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1.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 17(2): 75-78, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626232

RESUMO

This meeting was held from the 30 October to the 1 November 2018 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The meeting brought together participants from 16 countries of central Asia, Caucasus, eastern Europe and expert speakers from western Europe and India. Participants discussed the analysis and use of data on antimicrobial medicines consumption, country experiences in enforcing legislation for prescription-only access to antibiotics, the role of primary health care (PHC) in tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR), strategies to improving competencies of practitioners using evidence-based clinical protocols and public engagement in the responsible use of medicines. Moving toward prescription-only access to antibiotics requires that government involve, from the onset, different stakeholders, e.g. public, patients, practitioners, pharmacists and pharmaceutical industry in designing and applying policies that ensure access to antibiotics accompanied by measures that promote responsible use and limit excessive use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Competência Clínica , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem
2.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 437-439, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401283

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health threat. The UK Antibiotic Guardian (AG) behavioural change campaign developed to tackle AMR was expanded across Europe through translation into Russian, Dutch and French. Demographics and knowledge of AGs were analyzed between 01 November 2016 and 31 December 2016. A total of 367 pledges were received with the majority from the public and health care professionals. The pilot has significantly increased the proportion of pledges from Europe (excluding UK) (χ2 = 108.7, P < 0.001). AMR knowledge was greater in AGs (including the public) compared to the EU Eurobarometer survey. Further promotion across Europe is required to measure an impact on tackling AMR.

4.
J Food Prot ; 75(10): 1851-4, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23043836

RESUMO

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Comércio/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Humanos , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 18(11): e1, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23092707

RESUMO

The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases of pathogen genomes that would ensure more efficient detection, prevention, and control of endemic, emerging, and other infectious disease outbreaks worldwide.


Assuntos
Genômica , Disseminação de Informação , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internet , Vigilância da População
6.
J Food Prot ; 75(6): 1134-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22691484

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city per department) were collected via a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the presence of Salmonella by conventional culture methods. Salmonella strains were isolated from 27 % of the carcasses sampled. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine potential risk factors for Salmonella contamination associated with the chicken production system (conventional versus free-range), storage condition (chilled versus frozen), retail store type (supermarket, independent, and wet market), poultry company (integrated company versus nonintegrated company), and socioeconomic stratum. Chickens from a nonintegrated poultry company were associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) greater risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 2.0) than were chickens from an integrated company. Chilled chickens had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 4.3) than did frozen chicken carcasses.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Colômbia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estudos Transversais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 152(3): 129-38, 2012 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21570732

RESUMO

Foodborne pathogens are responsible for an increasing burden of disease worldwide. Knowledge on the contribution of different food sources and water for disease is essential to prioritize food safety interventions and implement appropriate control measures. Source attribution using outbreak data utilizes readily available data from outbreak surveillance to estimate the contribution of different sources to human disease. We developed a probabilistic model based on outbreak data that attributes human foodborne disease by various bacterial pathogens to sources in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Foods implicated in outbreaks were classified by their ingredients as simple foods (i.e. belonging to one single food category), or complex foods (i.e. belonging to multiple food categories). For each agent, the data from simple-food outbreaks were summarized, and the proportion of outbreaks caused by each category was used to define the probability that an outbreak was caused by a source. For the calculation of the number of outbreaks attributed to each source, simple-food outbreaks were attributed to the single food category in question, and complex-food outbreaks were partitioned to each category proportionally to the estimated probability. We analysed all bacterial pathogens together, focused on important bacterial pathogens separately, and, when data were sufficient, performed analyses by country, decade and location. Between 1993 and 2010, 6313 bacterial outbreaks were reported by 20 countries. In general, the most important sources of bacterial disease were meat, dairy products, water and vegetables in the 1990s, and eggs, vegetables, and grains and beans in the 2000s. We observed fluctuations of the most important sources of disease for each pathogen between decades and countries, which may be a consequence of changes in the control of zoonotic disease over the years, of changes in food consumption habits, or of changes in public health focus and availability of data of different pathogens. This study identified data gaps in the region and highlighted the importance of effective surveillance systems to identify sources of disease. Still, the application of this method for source attribution in the LA&C region was successful, and we concluded that this approach can be used to attribute disease to food sources and water in other regions, including developing regions with limited data on the public health impact of foodborne diseases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública
8.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 8(8): 887-900, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21492021

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15 most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External Quality Assurance System. In all regions throughout the study period, with the exception of the Oceania and North American regions, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium ranked as the most common and second most common serovar, respectively. In the North American and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) regions, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was the most common serovar reported, and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was the second most common serovar. During the study period, the proportion of Salmonella isolates reported from humans that were Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was 43.5% (range: 40.6% [2007] to 44.9% [2003]), and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was 17.1% (range: 15% [2007] to 18.9% [2001]). Salmonella serovars Newport (mainly observed in Latin and North American and European countries), Infantis (dominating in all regions), Virchow (mainly observed in Asian, European, and Oceanic countries), Hadar (profound in European countries), and Agona (intense in Latin and North American and European countries) were also frequently isolated with an overall proportion of 3.5%, 1.8%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. There were large differences in the most commonly isolated serovars between regions, but lesser differences between countries within the same region. The results also highlight the complexity of the global epidemiology of Salmonella and the need and importance for improving monitoring data of those serovars of highest epidemiologic importance.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/classificação , Sorotipagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Laboratórios , Controle de Qualidade , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 8(8): 921-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21492026

RESUMO

Foodborne infections are an important public health problem in China. In 2008, we conducted surveillance for laboratory-confirmed nontyphoidal Salmonella to monitor trends for this infection in China and to build capacity for rapid detection and response to foodborne outbreaks. Salmonella isolates from patients with diarrhea were sent from hospitals to local public health laboratories for confirmation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 126 hospitals in 44 cities and counties from 8 provinces provided isolates and epidemiologic data for analysis. Of 23,140 stool specimens submitted to clinical laboratories, 662 (3%) grew Salmonella enterica. Salmonella were most commonly detected between April and October. The median age of infected patients was 27 years; 34% of infections occurred in patients <5 years old. Of the 662 isolates, we found 73 serotypes, of which serotype Enteritidis (31%) and serotype Typhimurium (26%) were the most common. The prevalence of resistance was high for clinically important antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (41%) and ciprofloxacin (6%). More than 60% of isolates, including 35% of all Typhimurium, were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. In this first multiprovince surveillance report of laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections in China, we found that Enteritidis and Typhimurium are the most common serotypes and that efforts to reduce antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella in China are needed. Although no outbreaks were detected using this system, efforts to improve this system's capacity to do so are underway.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laboratórios , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/classificação , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/classificação , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Sorotipagem
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 47(9): 2729-36, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19571024

RESUMO

An international external quality assurance system (EQAS) for the serotyping of Salmonella species was initiated in 2000 by WHO Global Salm-Surv to enhance the capacity of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data for surveillance purposes worldwide. Seven EQAS iterations were conducted between 2000 and 2007. In each iteration, participating laboratories submitted serotyping results for eight Salmonella isolates. A total of 249 laboratories in 96 countries participated in at least one EQAS iteration. A total of 756 reports were received from the participating laboratories during the seven EQAS iterations. Cumulatively, 76% of participating laboratories submitted data for all eight strains, and 82% of strains were correctly serotyped. In each iteration, 84% to 96% of the laboratories correctly serotyped the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolate that was included as an internal quality control strain. Regional differences in performance were observed, with laboratories in Central Asia and the Middle East performing less well overall than those in other regions. Errors that resulted in incorrect serovar identification were typically caused by difficulties in the detection of the phase two flagellar antigen or in differentiation within antigen complexes; some of these errors are likely related to the quality of the antisera available. The results from the WHO Global Salm-Surv EQAS, the largest of its kind in the world, show that most laboratories worldwide are capable of correctly serotyping Salmonella species. However, this study also indicates a continuing need for improvement. Future training efforts should be aimed at enhancing the ability to detect the phase two flagellar antigen and at disseminating information on where to purchase high-quality antisera.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Sorotipagem/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 47(1): 79-85, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19020068

RESUMO

An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data for surveillance purposes worldwide. Seven EQAS iterations have been conducted from 2000 to 2007. In each iteration, participating laboratories submitted susceptibility results from 10 to 15 antimicrobial agents for eight Salmonella isolates and an Escherichia coli reference strain (ATCC 25922). A total of 287 laboratories in 102 countries participated in at least one EQAS iteration. A large number of laboratories reported results for the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain which were outside the quality control ranges. Critical deviations for susceptibility testing of the Salmonella isolates varied from 4% in 2000 to 3% in 2007. Consistent difficulties were observed in susceptibility testing of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. Regional variations in performance were observed, with laboratories in central Asia, Africa, and the Middle East not performing as well as those in other regions. Results from the WHO Global Salm-Surv EQAS show that most laboratories worldwide are capable of correctly performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates, but they also indicate that further improvement for some laboratories is needed. In particular, further training and dissemination of information on quality control, appropriate interpretive criteria (breakpoints), and harmonization of the methodology worldwide through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other programs will contribute to the generation of comparable and reliable antimicrobial susceptibility data.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Erros de Diagnóstico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
J Theor Biol ; 256(4): 561-73, 2009 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19022263

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence showing that antimicrobial consumption provides a powerful selective force that promotes the emergence of resistance in pathogenic, commensal as well as zoonotic bacteria in animals. The main aim of this study was to develop a modeling framework that can be used to assess the impact of antimicrobial usage in pigs on the emergence and transmission of resistant bacteria within a finisher pig farm. The transmission dynamics of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant bacteria among pigs in the herd were characterized by studying the local and global stability properties of steady state solutions of the system. Numerical simulations demonstrating the influence of factors such as initial prevalence of infection, presence of pre-existing antimicrobial resistant mutants, and frequency of treatment on predicted prevalence were performed. Sensitivity analysis revealed that two parameters had a huge influence on the predicted proportion of pigs carrying resistant bacteria: (a) the transmission coefficient between uninfected pigs and those infected with drug-resistant bacteria during treatment (beta(2)) and after treatment stops (beta(3)), and (b) the spontaneous clear-out rate of drug-resistant bacteria during treatment (gamma(2)) and immediately after treatment stops (gamma(3)). Control measures should therefore be geared towards reducing the magnitudes of beta(2) and beta(3) or increasing those of gamma(2) and gamma(3).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Modelos Biológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Esquema de Medicação , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
13.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 6(1): 99-109, 2009 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19072081

RESUMO

It has been recognized that exposure to antimicrobial agents can exert a selective pressure for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between the probability of isolating a tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli isolate from the intestinal tract of healthy pigs and patterns of tetracycline consumption in the herds of origin, together with other risk factors. Data on antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial consumption, and pig herd demographics were obtained from different Danish surveillance programs. Descriptive statistics were performed for the risk factors in relation to the susceptibility status. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors with significant effect on the log odds of tetracycline resistance of E. coli isolates. The model showed that an increase in the interval between last prescription and sampling date would decrease the probability of isolating a resistant E. coli isolate (p-value = 0.01). Also, a direct association between treatment incidence rate in a herd and probability of resistance was detected (p-value = 0.03). Other risk factors found to have a significant effect in the isolate susceptibility status were number of produced animals in the year and year of sampling. Other antimicrobial consumption risk factors, such as number of prescriptions and amount prescribed, although not included in the final model, presented indirect impact in the tetracycline resistance probability. From this study, we can infer that tetracycline usage, the time span between last treatment and sampling date, together with herd size and the proportion of animals being treated in a herd, increase the probability of obtaining a resistant isolate.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/microbiologia , Resistência a Tetraciclina , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Animais , Dinamarca , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Tetraciclina/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Environ Health Perspect ; 117(12): 1803-8, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20049196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. DISCUSSIONS: A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. CONCLUSION: Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Triazinas/toxicidade , Animais , China , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Segurança , Triazinas/análise , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 5(6): 773-84, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19086804

RESUMO

In Thailand during 1993-2006, a total of 9063 Shigella isolates from different medical centers were serotyped and trends over time and spatial clustering analyzed. Of 3583 cases with age information, 1315 (37%) cases were from children between 0 and 4 years and 684 (19%) from children between 5 and 8 years. Most infections were recorded during 1993-1994 (> 1500 per year), decreasing to < 200 in 2006. The relative species distribution also changed. During 1993-1994, Shigella flexneri accounted for 2241 (65%) of 3474 isolations. This proportion decreased to 64 (36%) of 176 infections in 2006. Most infections occurred during July and August, and fewest in December. S. flexneri clustered around Bangkok, and Shigella sonnei in southern Thailand. Most S. flexneri infections were caused by serotype 2a (1590 of 4035) followed by serotype var X (1249). For both serotypes, a pronounced decrease in the number of isolates occurred over time. A much smaller decrease was observed for serotype 3a isolates. Phase I S. sonnei was initially most common, but shifted gradually over phase I, II, to only phase II. No differences in spatial distribution were found. The three most common S. flexneri serotypes all clustered in, around, and west of Bangkok. Serotypes 2a and 3a also clustered in southern Thailand, whereas var X clustered north and northeast of Bangkok. In conclusion, looking at Shigella species, Thailand changed from being a developing country to a developed country between 1995 and 1996. In addition, major shifts in the types of S. sonnei were observed as were differences in spatial clustering of S. flexneri and S. sonnei and S. flexneri serotypes.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Filogenia , Shigella/classificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Demografia , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Disenteria Bacilar/etiologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sorotipagem , Shigella flexneri/classificação , Shigella flexneri/isolamento & purificação , Shigella sonnei/classificação , Shigella sonnei/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia/epidemiologia
16.
Avian Dis ; 52(1): 34-9, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18459293

RESUMO

Experiments were carried out to establish an infection and disease model for Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Previous experiments had failed to induce disease and only a transient colonization with challenge strains had been obtained. In the present study, two series of experiments were conducted, each involving four groups of chickens with each group kept in separate isolators. A coccidial vaccine given at 10 times the prescribed dosage was used to promote the development of necrotic enteritis. In the first experiment, cultures of C. perfringens were mixed with the feed at day 9, 10, 11, and 12, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 10, whereas in the second experiment, C. perfringens cultures were mixed with the feed at day 17, 18, 19, and 20, and the coccidial vaccine was given at day 18. Chickens were examined at day 9, 11, 12, and 15 (Experiment 1), and at day 17, 18, 20, and 24 (Experiment 2). There was no mortality in any of the groups; however, chickens in the groups receiving both coccidial vaccine and C. peifringens developed the subclinical form of necrotic enteritis, demonstrated by focal necroses in the small intestine, whereas chickens in control groups or groups receiving only coccidial vaccine or only C. perfringens cultures developed no necroses. The results underline the importance of predisposing factors in the development of necrotic enteritis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Jejuno/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Necrose/patologia , Necrose/veterinária , Vacinas Protozoárias/toxicidade
17.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 4(3): 313-26, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17883315

RESUMO

Based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance in 2000-2001, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Domestic food products accounted for 53.1% of all cases, mainly caused by table eggs (37.6%). A large proportion (19%) of cases were travel related, while 18% could not be associated with any source. Imported food products accounted for 9.5% of all cases; the most important source being imported chicken. Multidrug and quinolone resistance was rarely found in cases acquired from Danish food, but was common in cases related to imported products (49.7% and 35.6% of attributable cases) and travelling (26.5% and 38.3% of attributable cases). For most serovars, the quinolone-resistant isolates were found to be associated with relatively more human infections than that of resistant isolates, which in turn was higher than that of susceptible isolates. This may be due to quinolone-resistant isolates having a higher ability to survive food processing and/or cause disease. This study showed domestic food to be the most important source of Salmonella infections in Denmark, but infections with multidrug- and quinolone-resistant isolates were more commonly caused by imported food products and travelling, emphasizing the need for a global perspective on food safety and antimicrobial usage.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medição de Risco , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Viagem
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 12(3): 381-8, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16704773

RESUMO

Salmonellae are a common cause of foodborne disease worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports international foodborne disease surveillance through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other activities. WHO Global Salm-Surv members annually report the 15 most frequently isolated Salmonella serotypes to a Web-based country databank. We describe the global distribution of reported Salmonella serotypes from human and nonhuman sources from 2000 to 2002. Among human isolates, S. Enteritidis was the most common serotype, accounting for 65% of all isolates. Among nonhuman isolates, although no serotype predominated, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was reported most frequently. Several serotypes were reported from only 1 region of the world. The WHO Global Salm-Surv country databank is a valuable public health resource; it is a publicly accessible, Web-based tool that can be used by health professionals to explore hypotheses related to the sources and distribution of salmonellae worldwide.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Internet , Vigilância da População/métodos , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Oceania , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 115(1-3): 128-39, 2006 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16448789

RESUMO

Initiated in 2003 by the European Union, ARBAO-II aims to establish a monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among the veterinary laboratories in all European countries based on validated methodologies. This includes an external quality control system for the most important bacterial pathogens. In 2003 two trials were performed. The first on Salmonella and Escherichia coli involved 31 laboratories in 18 countries and the second on Staphylococcus and Streptococcus included 22 laboratories in 15 countries. For the E. coli strains, 92.8% of the results complied with the reference MICs, for Salmonella 93.7%, for Streptococcus 80.4% and for Staphylococcus 93.1%. Most problems were observed when testing florfenicol (79.2% correct), gentamicin (84.2%) and amoxicillin + cl (84.9%) in E. coli; streptomycin in Salmonella (62.5%); gentamicin (56.7%), lincomycin (71.4%), clindamycin (75.4%), TMP + sulfonamides (75.7%) and chloramphenicol (78.5%) in Streptococcus; erythromycin (81.5%) and oxacillin (78.2.5%) in Staphylococcus. A few laboratories caused most deviations. However, there was no correlation between good performance for one bacterial group and good performance for other groups. This study showed that most laboratories are capable of performing correct susceptibility testing for E. coli and Salmonella, even though performance of some laboratories can be improved, and that some problems exist for Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. This clearly shows the need for continuous harmonisation of methodologies within the EU.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Animais , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Cooperação Internacional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 3(4): 422-31, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17199524

RESUMO

The objectives of our study were to estimate the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis in Denmark that can be attributed to the occurrence of Salmonella in soy-based animal feed and to assess whether certain serotypes can be considered of less importance to human health. The assessment was based on a comparison of Salmonella serotypes isolated from feedstuffs, swine, cattle, and humans, primarily collected through the Danish Salmonella surveillance programs, supplemented with international data sources. The results are presented in three different forms: a qualitative assessment of all serotypes isolated from animal feed and/or food-producing animals based on their detection in humans; a semiquantitative ranking of serotypes by the apparent differences in their public health impact; and an estimate of the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis that can be attributed to the occurrence of Salmonella in soy-based animal feed. Salmonella isolates included in this study belonged to 91 distinct serotypes. Of the 82 serotypes found in both production animals and humans, 45 were also found in feed. In the period from 1999 to 2003, 14.4% of reported human infections were caused by serotypes also isolated from animal feed. Based on a modified version of a previously published risk model, we estimated that up to 1.7% of the total number of reported human cases and 2.1% of domestically acquired infections in the period 1999-2003 could be attributed to feedborne serotypes acquired through the consumption of Danish pork and beef. We concluded that more than 90% of serotypes have the potential, if they occur in feedstuffs, for infecting humans via production animals or foods of animal origin.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medição de Risco , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Soja/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/etiologia , Sorotipagem , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Suínos
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