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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 66, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the rising prevalence of dysglycemia and disparities in heart failure (HF) burden, we determined race- and sex-specific lifetime risk of HF across the spectrum of fasting plasma glucose (FPG). METHODS: Individual-level data from adults without baseline HF was pooled from 6 population-based cohorts. Modified Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox models adjusted for the competing risk of death, and Irwin's restricted mean were used to estimate the lifetime risk, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), and years lived free from HF in middle-aged (40-59 years) and older (60-79 years) adults with FPG < 100 mg/dL, prediabetes (FPG 100-125 mg/dL) and diabetes (FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL or on antihyperglycemic agents) across race-sex groups. RESULTS: In 40,117 participants with 638,910 person-years of follow-up, 4846 cases of incident HF occurred. The lifetime risk of HF was significantly higher among middle-aged White adults and Black women with prediabetes (range: 6.1% [95% CI 4.8%, 7.4%] to 10.8% [95% CI 8.3%, 13.4%]) compared with normoglycemic adults (range: 3.5% [95% CI 3.0%, 4.1%] to 6.5% [95% CI 4.9%, 8.1%]). Middle-aged Black women with diabetes had the highest lifetime risk (32.4% [95% CI 26.0%, 38.7%]) and aHR (4.0 [95% CI 3.0, 5.4]) for HF across race-sex groups. Middle-aged adults with prediabetes and diabetes lived on average 0.9-1.6 and 4.1-6.0 fewer years free from HF, respectively. Findings were similar in older adults except older Black women with prediabetes did not have a higher lifetime risk of HF. CONCLUSIONS: Prediabetes was associated with higher lifetime risk of HF in middle-aged White adults and Black women, with the association attenuating in older Black women. Black women with diabetes had the highest lifetime risk of HF compared with other race-sex groups.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e019681, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761755

RESUMO

Background Better cardiovascular health (CVH) scores are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, estimates of the potential population-level impact of improving CVH on US CVD event rates are not currently available. Methods and Results Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2016 (n=11 696), we estimated the proportions of US adults in CVH groups. Levels of 7 American Heart Association CVH metrics were scored as ideal (2 points), intermediate (1 point), or poor (0 points), and summed to define overall CVH (low, 0-8 points; moderate, 9-11 points; or high, 12-14 points). Using individual-level data from 7 US community-based cohort studies (n=30 447), we estimated annual incidence rates of major CVD events by levels of CVH. Using the combined data sources, we estimated population attributable fractions of CVD and the number of CVD events that could be prevented annually if all US adults achieved high CVH. High CVH was identified in 7.3% (95% CI, 6.3%-8.3%) of US adults. We estimated that 70.0% (95% CI, 56.5%-79.9%) of CVD events were attributable to low and moderate CVH. If all US adults attained high CVH, we estimated that 2.0 (95% CI, 1.6-2.3) million CVD events could be prevented annually. If all US adults with low CVH attained moderate CVH, we estimated that 1.2 (95% CI, 1.0-1.4) million CVD events could be prevented annually. Conclusions The potential benefits of achieving high CVH in all US adults are considerable, and even a partial improvement in CVH scores would be highly beneficial.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246813, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults in rural counties in the United States (US) experience higher rates broadly of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with adults in urban counties. Mortality rates specifically due to heart failure (HF) have increased since 2011, but estimates of heterogeneity at the county-level in HF-related mortality have not been produced. The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify nationwide trends by rural-urban designation and 2) examine county-level factors associated with rural-urban differences in HF-related mortality rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We queried CDC WONDER to identify HF deaths between 2011-2018 defined as CVD (I00-78) as the underlying cause of death and HF (I50) as a contributing cause of death. First, we calculated national age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) and examined trends stratified by rural-urban status (defined using 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme), age (35-64 and 65-84 years), and race-sex subgroups per year. Second, we combined all deaths from 2011-2018 and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) in HF-related mortality for rural versus urban counties using multivariable negative binomial regression models with adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, risk factor prevalence, and physician density. Between 2011-2018, 162,314 and 580,305 HF-related deaths occurred in rural and urban counties, respectively. AAMRs were consistently higher for residents in rural compared with urban counties (73.2 [95% CI: 72.2-74.2] vs. 57.2 [56.8-57.6] in 2018, respectively). The highest AAMR was observed in rural Black men (131.1 [123.3-138.9] in 2018) with greatest increases in HF-related mortality in those 35-64 years (+6.1%/year). The rural-urban IRR persisted among both younger (1.10 [1.04-1.16]) and older adults (1.04 [1.02-1.07]) after adjustment for county-level factors. Main limitations included lack of individual-level data and county dropout due to low event rates (<20). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in county-level factors may account for a significant amount of the observed variation in HF-related mortality between rural and urban counties. Efforts to reduce the rural-urban disparity in HF-related mortality rates will likely require diverse public health and clinical interventions targeting the underlying causes of this disparity.

6.
Circ Heart Fail ; : CIRCHEARTFAILURE120008113, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Race- and sex-specific differences in heart failure (HF) risk may be related to differential burden and effect of risk factors. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF), which incorporates both prevalence and excess risk of HF associated with each risk factor (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and hyperlipidemia), in specific race-sex groups. METHODS: A pooled cohort was created using harmonized data from 6 US longitudinal population-based cohorts. Baseline measurements of risk factors were used to determine prevalence. Relative risk of incident HF was assessed using a piecewise constant hazards model adjusted for age, education, other modifiable risk factors, and the competing risk of death from non-HF causes. Within each race-sex group, PAF of HF was estimated for each risk factor individually and for all risk factors simultaneously. RESULTS: Of 38 028 participants, 55% were female and 22% Black. Hypertension had the highest PAF among Black men (28.3% [18.7-36.7]) and women (25.8% [16.3%-34.2%]). In contrast, PAF associated with obesity was the highest in White men (21.0% [14.6-27.0]) and women (17.9% [12.8-22.6]). Diabetes disproportionately contributed to HF in Black women (PAF, 16.4% [95% CI, 12.7%-19.9%]). The cumulative PAF of all 5 risk factors was the highest in Black women (51.9% [39.3-61.8]). CONCLUSIONS: The observed differences in contribution of risk factors across race-sex groups can inform tailored prevention strategies to mitigate disparities in HF burden. This novel competing risk analysis suggests that a sizeable proportion of HF risk may not be associated with modifiable risk factors.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 42, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association (AHA) as the presence of the "Life's Simple 7" ideal lifestyle and clinical factors. CVH is known to predict longevity and freedom from cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death for women in the United States. DNA methylation markers of aging have been aggregated into a composite epigenetic age score, which is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, it is unknown whether poor CVH is associated with acceleration of aging as measured by DNA methylation markers in epigenetic age. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of racially/ethnically diverse post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative cohort recruited between 1993 and 1998. Epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) was calculated using DNA methylation data on a subset of participants and the published Horvath and Hannum methods for intrinsic and extrinsic EAA. CVH was calculated using the AHA measures of CVH contributing to a 7-point score. We examined the association between CVH score and EAA using linear regression modeling adjusting for self-reported race/ethnicity and education. Among the 2,170 participants analyzed, 50% were white and mean age was 64 (7 SD) years. Higher or more favorable CVH scores were associated with lower extrinsic EAA (~ 6 months younger age per 1 point higher CVH score, p < 0.0001), and lower intrinsic EAA (3 months younger age per 1 point higher CVH score, p < 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional observations suggest a possible mechanism by which ideal CVH is associated with greater longevity.

9.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(2): e007761, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535771

RESUMO

Targeted prevention of heart failure (HF) remains a critical need given the high prevalence of HF morbidity and mortality. Similar to risk-based prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, optimal HF prevention strategies should include quantification of risk in the individual patient. In this review, we discuss incorporation of a quantitative risk-based approach into the existing HF staging landscape and the clinical opportunity that exists to translate available data on risk estimation to help guide personalized decision making. We first summarize the recent development of key HF risk prediction tools that can be applied broadly at a population level to estimate risk of incident HF. Next, we provide an in-depth description of the clinical utility of biomarkers to personalize risk estimation in select patients at the highest risk of developing HF. We also discuss integration of genomics-enhanced approaches (eg, Titin [TTN]) and other risk-enhancing features to reclassify risk with a precision medicine approach to HF prevention. Although sequential testing is very likely to identify low and high-risk individuals with excellent accuracy, whether or not interventions based on these risk models prevent HF in clinical practice requires prompt attention including randomized placebo-controlled trials of candidate therapies in risk-enriched populations. We conclude with a summary of unanswered questions and gaps in evidence that must be addressed to move the field of HF risk assessment forward.

10.
JAMA ; 325(7): 658-668, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591345

RESUMO

Importance: Pregnancy may be a key window to optimize cardiovascular health (CVH) for the mother and influence lifelong CVH for her child. Objective: To examine associations between maternal gestational CVH and offspring CVH. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study (examinations: July 2000-April 2006) and HAPO Follow-Up Study (examinations: February 2013-December 2016). The analyses included 2302 mother-child dyads, comprising 48% of HAPO Follow-Up Study participants, in an ancillary CVH study. Participants were from 9 field centers across the United States, Barbados, United Kingdom, China, Thailand, and Canada. Exposures: Maternal gestational CVH at a target of 28 weeks' gestation, based on 5 metrics: body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol level, glucose level, and smoking. Each metric was categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor using pregnancy guidelines. Total CVH was categorized as follows: all ideal metrics, 1 or more intermediate (but 0 poor) metrics, 1 poor metric, or 2 or more poor metrics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Offspring CVH at ages 10 to 14 years, based on 4 metrics: body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol level, and glucose level. Total CVH was categorized as for mothers. Results: Among 2302 dyads, the mean (SD) ages were 29.6 (2.7) years for pregnant mothers and 11.3 (1.1) years for children. During pregnancy, the mean (SD) maternal CVH score was 8.6 (1.4) out of 10. Among pregnant mothers, the prevalence of all ideal metrics was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.6%-35.1%), 31.7% (95% CI, 29.4%-34.0%) for 1 or more intermediate metrics, 29.5% (95% CI, 27.2%-31.7%) for 1 poor metric, and 6.0% (95% CI, 3.8%-8.3%) for 2 or more poor metrics. Among children of mothers with all ideal metrics, the prevalence of all ideal metrics was 42.2% (95% CI, 38.4%-46.2%), 36.7% (95% CI, 32.9%-40.7%) for 1 or more intermediate metrics, 18.4% (95% CI, 14.6%-22.4%) for 1 poor metric, and 2.6% (95% CI, 0%-6.6%) for 2 or more poor metrics. Among children of mothers with 2 or more poor metrics, the prevalence of all ideal metrics was 30.7% (95% CI, 22.0%-40.4%), 28.3% (95% CI, 19.7%-38.1%) for 1 or more intermediate metrics, 30.7% (95% CI, 22.0%-40.4%) for 1 poor metric, and 10.2% (95% CI, 1.6%-20.0%) for 2 or more poor metrics. The adjusted relative risks associated with 1 or more intermediate, 1 poor, and 2 or more poor (vs all ideal) metrics, respectively, in mothers during pregnancy were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.96-1.42), 1.66 (95% CI, 1.39-1.99), and 2.02 (95% CI, 1.55-2.64) for offspring to have 1 poor (vs all ideal) metrics, and the relative risks were 2.15 (95% CI, 1.23-3.75), 3.32 (95% CI,1.96-5.62), and 7.82 (95% CI, 4.12-14.85) for offspring to have 2 or more poor (vs all ideal) metrics. Additional adjustment for categorical birth factors (eg, preeclampsia) did not fully explain these significant associations (eg, relative risk for association between 2 or more poor metrics among mothers during pregnancy and 2 or more poor metrics among offspring after adjustment for an extended set of birth factors, 6.23 [95% CI, 3.03-12.82]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multinational cohort, better maternal CVH at 28 weeks' gestation was significantly associated with better offspring CVH at ages 10 to 14 years.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Sistema Cardiovascular , Saúde da Criança , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(1): 223-233, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein-rich foods are major parts of the human diet and are highly heterogeneous in nutrient composition and health effects. Designing healthy diets for disease prevention requires careful consideration of substituting unhealthier protein foods with healthier protein foods. METHODS: This was a pooled analysis of six prospective cohort studies of 29 682 US participants. Data were collected in 1985-2016. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 30-year absolute risk differences (ARDs) were calculated for the associations between simultaneous substitution of one or more animal protein foods with other animal or plant protein foods at various amounts, and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Substituting eggs, processed meat, unprocessed red meat or poultry with nuts, whole grains, legumes or fish was associated with lower risks of incident CVD and all-cause mortality. According to different substitution amounts (varying from one serving per week to one serving per day) and different numbers of protein foods being simultaneously substituted (varying from one to four), estimates ranged between 1%: HR, 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-1.00], and 54%: HR, 0.46 (0.35-0.60), lower risks on the relative scale and between 0.3%: ARD, -0.29% (-0.48% to -0.05%), and 14.0%: ARD, -13.96% (-17.29% to -9.96%) lower risks on the absolute scale. CONCLUSIONS: Nuts, whole grains, legumes and fish appeared to be healthier protein sources than eggs, processed meat, unprocessed red meat and poultry for preventing incident CVD and premature death. The magnitude of lower risk for incident CVD and all-cause mortality was driven by amount and number of animal protein foods substituted.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 214, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incarceration has been associated with higher cardiovascular risk, yet data evaluating its association with cardiovascular disease events are limited. The study objective was to evaluate the association between incarceration and incident fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. METHODS: Black and white adults from the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult (CARDIA) study (baseline 1985-86, n = 5105) were followed through August 2017. Self-reported incarceration was measured at baseline (1985-1986) and Year 2 (1987-1988), and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease events, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure, and all-cause mortality, were captured through 2017. Analyses were completed in September 2019. Cumulative CVD incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards were compared overall by incarceration status. An interaction between incarceration and race was identified, so results were also analyzed by sex-race groups. RESULTS: 351 (6.9%) CARDIA participants reported a history of incarceration. Over 29.0 years mean follow-up, CVD incidence rate was 3.52 per 1000 person-years in participants with a history of incarceration versus 2.12 per 1000 person-years in participants without a history of incarceration (adjusted HR = 1.33 [95% CI, 0.90-1.95]). Among white men, incarceration was associated with higher risk of incident cardiovascular disease (adjusted HR = 3.35 [95% CI, 1.54-7.29) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR = 2.52 [95% CI, 1.32-4.83]), but these associations were not statistically significant among other sex-race groups after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Incarceration was associated with incident cardiovascular disease rates, but associations were only significant in one sex-race group after multivariable adjustment.

13.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503227

RESUMO

Hypertension is a highly prevalent and causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Quantititaive cardiovascular risk assessment is a new paradigm for stratifying hypertensive patients into actionable groups for clinical management and prevention of CVD. The large heterogeneity in hypertensive patients makes this evaluation complex, but recent advances have made CV risk assessment more feasible. In this review, we first describe the prognostic significance of various levels and temporal patterns of blood pressure. We then discuss cardiovascular risk prediction equations and the rationale of taking global risk into account in hypertensive patients. Finally, we review several adjunctive biomarkers that may refine risk assessment in certain patients. We observe that, beyond individual cross-sectional measurements, both short-term and long-term blood pressure patterns are associated with incident CVD; that current cardiovascular risk prediction performs well, and its incorporation into hypertension management is associated with potential population benefit; and that adjunctive biomarkers of target organ damage show the most promise in sequential screening strategies that target biomarker measurement to patients in whom the results are most likely to change clinical management. Implementation of quantitative risk assessment for CVD has been facilitated by tools and direct electronic health record integrations that make risk estimates accessible for counseling and shared decision making for CVD prevention. However, it should be noted that treatment does not return an individual to the risk of someone who never develops hypertension, underscoring the need for primordial prevention in addition to continued innovation in risk assessment.

15.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 347-356, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342241

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but previous studies have mostly been limited to a single exam, a single cohort, a short follow-up period, or a limited number of outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association of 10-year cumulative systolic blood pressure (BP) in middle age with long-term risk of any CVD, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, all-cause mortality, and healthy longevity. Individuals (11 502) from 5 racially/ethnically diverse US community-based cohorts were included in this study once they met all the inclusion criteria: ≥10 year of observation in the included cohort, aged 45 to 60 years, free of CVD, and had ≥3 visits with BP exams over the preceding 10 years. For each participant, systolic BP level was predicted for each year of the 10-year prior inclusion, based on the available exams (median of 4.0; spread over, 9.1 [range, 7.2-10] years). Lower 10-year cumulative systolic BP was associated with 4.1 years longer survival and 5.4 years later onset of CVD, resulting in living longer life with a shorter period with morbidity. Models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, and index systolic BP demonstrated associations of 10-year cumulative systolic BP (per 130 mm Hg×year change, the threshold for stage-1 hypertension) with CVD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28 [95% CI, 1.20-1.36]), coronary heart disease (HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.19-1.40]), stroke (HR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.20-1.47]), heart failure (HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.23]), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.14-1.29]). These findings emphasize the importance of 10-year cumulative systolic BP as a risk factor to CVD, above and beyond current systolic BP.

16.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To test the association of vascular health (VH) across young adulthood with midlife dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA), gait, and cognition; and to test whether dCA is a modifying factor. METHODS: We studied 196 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort who were followed over 30 years. VH was assessed at each visit according to American Heart Association recommendations. At year 30, dCA was measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasound and several gait and cognitive domains were assessed. RESULTS: Worse VH from baseline through year 7, but not at year 30, was associated with less efficient dCA (all P < .05). Worse VH at all visits was associated with slower gait speed, and at year 7 with worse executive and global cognition (all P < .05). The association of baseline VH and midlife gait, but not cognition, was moderated by dCA (interaction P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: VH as early as young adulthood may influence midlife brain health, and dCA may modify this relationship.

17.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355618

RESUMO

Importance: The variant V122I is commonly enriched in the transthyretin (TTR) gene in individuals of African ancestry and associated with greater risk of heart failure (HF) in older adulthood, after age 65 years. Prevention of HF may be most effective earlier in life, but whether screening with echocardiography can identify subclinical cardiac abnormalities during middle age to risk-stratify individuals appears to be unknown. Objective: To examine the association between the V122I TTR variant and cardiac structure and function during middle age in those without prevalent HF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study of 875 Black participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort was conducted at 4 urban sites across the US. Recruiting was completed in 1985-1986, and follow-up examinations occurred 25 and 30 years later. A subset of Black adults from the CARDIA cohort who underwent TTR genotyping was included. Data analysis was completed from January 2020 to October 2020. Exposures: The V122I TTR genotype. Main Outcomes and Measures: Echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) circumferential and longitudinal systolic strain and LV structure, measured at years 25 and 30 of follow-up. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, echocardiography quality, genetic ancestry, and field center. Results: Among the 875 Black adults (mean [SD] age, 49.4 [3.8] years at year 25; 543 women [62.1%]), there were 31 individuals who were heterozygous and 1 who was homozygous for the V122I TTR variant. Of the adults who had an echocardiogram at year 25, rates of hypertension (312 [46%]), diabetes (102 [15%]), and current smoking (128 [19%]) were not significantly different between those who did and did not carry V122I TTR. At year 25, there was no difference in LV circumferential strain, longitudinal strain, or LV structure between those who did vs did not carry V122I TTR. At year 30, those who carried V122I TTR had significantly lower absolute LV circumferential strain (mean [SD], 12.4 [4.2] percentage units) compared with those who did not carry the variant (mean [SD], 14.5 [3.7] percentage units). Those who carried V122I TTR also had significantly higher LV mass index values (mean [SD], 97.5 [34.1] g/m2) compared with those who did not (mean [SD], 83.7 [22.6] g/m2) at year 30. Conclusions and Relevance: Carrier status for the V122I TTR variant is associated with subclinical cardiac abnormalities in middle age (worse LV systolic function and higher LV mass) that have been associated with increased risk of incident HF. Midlife screening of individuals who carry V122I TTR with echocardiography may prognosticate risk of symptomatic HF and inform prevention strategies.

18.
Liver Transpl ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplant recipients (LTRs) are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to characterize LTR, informal caregiver, and healthcare provider perceptions about CVD care after liver transplantation (LT) to inform the design of solutions to improve care. METHODS: Participants included adult LTRs, their caregivers, and multi-specialty healthcare providers, recruited from an urban tertiary care network, who participated in 90-minute focus groups and completed a brief survey. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis and survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Seventeen LTRs, 9 caregivers, and 22 providers participated in 7 separate focus groups. Most (93.3%) LTRs and caregivers were unaware of the risk of CVD after LT. While 54.5% of providers were confident discussing CVD risk factors with LTRs, only 36.3% were confident managing CVD risk factors in LTRs; and only 13.6% felt that CVD risk factors in their LTR patients were well-controlled. Barriers to CVD care for LTRs included: (1) lack of awareness of CVD risk after LT, (2) lack of confidence in ability to provide proper CVD care to LTRs, (3) reluctance to provide CVD care without transplant provider review, and (4) complexity of communication with the multidisciplinary LTR care team about CVD care. Participant recommendations included improved education for LTRs and caregivers about CVD risk factors, electronic health record alerts for providers, clearly defined CVD care provider roles, increased use of the transplant pharmacist, and multidisciplinary provider meetings to discuss LTRs' care plans. CONCLUSION: Multiple barriers to CVD care after LT were identified and targeted recommendations were proposed by participants. Transplant centers should integrate participants' recommendations when designing interventions to optimize CVD care for LTRs.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e018213, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222597

RESUMO

Background Life expectancy in the United States has recently declined, in part attributable to premature cardiometabolic mortality. We characterized national trends in premature cardiometabolic mortality, overall, and by race-sex groups. Methods and Results Using death certificates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research, we quantified premature deaths (<65 years of age) from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus from 1999 to 2018. We calculated age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) from each cardiometabolic cause occurring at <65 years of age. We used Joinpoint regression to identify an inflection point in overall cardiometabolic AAMR trends. Average annual percent change in AAMRs and YPLL was quantified before and after the identified inflection point. From 1999 to 2018, annual premature deaths from heart disease (117 880 to 128 832), cerebrovascular disease (18 765 to 20 565), and diabetes mellitus (16 553 to 24 758) as an underlying cause of death increased. By 2018, 19.7% of all heart disease deaths, 13.9% of all cerebrovascular disease deaths, and 29.1% of all diabetes mellitus deaths were premature. AAMRs and YPLL from heart disease and cerebrovascular disease declined until the inflection point identified in 2011, then remained unchanged through 2018. Conversely, AAMRs and YPLL from diabetes mellitus did not change through 2011, then increased through 2018. Black men and women had higher AAMRs and greater YPLL for each cardiometabolic cause compared with White men and women, respectively. Conclusions Over one-fifth of cardiometabolic deaths occurred at <65 years of age. Recent stagnation in cardiometabolic AAMRs and YPLL are compounded by persistent racial disparities.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(11): e011925, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) is associated with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, the mechanisms driving these associations are unclear. Sensitive measures of cardiovascular structure and function may provide mechanistic insight behind the associations of FGF23 with various cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In MESA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), we evaluated the associations of baseline serum FGF23 (2000-2002) with measures of left ventricular (LV) and left atrial mechanical function on cardiac magnetic resonance at 10-year follow-up (2010-2012). RESULTS: Of 2276 participants with available FGF23 and cardiac magnetic resonance at 10-year follow-up, participants with higher FGF23 levels were more likely White race, taking antihypertensive medications, and had lower kidney function. After covariate adjustment, FGF23 was associated with higher LV mass (ß coefficient per 1 SD higher, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.16-2.12], P=0.02), worse LV global circumferential strain (ß coefficient per 1 SD higher, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.05-0.25], P=0.003), worse LV midwall circumferential strain (ß coefficient per 1 SD higher, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.08-0.31], P=0.001), and lower left atrial total emptying fraction (ß coefficient per 1 SD higher, -0.52 [95% CI, -1.02 to -0.02], P=0.04). These associations were consistent across racial/ethnic groups and the spectrum of glomerular filtration rates. FGF23 was not associated with the presence of myocardial scar (odds ratio per 1 SD higher, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.86-1.45], P=0.42). CONCLUSIONS: In a multiethnic, community-based cohort, baseline FGF23 levels were independently associated with higher LV mass, lower LV systolic function, and reduced left atrial function over long-term follow-up. These findings provide potential mechanistic insight into associations of FGF23 with incident heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

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