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1.
Neuroradiology ; 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To predict the occurrence of a second clinical event in patients with a CIS suggestive of MS, from baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), by means of a pattern recognition approach. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-six patients with a CIS were recruited from four participating centers. Over a follow-up of 3 years, 130 patients had a second clinical episode and 136 did not. Grey matter and white matter T1-hypointensities masks segmented from 3D T1-weighted images acquired on 3 T scanners were used as features for the classification approach. Differences between CIS that remained CIS and those that developed a second event were assessed at a global level and at a regional level, arranging the regions according to their contribution to the classification model. RESULTS: All classification metrics were around or even below 50% for both global and regional approaches. Accuracies did not change when T1-hypointensity maps were added to the model; just the specificity was increased up to 80%. Among the 30 regions with the largest contribution, 26 were grey matter and 4 were white matter regions. For grey matter, regions contributing showed either a larger or a smaller volume in the group of patients that remained CIS, compared to those with a second event. The volume of T1-hypointensities was always larger for the group that presented a second event. CONCLUSIONS: Prediction of a second clinical event in CIS patients from baseline MRI seems to present a highly heterogeneous pattern, leading to very low classification accuracies. Adding the T1-hypointensity maps does not seem to improve the accuracy of the classification model.

2.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834459

RESUMO

(1) Background: The evolution and predictors of cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood. We aimed to define the temporal dynamics of cognition throughout the disease course and identify clinical and neuroimaging measures that predict CI. (2) Methods: This paper features a longitudinal study with 212 patients who underwent several cognitive examinations at different time points. Dynamics of cognition were assessed using mixed-effects linear spline models. Machine learning techniques were used to identify which baseline demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures best predicted CI. (3) Results: In the first 5 years of MS, we detected an increase in the z-scores of global cognition, verbal memory, and information processing speed, which was followed by a decline in global cognition and memory (p < 0.05) between years 5 and 15. From 15 to 30 years of disease onset, cognitive decline continued, affecting global cognition and verbal memory. The baseline measures that best predicted CI were education, disease severity, lesion burden, and hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex volume. (4) Conclusions: In MS, cognition deteriorates 5 years after disease onset, declining steadily over the next 25 years and more markedly affecting verbal memory. Education, disease severity, lesion burden, and volume of limbic structures predict future CI and may be helpful when identifying at-risk patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify long-term prognostic protein biomarkers associated with disease progression in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: CSF samples were collected from a discovery cohort of 28 patients with progressive MS who participated in a clinical trial with interferon beta. Patients were classified into high and low disability progression phenotypes according to numeric progression rates (NPR) and step-based progression rates (SPR) after a mean follow-up time of 12 years. Protein abundance was measured by shotgun proteomics. Selected proteins from the discovery cohort were quantified by parallel reaction monitoring in CSF samples from an independent validation cohort of 41 patients with progressive MS classified also into high and low disability progression phenotypes after a mean follow-up time of 7 years. RESULTS: Of 2,548 CSF proteins identified in the discovery cohort, 10 were selected for validation based on their association with long-term disability progression: SPATS2-like protein, chitinase 3-like 2 (CHI3L2), plasma serine protease inhibitor, metallothionein-3, phospholipase D4, beta-hexosaminidase, neurexophilin-1, adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1, cathepsin L1, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. Only CHI3L2 was validated, and patients with high disability progression exhibited significantly higher CSF protein levels compared with patients with low disability progression (p = 0.03 for NPR and p = 0.02 for SPR). CHI3L2 levels showed good performance to discriminate between high and low disability progression in patients with progressive MS (area under the curve 0.73; sensitivity 90% and specificity 63%). CONCLUSIONS: Although further confirmatory studies are needed, we propose CSF CHI3L2 as a prognostic protein biomarker associated with long-term disability progression in patients with progressive MS. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that high CSF CHI3L2 levels identified higher disability progression in patients with progressive MS.

4.
Semin Ultrasound CT MR ; 42(5): 490-506, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537117

RESUMO

Quantitative diffusion imaging techniques enable the characterization of tissue microstructural properties of the human brain "in vivo", and are widely used in neuroscientific and clinical contexts. In this review, we present the basic physical principles behind diffusion imaging and provide an overview of the current diffusion techniques, including standard and advanced techniques as well as their main clinical applications. Standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers sensitivity to changes in microstructure due to diseases and enables the characterization of single fiber distributions within a voxel as well as diffusion anisotropy. Nonetheless, its inability to represent complex intravoxel fiber topologies and the limited biological specificity of its metrics motivated the development of several advanced diffusion MRI techniques. For example, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) techniques enabled the characterization of fiber crossing areas and other complex fiber topologies in a single voxel and supported the development of higher-order signal representations aiming to decompose the diffusion MRI signal into distinct microstructure compartments. Biophysical models, often known by their acronym (e.g., CHARMED, WMTI, NODDI, DBSI, DIAMOND) contributed to capture the diffusion properties from each of such tissue compartments, enabling the computation of voxel-wise maps of axonal density and/or morphology that hold promise as clinically viable biomarkers in several neurological and neuroscientific applications; for example, to quantify tissue alterations due to disease or healthy processes. Current challenges and limitations of state-of-the-art models are discussed, including validation efforts. Finally, novel diffusion encoding approaches (e.g., b-tensor or double diffusion encoding) may increase the biological specificity of diffusion metrics towards intra-voxel diffusion heterogeneity in clinical settings, holding promise in neurological applications.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(18): 5911-5926, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547147

RESUMO

Quadrantanopia caused by inadvertent severing of Meyer's Loop of the optic radiation is a well-recognised complication of temporal lobectomy for conditions such as epilepsy. Dissection studies indicate that the anterior extent of Meyer's Loop varies considerably between individuals. Quantifying this for individual patients is thus an important step to improve the safety profile of temporal lobectomies. Previous attempts to delineate Meyer's Loop using diffusion MRI tractography have had difficulty estimating its full anterior extent, required manual ROI placement, and/or relied on advanced diffusion sequences that cannot be acquired routinely in most clinics. Here we present CONSULT: a pipeline that can delineate the optic radiation from raw DICOM data in a completely automated way via a combination of robust pre-processing, segmentation, and alignment stages, plus simple improvements that bolster the efficiency and reliability of standard tractography. We tested CONSULT on 696 scans of predominantly healthy participants (539 unique brains), including both advanced acquisitions and simpler acquisitions that could be acquired in clinically acceptable timeframes. Delineations completed without error in 99.4% of the scans. The distance between Meyer's Loop and the temporal pole closely matched both averages and ranges reported in dissection studies for all tested sequences. Median scan-rescan error of this distance was 1 mm. When tested on two participants with considerable pathology, delineations were successful and realistic. Through this, we demonstrate not only how to identify Meyer's Loop with clinically feasible sequences, but also that this can be achieved without fundamental changes to tractography algorithms or complex post-processing methods.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16805, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413373

RESUMO

The spatio-temporal characteristics of grey matter (GM) impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood. We used a new surface-based diffusion MRI processing tool to investigate regional modifications of microstructure, and we quantified volume loss in GM in a cohort of patients with MS classified into three groups according to disease duration. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between GM changes with disease severity. We studied 54 healthy controls and 247 MS patients classified regarding disease duration: MS1 (less than 5 years, n = 67); MS2 (5-15 years, n = 107); and MS3 (more than15 years, n = 73). We compared GM mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume between groups, and estimated their clinical associations. Regional modifications in diffusion measures (MD and FA) and volume did not overlap early in the disease, and became widespread in later phases. We found higher MD in MS1 group, mainly in the temporal cortex, and volume reduction in deep GM and left precuneus. Additional MD changes were evident in cingulate and occipital cortices in the MS2 group, coupled to volume reductions in deep GM and parietal and frontal poles. Changes in MD and volume extended to more than 80% of regions in MS3 group. Conversely, increments in FA, with very low effect size, were observed in the parietal cortex and thalamus in MS1 and MS2 groups, and extended to the frontal lobe in the later group. MD and GM changes were associated with white matter lesion load and with physical and cognitive disability. Microstructural integrity loss and atrophy present differential spatial predominance early in MS and accrual over time, probably due to distinct pathogenic mechanisms that underlie tissue damage.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Atrofia/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Recidiva , Substância Branca/patologia
7.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 107, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a regression neural network for the reconstruction of lesion probability maps on Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting using echo-planar imaging (MRF-EPI) in addition to [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], NAWM, and GM- probability maps. METHODS: We performed MRF-EPI measurements in 42 patients with multiple sclerosis and 6 healthy volunteers along two sites. A U-net was trained to reconstruct the denoised and distortion corrected [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] maps, and to additionally generate NAWM-, GM-, and WM lesion probability maps. RESULTS: WM lesions were predicted with a dice coefficient of [Formula: see text] and a lesion detection rate of [Formula: see text] for a threshold of 33%. The network jointly enabled accurate [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] times with relative deviations of 5.2% and 5.1% and average dice coefficients of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for NAWM and GM after binarizing with a threshold of 80%. CONCLUSION: DL is a promising tool for the prediction of lesion probability maps in a fraction of time. These might be of clinical interest for the WM lesion analysis in MS patients.

8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(6): 11, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974046

RESUMO

Purpose: Raman spectroscopy allows molecular changes to be quantified in vivo from the tissues like the retina. Here we aimed to assess the metabolic changes in the retina of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We built a Raman spectroscopy prototype by connecting a scanning laser ophthalmoscope to a spectrophotometer. We defined the spectra of 10 molecules participating on energy supply, axon biology, or synaptic damage, which have been shown to be altered in the brain of patients with MS: cytochrome C, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), excitotoxicity, glutamate, amyloid ß (Aß), τ and α-synuclein (SNCA), phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, and phosphatidyl-choline. We studied these molecules in a prospective cohort of patients with MS, either in the chronic phase or during relapses of acute optic neuritis (AON). Results: Significant changes to all these molecules were associated with age in healthy individuals. There was a significant decrease in NADH and a trend toward a decrease in NAA in patients with MS, as well as an increase in Aß compared with healthy controls. Moreover, NADH and FAD increased over time in a longitudinal analysis of patients with MS, whereas Aß diminished. In patients with acute retinal inflammation due to AON, there was a significant increase in FAD and a decrease in SNCA in the affected retina. Moreover, glutamate levels increased in the affected eyes after a 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: Alterations of molecules related to axonal degeneration are observed during neuroinflammation and show dynamic changes over time, suggesting progressive neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Retinianas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise Espectral Raman , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
9.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102653, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractal geometry measures the morphology of the brain and detects CNS damage. We aimed to assess the longitudinal changes on brain's fractal geometry and its predictive value for disease worsening in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 146 consecutive patients with relapsing-remitting MS with up to 5 years of clinical and brain MRI (3 T) assessments. The fractal dimension and lacunarity were calculated for brain regions using box-counting methods. Longitudinal changes were analyzed in mixed-effect models and the risk of disability accumulation were assessed using Cox Proportional Hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the fractal dimension and increases of lacunarity in different brain regions over the 5-year follow-up. Lower cortical fractal dimension increased the risk of disability accumulation for the Expanded Disability Status Scale [HR 0.9734, CI 0.8420-0.9125; Harrell C 0.59; Wald p 0.038], 9-hole peg test [HR 0.9734, CI 0.8420-0.9125; Harrell C 0.59; Wald p 0.0083], 2.5% low contrast vision [HR 0.4311, CI 0.2035-0.9133; Harrell C 0.58; Wald p 0.0403], symbol digit modality test [HR 2.215, CI 1.043-4.705; Harrell C 0.65; Wald p 0.0384] and MS Functional Composite-4 [HR 0.55, CI 0.317-0.955; Harrell C 0.59; Wald p 0.0029]. CONCLUSIONS: Fractal geometry analysis of brain MRI identified patients at risk of increasing their disability in the next five years.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Fractais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(1): 471-486, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547656

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an accelerated postprocessing pipeline for reproducible and efficient assessment of white matter lesions using quantitative magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) and deep learning. METHODS: MRF using echo-planar imaging (EPI) scans with varying repetition and echo times were acquired for whole brain quantification of T 1 and T 2 ∗ in 50 subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy volunteers along 2 centers. MRF T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps were distortion corrected and denoised. A CNN was trained to reconstruct the T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps, and the WM and GM probability maps. RESULTS: Deep learning-based postprocessing reduced reconstruction and image processing times from hours to a few seconds while maintaining high accuracy, reliability, and precision. Mean absolute error performed the best for T 1 (deviations 5.6%) and the logarithmic hyperbolic cosinus loss the best for T 2 ∗ (deviations 6.0%). CONCLUSIONS: MRF is a fast and robust tool for quantitative T 1 and T 2 ∗ mapping. Its long reconstruction and several postprocessing steps can be facilitated and accelerated using deep learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Mult Scler ; 27(11): 1706-1716, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic markers are needed to guide multiple sclerosis (MS) management in the context of large availability of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers to inform long-term MS outcomes. METHODS: Demographic features, IgM index, oligoclonal IgM bands (OCMB), lipid-specific OCMB, CSF neurofilament light chain protein levels, expanded disability status scale (EDSS), relapses and DMD use over the study period and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses in non-optic neuritis eyes (end of follow-up) were collected from relapsing MS (RMS) patients with CSF obtained ⩽2 years after MS onset prospectively followed at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. We assessed associations between CSF markers and MS outcomes using multivariable models. RESULTS: A total of 89 patients (71 females; median 32.9 years of age) followed over a median of 9.6 years were included. OCMB were associated with a 33% increase in the annualized relapse rate (ARR; p = 0.06), higher odds for high-efficacy DMDs use (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = (1.5, 16.1)), thinner pRNFL (ß = -4.4; 95% CI = (-8.6, -0.2)) and GCIPL (ß = -2.9; 95% CI = (-5.9, +0.05)), and higher rates to EDSS ⩾ 3.0 (HR = 4.4; 95% CI = (1.6, 11.8)) and EDSS ⩾ 4.0 (HR = 5.4; 95% CI = (1.1, 27.1)). No overall associations were found for other CSF markers. CONCLUSION: The presence of OCMB was associated with unfavorable long-term outcomes. OCMB should be determined in RMS to inform long-term prognosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Bandas Oligoclonais , Cegueira , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva , Retina
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a single-center cohort of patients with MS and to explore the contribution of their comorbidities and therapies to the outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-method study was conducted involving an email-based, self-administered questionnaire sent on May 21, 2020, to 586 patients with MS followed at the MS Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, along with telephone interview, and review of electronic medical records until June 18, 2020. The cumulative incidence of confirmed COVID-19 (positive PCR or antibody test) and all COVID-19 cases (confirmed and suspected) from the start of the pandemic was compared with the population estimates for Barcelona. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients (69.5%) completed the survey. Most of the responders (67%) were female. The responders had a median age of 48 years (range 19-86), relapsing-remitting disease (84%), at least 1 comorbidity (45%), and were on disease-modifying therapy (DMT; 74.7%). COVID-19 was confirmed in 5 patients (1.2%) and suspected in 46 (11.3%). The cumulative incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was similar to that of the general population but was almost 2-fold higher when all cases were considered (p < 0.001). Six patients (11.7%) were hospitalized, of which 5 had good recovery and 1 died. Hospitalized patients were more frequently male, had diabetes and had progressive forms of MS (p < 0.05). DMT was not associated with the risk of infection or the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied MS cohort, the incidence of COVID-19 was higher than that of the general population; however, most patients did not require hospitalization and had a good outcome despite the frequent presence of comorbidities and treatment with DMT.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Autoimmun ; 117: 102580, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is increasing interest regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AI/IMID) with some discrepancies in different cohorts about their risk and outcomes. The aim was to describe a multidisciplinary cohort of patients with AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a single tertiary center and analyze sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic factors associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted from the 1st of March until May 29th, 2020 in a University tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Patients with an underlying AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified in our local SARS-CoV-2 infection database. Controls (2:1) were selected from the same database and matched by age and gender. The primary outcome was severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was a composite endpoint including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation (MV), and/or death. Several covariates including age, sex, and comorbidities among others were combined into a multivariate model having severe SARS-CoV-2 as the dependent variable. Also, a sensitivity analysis was performed evaluating AID and IMID separately. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of AI/IMID patients was 1.3%. Eighty-five patients with AI/IMID and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were identified, requiring hospitalization in 58 (68%) cases. A total of 175 patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 (58 with AI/IMID and 117 matched-controls) were analyzed. In logistic regression analysis, a significant inverse association between AI/IMID group and severe SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.12-0.61; p = 0.001), need of MV (OR 0.20; IC 95% 0.05-0.71; p = 0.014), and ICU admission (OR 0.25; IC 95% 0.10-0.62; p = 0.003) was found. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AI/IMID who require admission for SARS-CoV-2 infection have a lower risk of developing severe disease, including the need to stay in the ICU and MV.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/mortalidade , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Neurol ; 268(3): 810-816, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980981

RESUMO

Sneddon syndrome is a rare disorder affecting small and medium-sized blood vessels that is characterized by the association of livedo reticularis and stroke. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 2 affected siblings of a consanguineous family with childhood-onset stroke and identified a homozygous nonsense mutation within the epidermal growth factor repeat (EGFr) 19 of NOTCH3, p.(Arg735Ter). WES of 6 additional cases with adult-onset stroke revealed 2 patients carrying heterozygous loss-of-function variants in putative NOTCH3 downstream genes, ANGPTL4, and PALLD. Our findings suggest that impaired NOTCH3 signaling is one underlying disease mechanism and that bi-allelic loss-of-function mutation in NOTCH3 is a cause of familial Sneddon syndrome with pediatric stroke.


Assuntos
Receptor Notch3 , Síndrome de Sneddon , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Criança , Códon sem Sentido , Consanguinidade , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Receptor Notch3/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
15.
Front Neurol ; 11: 581700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193039

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive reserve (CR) could attenuate the impact of the brain burden on the cognition in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Objective: To explore the relationship between CR and structural brain connectivity and investigate their role on cognition in PwMS cognitively impaired (PwMS-CI) and cognitively preserved (PwMS-CP). Methods: In this study, 181 PwMS (71% female; 42.9 ± 10.0 years) were evaluated using the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ), Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests, and MRI. Brain lesion and gray matter volumes were quantified, as was the structural network connectivity. Patients were classified as PwMS-CI (z scores = -1.5 SD in at least two tests) or PwMS-CP. Linear and multiple regression analyses were run to evaluate the association of CRQ and structural connectivity with cognition in each group. Hedges's effect size was used to compute the strength of associations. Results: We found a very low association between CRQ scores and connectivity metrics in PwMS-CP, while in PwMS-CI, this relation was low to moderate. The multiple regression model, adjusted for age, gender, mood, lesion volume, and graph metrics (local and global efficiency, and transitivity), indicated that the CRQ (ß = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.17-0.35) was associated with cognition (adj R 2 = 0.34) in PwMS-CP (55%). In PwMS-CI, CRQ (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.29), age, and network global efficiency were independently associated with cognition (adj R 2 = 0.55). The age- and gender-adjusted association between CRQ score and global efficiency on having an impaired cognitive status was -0.338 (OR: 0.71, p = 0.036) and -0.531 (OR: 0.59, p = 0.002), respectively. Conclusions: CR seems to have a marginally significant effect on brain structural connectivity, observed in patients with more severe clinical impairment. It protects PwMS from cognitive decline regardless of their cognitive status, yet once cognitive impairment has set in, brain damage and aging are also influencing cognitive performance.

16.
Neuroimage Clin ; 28: 102411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950904

RESUMO

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging can reveal quantitative information about the tissue changes in multiple sclerosis. The recently developed multi-compartment spherical mean technique can map different microscopic properties based only on local diffusion signals, and it may provide specific information on the underlying microstructural modifications that arise in multiple sclerosis. Given that the lesions in multiple sclerosis may reflect different degrees of damage, we hypothesized that quantitative diffusion maps may help characterize the severity of lesions "in vivo" and correlate these to an individual's clinical profile. We evaluated this in a cohort of 59 multiple sclerosis patients (62% female, mean age 44.7 years), for whom demographic and disease information was obtained, and who underwent a comprehensive physical and cognitive evaluation. The magnetic resonance imaging protocol included conventional sequences to define focal lesions, and multi-shell diffusion imaging was used with b-values of 1000, 2000 and 3000 s/mm2 in 180 encoding directions. Quantitative diffusion properties on a macro- and micro-scale were used to discriminate distinct types of lesions through a k-means clustering algorithm, and the number and volume of those lesion types were correlated with parameters of the disease. The combination of diffusion tensor imaging metrics (fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity) and multi-compartment spherical mean technique values (microscopic fractional anisotropy and intra-neurite volume fraction) differentiated two type of lesions, with a prediction strength of 0.931. The B-type lesions had larger diffusion changes compared to the A-type lesions, irrespective of their location (P < 0.001). The number of A and B type lesions was similar, although in juxtacortical areas B-type lesions predominated (60%, P < 0.001). Also, the percentage of B-type lesion volume was higher (64%, P < 0.001), indicating that these lesions were larger. The number and volume of B-type lesions was related to the severity of disease evolution, clinical disability and cognitive decline (P = 0.004, Bonferroni correction). Specifically, more and larger B-type lesions were correlated with a worse Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, cerebellar function and cognitive performance. Thus, by combining several microscopic and macroscopic diffusion properties, the severity of damage within focal lesions can be characterized, further contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms that drive disease evolution. Accordingly, the classification of lesion types has the potential to permit more specific and better-targeted treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13333, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770013

RESUMO

Understanding of the role of focal inflammation, a treatable feature, on neuro-axonal injury, is paramount to optimize neuroprotective strategy in MS. To quantify the impact of focal inflammatory activity on the rate of neuro-axonal injury over the MS course. We quantified the annualized rates of change in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), whole-brain, gray matter and thalamic volumes in patients with and without focal inflammatory activity in 161 patients followed over 5 years. We used mixed models including focal inflammatory activity (the presence of at least one relapse or a new/enlarging T2-FLAIR or gadolinium- enhancing lesion), and its interaction with time adjusted by age, sex, use of disease-modifying therapies and steroids, and prior optic neuritis. The increased rate of neuro-axonal injury during the first five years after onset was more prominent among active patients, as reflected by the changes in GCIPL thickness (p = 0.02), whole brain (p = 0.002) and thalamic volumes (p < 0.001). Thereafter, rates of retinal and brain changes stabilized and were similar in active and stable patients. Focal inflammatory activity is associated with neurodegeneration early in MS which reinforces the use of an early intensive anti-inflammatory therapy to prevent neurodegeneration in MS.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Adulto , Axônios/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurite Óptica/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
18.
Hum Mutat ; 41(7): 1308-1320, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196808

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified a number of common variants associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, little is known about the relevance of rare variants. Here, we aimed to explore the role of rare variants in 14 MS risk genes (FCRL1, RGS1, TIMMDC1, HHEX, CXCR5, LTBR, TSFM, GALC, TRAF3, STAT3, TNFSF14, IFI30, CD40, and CYP24A1) by targeted resequencing in an Iberian population of 524 MS cases and 546 healthy controls. Four rare variants-enriched regions within CYP24A1, FCRL1, RGS1, and TRAF3 were identified as significantly associated with MS. Functional studies revealed significantly decreased regulator of G protein signaling 1 (RGS1) gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MS patients with RGS1 rare variants compared to noncarriers, whereas no significant differences in gene expression were observed for CYP24A1, FCRL1, and TRAF3 between rare variants carriers and noncarriers. Immunophenotyping showed significant decrease in RGS1 expression in peripheral blood B lymphocytes from MS patients with RGS1 rare variants relative to noncarriers. Lastly, peripheral blood mononuclear cell from MS patients carrying RGS1 rare variants showed significantly lower induction of RGS1 gene expression by interferon-ß compared to MS patients lacking RGS1 variants. The presence of rare variants in RGS1 reinforce the ideas of high genetic heterogeneity and a role of rare variants in MS pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Linfócitos B , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas RGS/genética , Espanha , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 38: 101483, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rebound of multiple sclerosis (MS) activity has been described after the withdrawal of high-efficacy drugs, but its impact during pregnancy is less known. We describe a series of cases of rebound syndrome after the cessation of fingolimod due to pregnancy planning. METHODS: The clinical and radiological data of 7 MS patients who discontinued fingolimod therapy between May 2012 and March 2018 to plan a pregnancy was analysed. RESULTS: Three (42.8%) of the 7 patients experienced a rebound effect, all of whom became pregnant. During pregnancy, the 3 patients had a mean (SD) of 5.3 (1.3) relapses, and 13 of the 15 relapses were treated with intravenous steroids and/or immunoglobulin. These patients experienced a median increase of 3 points in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (range, 2-4), as well as a median increase of 27 new gadolinium-enhancing lesions (range, 9-40) and 38 new T2 lesions in a post-partum MRI (range, 21-70). The 3 pregnancies resulted in the delivery of healthy babies. A strong correlation was found between the lymphocyte count at fingolimod onset and the annual relapse rate in the period without therapy (r= -0.84, p = 0.005). The time to first relapse was shorter in patients who had <300/µl lymphocytes at fingolimod onset (median time 46 vs 426 days, p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Rebound activity after fingolimod suspension represents a severe long-lasting inflammatory syndrome that may affect up to 40% of female MS patient who discontinue therapy due to pregnancy planning. Lymphopenia (<300/µl) in the first 3 months of fingolimod onset may predispose patients to suffer earlier and higher disease activity upon cessation.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos , Esclerose Múltipla , Complicações na Gravidez , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
20.
JAMA Neurol ; 77(2): 234-244, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566686

RESUMO

Importance: Neuroprotective and remyelinating therapies are required for multiple sclerosis (MS), and acute optic neuritis (AON) is a potential condition to evaluate such treatments. Objective: To comprehensively assess key biological and methodological aspects of AON trials for testing neuroprotection and remyelination in MS. Design, Setting, and Participants: The AON-VisualPath prospective cohort study was conducted from February 2011 to November 2018 at the Hospital Clinic of University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Consecutive patients with AON were prospectively enrolled in the cohort and followed up for 18 months. Data analyses occurred from November 2018 to February 2019. Exposures: Participants were followed up for 18 months using optical coherence tomography, visual acuity tests, and in a subset of 25 participants, multifocal visual evoked potentials. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dynamic models of retinal changes and nerve conduction and their associations with visual end points; and eligibility criteria, stratification, and sample-size estimation for future trials. Results: A total of 60 patients (50 women [83%]; median age, 34 years) with AON were included. The patients studied displayed early and intense inner retinal thinning, with a thinning rate of approximately 2.38 µm per week in the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) during the first 4 weeks. Eyes with AON displayed a 6-month change in latency of about 20 milliseconds, while the expected change in the eyes of healthy participants by random variability was 0.13 (95% CI, -0.80 to 1.06) milliseconds. The strongest associations with visual end points were for the 6-month intereye difference in 2.5% low-contrast letter acuity, which was correlated with the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thinning (adjusted R2, 0.57), GCIPL thinning (adjusted R2, 0.50), and changes in mfVEP latency (adjusted R2, 0.26). A 5-letter increment in high-contrast visual acuity at presentation (but not sex or age) was associated with 6-month retinal thinning (1.41 [95% CI, 0.60-2.23] µm less peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thinning thinning; P = .001; adjusted R2, 0.20; 0.86 [95% CI, 0.35-1.37] µm less GCIPL thinning; P = .001; adjusted R2, 0.19) but not any change in multifocal visual evoked potential latency. To demonstrate 50% efficacy in GCIPL thinning or change in multifocal visual evoked potential latency, a 6-month, 2-arm, parallel-group trial would need 37 or 50 participants per group to test a neuroprotective or remyelinating drug, respectively (power, 80%; α, .05). Conclusions and Relevance: Acute optic neuritis is a suitable condition to test neuroprotective and remyelinating therapies after acute inflammation, providing sensitive markers to assess the effects on both processes and prospective visual recovery within a manageable timeframe and with a relatively small sample size.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Neurite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Remielinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite Óptica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
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