simple platform for water treatment and delivery of goods to rural communities. The system employs tubular RO membranes packed in a single, low-profile vessel which fits below the cargo space. The low-profile enables minimal intrusion on the space available for the transportation of goods. Pressure is delivered by a belt driven clutch pump, powered by the engine. Water is treated locally by connecting the intake to the village well while the vehicle idles. A combined numerical and experimental approach was used to optimise the module/system design, resulting in ∼20% permeate flux enhancement. Experimental results revealed that the system can produce 16 L per square meter of membrane area per hour (LMH) at a salinity level of 80 ppm from a ∼2000 ppm groundwater when it is feed at 1 m3/h at 8 bars. This indicates that a vehicle equipped with 12 m2 of tubular RO membranes can deliver 1 m3 of drinkable water by using ∼0.9 L of diesel. Assuming eight such systems could be implemented in a community to fulfil the water demands for a village with 2000 residents, a social business study revealed that a payback time of 2.5 years is achievable, even if the sale price of the water is relatively low, USD 0.18 (Rs 12, which is half of the lowest market price) per 20 L, including providing a goods transportation service at price of USD 5.25 (Rs 350) per 100 km.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Índia , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , População Rural
4.
Autism ; 13(5): 471-83, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19759062

RESUMO

Siblings of children with autism may be at greater risk for psychological problems than siblings of children with another disability or of typically developing (TD) children. However, it is difficult to establish whether autism or the presence of intellectual disability (ID) explains the findings in previous research. Mothers rated the emotional and behavioural adjustment of siblings of children with ID with (N = 25) or without (N = 24) autism. Data were also available 18 months later for siblings of children with autism and ID (N = 15). Siblings of children with autism and ID had more emotional problems compared with siblings of children with ID only and with normative data. Three variables were pertinent: increasing age of the child with autism, having a brother with autism, and being younger than the child with autism. Behavioural and emotional difficulties of siblings of children with autism and ID were relatively stable over 18 months.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Irmãos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 34(2): 104-15, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19404831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. METHOD: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children with ID at two time points, 18 months apart. RESULTS: Parental locus of control was associated with both maternal positive perceptions and with maternal distress. Regression analyses showed that dimensions of parental locus of control were significant predictors of negative maternal adjustment. Maternal positive perceptions were predicted by perceived control of the child and belief in fate or chance. Overall parental internal-external locus of control entered into a bidirectional relationship with stress over 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: Parental locus of control is a construct that may explain some of the variance in maternal well-being and thus is a construct that merits further research.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev ; 13(4): 339-45, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17979206

RESUMO

Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the affective relationship between two people characterized by criticism, hostility, and emotionally over-involved attitudes. Outside of the field of intellectual disabilities, there has been considerable interest in EE as an environmental marker that explains variance in the severity and/or course of a number of psychiatric disorders. Researchers have also studied EE in parents and found strong associations with children's behavior problems. In this review, we focus on the data from 11 published studies of EE in families of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. We conclude that there is evidence for the presence of high EE in some families, and that this alone should concern researchers and clinicians and set an agenda for considerable future research effort. We also note a lack of attention to the measurement of EE in intellectual disability. In terms of the existing evidence base, we suggest that there is support for the hypothesis that behavior problems in children and adults with intellectual disabilities may be related to high EE in parents, and a small amount of data predicting over time support the putative causal effect of high EE on maintaining or exacerbating behavior problems. Given that EE is perhaps best conceptualized as the result of an interaction between caregivers and those cared for, there is a need to explore interventions that may help to remediate high EE within families. It is also important to understand from this position that EE may be a normative part of the experience of caring for someone under very stressful circumstances and not something for which families are blamed. Other future research priorities and some implications for practice are also discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Emoções Manifestas , Conflito Familiar , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Inteligência , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
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