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1.
Pediatr Dent ; 43(1): 1E-12E, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662253

RESUMO

Purpose: To systematically evaluate the horizontal transmission of Streptococcus mutans in children and analyze its relationship with dental caries. Methods: Seven databases were searched for observational studies that have determined the transmission of S. mutans among children younger than seven years. Selection of included studies, data extraction, and quality assessment using Downs and Black's (1998) scoring system were performed. The inverse variance random-effect approach was used to pool the results, and statistical heterogeneity was evaluated using I-squared statistics. Results: Fifteen studies were included for qualitative synthesis, five of which were pooled for quantitative analysis. The risk ratio (RR) of sharing only one genotype in caries-free children versus children with caries was found to be 0.60 (95 percent confidence interval [95% CI] equals 0.45 to 0.80; P ≤ 0.001). The RR of sharing more than one genotype was 1.46 (95% CI equals 1.13 to 1.89; P=0.004) in children with caries versus caries-free children. These findings imply that children sharing only one genotype have a 40 percent lesser risk, and children sharing more than one genotype have a 46 percent higher risk of having dental caries. Conclusions: The systematic review provides evidence of the horizontal transmission of S. mutans and its association with dental caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Streptococcus mutans , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 973, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441658

RESUMO

The objectives of the in vitro study were: (1) to investigate the effect of combining L-arginine (Arg) and NaF on the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LRG); and (2) to identify an optimum synergistic concentration for the synbiotic (Arg + LRG)-fluoride (SF) therapy. 1% Arg + 2000-ppm NaF (A-SF) and 2% Arg + 2000-ppm NaF (B-SF) demonstrated antagonism against LRG (FIC > 4.0). Both XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and WST-8 (2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt) assays showed that A-SF and B-SF enhanced the growth of LRG when compared to 2000-ppm NaF and LRG control. Colony forming units, bacterial weight, and biofilm thickness of A-SF and B-SF were significantly higher than 2000-ppm NaF and LRG control. Biofilm imaging depicted that 2000-ppm NaF inhibited biofilm formation; while 1%/2% Arg, A-SF, and B-SF increased biofilm growth of LRG. Lactic acid formation was the lowest for 2000-ppm NaF, followed by A-SF and then B-SF. The SF buffer potential after 24 h was the highest for B-SF, and then A-SF. Biofilm pH for B-SF was closest to neutral. Fluoride, Arg and LRG bioavailability remained unaffected in B-SF. The relative gene expression for arcA, argG, and argH was significantly higher for B-SF than the respective controls. In conclusion, combining 2% Arg, 2000-ppm NaF, and LRG provides an optimum synbiotic-fluoride synergism.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20880, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257761

RESUMO

The study aimed to compare three methods for determining total (TF) and total soluble fluorides (TSF) in 5 child formula dentifrices (CFD) using Inter-method reliability (IMR) statistical approach. The methods were direct acid-hydrolysis (DM), the least-time-consuming method; Modified direct acid-hydrolysis with standard-addition method (MDM), ISO 19448:2018 method; and modified Taves acid-HMDS diffusion analysis (TAD), the claimed gold standard method. A significant difference in the mean difference was observed for all methods at all levels (p < 0.001), except DM and TAD for TF (p = 0.622). A proportional bias was discerned in the agreement distribution between DM and TAD for TF (p < 0.001). The ICC analysis identified significant reliability between all measurements, irrespective of the model, measure, and fluoride type (p < 0.001). For TF and TSF, the IMR between DM and TAD was lower than MDM and TAD for consistency/absolute agreement reliability at single/average measures. The reliability measure for DM and MDM was higher than MDM and TAD for TSF, but was lower than MDM and TAD for TF. The ICC measure for DM-TAD was significantly lower than DM-MDM and MDM-TAD (p < 0.05). The ISO 19448:2018 MDM is a reliable test that can be used as an alternative to TAD/DM for determining TF/TSF in CFD.

4.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(5): 332-341, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): To: 1) examine the fluoride concentrations in commercial child formula dentifrices (CFD)s; and 2) investigate the effect of arginine incorporation in CFDs on fluoride bioavailability. STUDY DESIGN: Five commercial CFDs were examined for fluoride concentrations. Total, total soluble, and insoluble fluorides in CFDs were determined by the modified Taves acid-diffusion method (TAD). Ionic F and MFP were estimated by modified direct method with standard addition technique. L-arginine (L-Arg)/L-arginine monohydrochloride (L-Arg.HCl) were incorporated at 2% w/w in the commercial CFDs. The pH of the toothpaste slurries, buffer capacity of the added Arg, potentially available fluorides (PAF) and 1-min PAF by TAD were determined. RESULTS: The CFDs had 4 to 32% of insoluble fluorides. Addition of L-Arg/L-Arg.HCl significantly improved the fluoride bioavailability in CFDs (p<0.05). Incorporation of L-Arg significantly increased the pH of toothpaste slurries (p<0.05); while L-Arg.HCl decreased the pH. Principal component analysis showed that L-Arg.HCl decreased the pH of toothpaste slurries due to the presence of Cl in the form of HCl; whereas the inherent elements/molecules (Na/P/Pi/F) remain distinct with unidentified influence on the variables. CONCLUSION(S): The CFDs containing NaF only have higher concentrations of bioavailable fluoride. Incorporating arginine (L-arginine or L-arginine monohydrochloride) at 2% w/w improves fluoride bioavailability of the child formula dentifrices.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Fluoretos , Arginina , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cariostáticos , Criança , Humanos , Fosfatos , Fluoreto de Sódio , Cremes Dentais
5.
J Dent ; 102: 103479, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbiome profile and relative abundance changes of the plaque on silver diamine fluoride (SDF)-treated caries in children with early childhood caries. METHODS: A single trained examiner assessed the caries as being arrested or active and then collected plaque samples from the caries lesions from fourteen 5-year-old children immediately before, 2 weeks after, and 12 weeks after a one-off application of 38 % SDF. We assigned 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using a 98.5 % identity cut-off. We also used a variety of taxonomy- and phylogeny-based statistical approaches to compare the biodiversity and relative abundance among different groups. RESULTS: The caries arrest rate were 90 % and 83 % after 2 and 12 weeks, respectively. We studied 46 plaque samples and identified 388 OTUs (254 identified at the species level, 129 identified at the genus level, and 76 identified at the family level). There was no significant change in the diversity in the arrested caries before and 12 weeks after SDF treatment (p = 0.71). The diversity in active caries reduced significantly 12 weeks after SDF treatment (p = 0.006). The relative abundance of certain caries-related species (e.g., Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus sp.) was reduced in arrested caries but was increased in active caries after SDF treatment. CONCLUSION: There was no overall microbiome changes in the caries arrested by SDF. The relative abundance of some caries-related species is reduced in arrested caries, while increased in active caries. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides information on microbiome changes on SDF-treated caries of children.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785270

RESUMO

The scoping review aimed to examine the evidence on the role of synbiotics in caries prevention. PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases search were performed. Any in vitro study, clinical trial, systematic review with/without meta-analysis, umbrella review/meta-evaluation, narrative review addressing the role of synbiotics in caries prevention were included in the scoping review. Data were extracted from the included studies using pre-approved registered protocol. Twenty-eight records were identified, of which 5 in vitro studies, 1 quasi-experimental clinical trial and 1 narrative review were included in the present review. No controlled clinical trials or systematic reviews on the role of synbiotics in caries prevention could be identified. Except 1, all in vitro studies examined the combined effect of saccharides and lactobacilli spp. as potential synbiotics on the growth of Streptococcus mutans. However, the proposed synbiotics in 4 in vitro studies either did not qualify or remained ambiguous of its eligibility as a potential synbiotic for caries prevention. One recent in vitro study explored the possibility of L-arginine and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG synbiotic for caries prevention. The quasi-experimental clinical study without a control arm did not explicitly mention the intervention composition and thus, its synbiotic potential remains unclear. A narrative review highlighted the potential of combining arginine (prebiotic) with arginolytic bacteria (probiotic) as a synbiotic, which appears promising for caries prevention. The eligibility of the proposed synbiotics as a true synbiotic needs to be carefully addressed. Due to a lack of controlled clinical studies on synbiotics for caries prevention, evidence on their caries-preventive potential is weak. Future studies are needed to examine the combination of amino acids (esp. arginine) with probiotics as a potential synbiotic against cariogenic pathogens.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
7.
Trials ; 21(1): 634, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pneumonia complicating stroke in acute phase has a poor prognosis and higher risk for death. Oral opportunistic pathogens have been reported to be associated with pneumonia among people with compromised health. Oral health promotion is effective in reducing dental plaque among patients with stroke, which is considered as reservoirs for oral opportunistic pathogens. This study evaluates the effectiveness of oral health promotions in reducing the prevalence of pneumonia via its effects on composition and relative abundance of oral opportunistic pathogens. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, single-blind, parallel trial of 6 months duration. The study is being conducted at one of the largest medical teaching hospitals in Hefei, China. A total of 166 patients with stroke and free from any post-stroke complication will be recruited. After enrollment, patients will be randomized to one of the following groups: (1) oral hygiene instruction (OHI) or (2) OHI, 6-month use of powered tooth brushing, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse (10 ml twice daily). The primary outcome is the prevalence of pneumonia complicating stroke. Patients will be monitored closely for any occurrence of pneumonia over the entire period of this trial. Oral rinse samples will be collected at baseline and multiple follow-up reviews (3, 5, 7 days, and 1, 3, 6 months after baseline). Next-generation sequencing will be employed to detect composition and relative abundances of the microorganism in the oral rinse samples. Questionnaire interviews and clinical oral examinations will be conducted at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after baseline. DISCUSSION: The findings of this trial will provide evidence whether oral health promotion intervention is effective in reducing the prevalence of pneumonia complicating stroke via its effect on the oral microbiome. The analysis of the outcomes of this trial is empowered by metagenomic analysis at 16S rRNA level, which is more sensitive and comprehensive to help us detect how oral health promotion inventions affect the oral microbiome in terms of its composition, relative abundance, and interactions between species, which all may contribute to the occurrence of pneumonia complicating stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04095780 . Registered on 19 September 2019.

8.
Dent Mater ; 36(9): 1226-1240, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the effect of incorporating l-arginine (Arg) in a glass ionomer cement (GIC) on its mechanical properties and antibacterial potential. METHODS: Pre-determined proportions (1%, 2%, and 4% by wt.) of Arg were incorporated in GIC powder; while GIC without Arg served as control. The flexural strength, nanohardness, surface roughness, elemental analysis using SEM-EDX (n = 6) and F/Arg/Ca/Al/Si release in deionized water for 21 days were assessed. The antibacterial potential was evaluated in a multi-species biofilm model with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Lactobacillus acidophilus for 72 h. Real-time qPCR was used to analyse biofilm bacterial concentrations. Propidium monoazide modification of real-time qPCR was performed to quantify viable/dead bacteria. The pH, lactic acid, ADS activity, and H2O2 metabolism were measured. Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the biofilm bacterial live/dead cells, density, and thickness. RESULTS: There was no difference in flexural strength among the different groups (p > 0.05). No significant difference in nanohardness and surface roughness was observed between 4% Arg + GIC and control (p > 0.05). The 4% Arg + GIC showed significantly higher F/Arg/Al/Si release than the other groups (p < 0.05), reduced total bacterial concentration and growth inhibition of viable S. mutans and S. sanguinis (p < 0.05). Lactic acid formation for 4% Arg + GIC was significantly higher than 1% Arg + GIC (p < 0.05). The spent media pH of 4% Arg + GIC was higher than the other groups (p < 0.05), with proportionately lower ammonia and higher H2O2 released (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of 4% l-arginine in GIC enhanced its antibacterial activity via a biofilm modulatory effect for microbial homeostasis, with no detrimental effect on its mechanical properties.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7951, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409686

RESUMO

We examined the effect of L-arginine - (i) on the growth of L. rhamnosus GG (LrG) and (ii) combined LrG synbiotic on the growth of cariogenic S. mutans. Viability of LrG was assessed using MTT/XTT assays, confocal imaging with ADS activity measurement. The effect of L-arginine (0.5%/1%/2%) (2×/24 h) with LrG on S. mutans was evaluated by measuring the colony forming units, biofilm biomass, real-time qPCR and confocal imaging. The pH of the spent media was measured immediately and 24 h post-treatment with assessment of lactic acid. The LrG viability was highest with 2% L-arginine (p < 0.001). Confocal imaging showed that 2% L-arginine increased biofilm thickness of LrG. The 2% L-arginine and LrG synbiotic significantly inhibited the growth of S. mutans (p < 0.001) reducing the viable counts (p = 0.002) and biofilm biomass (p < 0.001). The pH of spent media was the highest when treated with 2% L-arginine and LrG synbiotic (p < 0.001) with no difference between post-treatment and 24 h post-treatment (p > 0.05). Conversely, the 2% L-arginine and LrG synbiotic showed the lowest lactic acid production (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that L-arginine enhanced the growth of LrG. The 2% L-arginine and LrG synbiotic synergistically inhibits the growth of S. mutans with significant potential to develop as an anti-caries regimen.


Assuntos
Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbióticos , Arginina/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo
10.
Oral Dis ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review was to evaluate the change of oral microbiome based on next-generation sequencing (NGS)-metagenomic analysis following periodontal interventions among systematically healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured search strategy consisting of "metagenomics" and "oral diseases" was applied to PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science to identify effective papers. The included studies were original studies published in English, using metagenomic approach to analyze the effectiveness of periodontal intervention on oral microbiome among systematically healthy human subjects with periodontitis. RESULTS: A total of 12 papers were included in this review. Due to the heterogeneity of selected study, quantitative analysis was not performed. The findings as to how alpha diversity changed after interventions were not consistent across studies. Six studies illustrated clear separation of microbial composition between dental plaque samples collected before and after intervention using principal coordinates/component analysis. The most commonly detected genera before intervention were Porphyromonas, Treponema, Tannerella, and Prevotella, while Streptococcus and Actinomyces usually increased and became the dominant genera after intervention. Correlation network analysis revealed that after intervention, the topology of network was different compared to the corresponding pre-interventional samples. CONCLUSION: Existing evidence of metagenomic studies depicts a complex change in oral microbiome after periodontal intervention.

11.
Dent J (Basel) ; 8(1)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033270

RESUMO

The powered toothbrush has become a modern dental tool that is available in the supermarket. Indeed, the design of the powered toothbrush, e.g., mechanical and electrical, would affect not only the efficacy but also the safety of the products. This narrative review attempted to view the powered toothbrush from design, safety, and application points with respect to tufts, filaments, handles, mechanics, motions, and materials interactions from various available sources. Different brands and models of powered toothbrushes have their own designs that might affect the clinical outcome. The rotational design was advocated to be clinically more effective than the manual one, some modern models might be designed with vibrational or oscillation (or mixed) tufts head that might be useful in patients with specific needs, such as having xerostomia or for the elderly. To conclude, tuft retention design is important in the powered toothbrush as it contributes significantly to safety as the fallen off tufts, filaments and metal parts might cause injury. Tests revealing the retention force of brush head plates and brush head bristles will be significant references for consumers to determine which design of powered toothbrushes is relatively safer.

12.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 48(1): 14-20, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk indicators associated with root caries among the Hong Kong older adults who attended long-term care facilities regularly. METHODS: Nonfrail older adults with at least six natural teeth from 10 long-term social or residential care facilities were examined. The clinical examinations were conducted by two calibrated dentists in the institutions. Portal dental chairs, intra-oral LED lights, disposable mouth mirrors, periodontal probes and CPI probes were used in the examinations. Negative binomial regression analyses were performed to identify the risk indicators associated with root caries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to detect the associations between DF-root and D-root, and selected person-level and tooth surface-level factors. RESULTS: A total of 353 older adults (mean age 74.9 years) were examined. The prevalence of DF-root and D-root was 43.1% and 30.0%, respectively. The mean DF-root and D-root scores were 1.3 and 0.7, respectively. Relative to participants without DF-root, those with root caries experience were older and had more exposed root surfaces, and a higher proportion were partial denture wearers. There was a positive correlation between the DF-root score and the age of the participant, and with the numbers of exposed root surfaces, missing teeth and teeth with coronal caries. Higher prevalence of DF-root was observed among the older participants, and caries experience of root surfaces with greater gingival recession and visible plaque was higher. Lingual root surfaces and roots in the mandibular anterior region had the lowest rates of DF-root. CONCLUSIONS: People who are older have a higher prevalence and severity of root caries. Coronal caries experience, maxillary teeth, buccal root surfaces, gingival recession and plaque on the root surface are positively associated with root caries in older adults.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Radicular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Cárie Radicular/etiologia
13.
J Dent ; 89: 103166, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk predictors of root caries and to describe their relationship with the incidence and increment of root caries. DATA: Observational longitudinal studies. SOURCES: Four electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus) (From 1 January 1990 to 31 January 2019). STUDY SELECTION: Information on the factors associated with the incidence or increment of decayed and filled root surfaces (DF-root) and/or decayed root surfaces (D-root) were extracted by two reviewers independently. The factors were put into six categories, namely social-demographic background, general health, health behaviors, fluoride exposure, oral health habits and oral health condition. From the 440 potential papers identified, 19 papers reporting on 16 cohort studies were finally included. The total sample size was 7340 participants from different countries worldwide, with age ranging from 20 to 100 years. Positive correlations between new root caries and age, baseline root caries experience, gingival recession and use of tobacco were reported while negative correlations were found for socio-economic status, good oral hygiene and use of fluorides. Mixed findings were detected for the association between new root caries and the number of natural teeth. CONCLUSION: This systematic review discovered a number of root caries risk predictors in different categories. People who are older, in lower socio-economic status or tobacco users, and those with more root caries experience, gingival recession and poor oral hygiene have higher risk of developing new root caries. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review provides support that improvement of oral hygiene, prevention of gingival recession, and use of fluoride would be useful strategy for prevention of new root caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Radicular/etiologia , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Cárie Radicular/prevenção & controle
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8405, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182718

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of arginine (Arg) in NaF toothpaste. 24-h mono-/3-species biofilm cultures of S. mutans, S. sanguis and S. gordonii inoculated sHA discs were subjected to treatment with toothpaste supernatants prepared as - [1]:2% Arg -NaF (0.147% F), [2]:4% Arg-NaF (0.144% F), [3]:8% Arg - NaF (0.138% F), [4]:NaF (0.15%) and [5]:deionized water. After 24-h incubation, the mono-species biofilms were subjected to viability assay using WST-8, SEM and confocal imaging (CLSM). The 3-species biofilm were quantified for bacterial composition by PCR analysis, SEM, CLSM, and RNA isolation with reverse-transcription PCR analysis. Increasing arginine concentrations in NaF toothpaste had no effect on microbial viability. The mono-/3-species biofilm imaging depicted that the 2% Arg-NaF and 4% Arg-NaF had a biofilm disrupting effect. The 3-species biofilm bacterial composition indicated that the 2% Arg-NaF group maintained an ecological homeostasis by inhibiting S. mutans growth and enriching the growth of S. sanguis and S. gordonii. The 2% Arg-NaF group significantly downregulated the expression of virulent gtfB gene and upregulated the expression of sagP with relative dominance of arcA. Incorporation of 2% arginine in NaF toothpaste might enrich the alkali-producing bacteria and provide enhanced counter mechanisms against cariogenic pathogen when compared to NaF toothpaste.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arginina/farmacologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
15.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 19(1): 28-33, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several significant issues on clinical trials reporting the effect of arginine-containing dental products have been addressed in systematic reviews and meta-analyses identifying the need for high-quality randomized clinical trials. A further methodological analysis of the given systematic reviews with meta-analysis on arginine products might provide information for future high-quality randomized clinical trials and current clinical practice. OBJECTIVE(S): The objective was to perform a meta-epidemiological assessment of meta-analyses reporting the anticaries effect of arginine-containing formulations. METHODS: The data on risk-of-bias assessment, effect size measure, dispersion of estimated precision, and follow-up period were summarized for the meta-epidemiological review analysis. RESULTS: Studies with larger magnitude of effect sizes might present with unclear random sequence generation and unclear allocation concealment representing the selection bias. There was a significant strong negative correlation between the follow-up time and dispersion of precision estimates (rs = -0.79, P = .034). CONCLUSION: Results show that clinical trials on arginine dental products have methodological shortcomings. Both the selection bias and follow-up period influence the effect size magnitude and subsequent precision dispersion during evidence synthesis in clinical trials on arginine-containing dental products.


Assuntos
Arginina , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária , Viés , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
16.
J Investig Clin Dent ; 10(1): e12376, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499181

RESUMO

The aim of the present review was to describe the updated prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) among 5-year-old children globally. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search to identify English publications from January 2013 to December 2017 using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus. Search MeSH key words were "dental caries" and "child, preschool". The inclusion criteria were epidemiological surveys reporting the caries status of 5-year-old children with the decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) index. The quality of the publications was evaluated with the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Among the 2410 identified publications, 37 articles of moderate or good quality were included. Twenty of the included studies were conducted in Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Nepal, and Thailand), seven in Europe (Greece, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy), six in South America (Brazil), two in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia and Turkey), one in Oceania (Australia), and one in Africa (Sudan). The prevalence of ECC ranged from 23% to 90%, and most of them (26/37) were higher than 50%. The mean dmft score varied from 0.9 to 7.5. Based on the included studies published in the recent 5 years, there is a wide variation of ECC prevalence across countries, and ECC remains prevalent in most countries worldwide.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dente Decíduo , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Oceania/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Gerodontology ; 36(1): 18-29, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549089

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to explain through the life-course and life-span perspectives of developmental regulation theory the controls on dental experiences and beliefs throughout the lives of older people in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. BACKGROUND: Dental diseases and disabilities among older people are serious public health concerns in China. METHODS: A facilitator conducted eight focus groups, three in Hong Kong and five in Guangzhou, involving a total of 51 participants. She encouraged discussions about lifetime events to explain dental experiences and beliefs. Transcripts were coded and analysed using a constant comparative approach to identify themes that explained the regulators of dental experiences throughout the participants' lives. RESULTS: Participants explained the influence of culture and history through critical events, and how external and internal factors regulated their current oral health status and beliefs. They emphasised the role of Traditional Chinese Medicine and family, and the stress of social upheaval compounded by a scarcity of dental services. They revealed also how current choice of dental services and health promotional programs, helped by personal food choice, self-reliance, and scepticism, helped them to adjust and cope with dental diseases and disabilities and the commercialisation of dental services. CONCLUSIONS: Dental experiences and beliefs of older people living in Guangzhou and Hong Kong were regulated strongly during personal development by culture and history during critical events, and by various controlling factors, such as health promotion and choice of services supplemented by food choice, nutritional balance, self-reliance, scepticism and social adjustments.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Idoso , China , Cultura , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Oral Dis ; 25(2): 617-633, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was to assess the effectiveness of a conventional oral hygiene care programme (COHCP) and an advanced oral hygiene care programme (AOHCP) on prevalence and viable counts of oral opportunistic pathogens among patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation. METHODS: A total of 94 patients were randomized to two groups. Subjects were block randomized to either (a) COHCP: manual toothbrushing with oral hygiene instruction (OHI); or (b) AOHCP: powered toothbrushing, mouthrinsing with chlorhexidine and OHI. Prevalence and viable counts of oral opportunistic pathogens including yeasts, aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, were assessed at baseline, the end of 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of oral opportunistic pathogens within each group over the clinical trial period. A significant decrease in the viable counts of S. aureus was found over the clinical trial period within AOHCP group (p < 0.05), while the viable counts of yeasts and anaerobic gram-negative bacillus (AGNB) remained stable within each group. Regression analysis failed to detect an association between intervention and the prevalence/viable counts of oral opportunistic pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Neither oral healthcare programme significantly affects AGNB, yeast or S. aureus over the study period in terms of prevalence and viable counts.


Assuntos
Boca/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Método Simples-Cego , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Dent ; 78: 65-71, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remineralising effect and bacterial growth inhibition of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution and 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish on artificial dentine caries lesions. METHODS: Demineralised dentine blocks were treated with SDF + NaF (Group 1), SDF (Group 2), NaF (Group 3) and water (Group 4) and subjected to a Streptococcus mutans biofilm challenge. Lesion depth, precipitates' characteristics and matrix (collagen)-to-mineral ratio were evaluated by micro-computer tomography (micro-CT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The biofilm kinetics, viability and topography were assessed by counts of colony forming units (CFUs), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA test. RESULTS: The lesion depths of Groups 1-4 were 170 ± 28 µm, 160 ± 32 µm, 353 ± 38 µm and 449 ± 24 µm, respectively. The addition of NaF to SDF did not show better remineralisation than SDF (p = 0.491). Metallic silver and silver chloride were found in Groups 1 and 2. The amide I-to-hydrogen phosphate ratios of the four groups were 0.14 ± 0.02, 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.05 and 0.49 ± 0.16, respectively, and the addition of NaF to SDF did not offer better protection against collagen exposure than SDF (p = 0.986). The Log10 CFUs of Groups 1-4 were 5.75 ± 0.56, 4.49 ± 0.57, 6.55 ± 0.39 and 6.40 ± 0.38, respectively. The presence of NaF reduced the antibacterial effect of SDF (p < 0.001). The SEM and CLSM images supported the findings. CONCLUSION: Application of SDF with or without NaF reduced the demineralisation of dentine caries, but SDF exerted stronger inhibition of biofilm growth than SDF with NaF. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: NaF varnish affects the antibacterialeffects of SDF, the adjunctive application of SDF solution and NaF varnish is not recommended to arrest dentine caries in clinic.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dentina , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata , Fluoreto de Sódio , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico
20.
J Investig Clin Dent ; 9(1)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685949

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to explore traditional oral health beliefs among the Bulang ethnic minority group in China. METHODS: Eighteen village leaders, chiefs, elders, and seniors in Yunnan, China were assigned to three focus groups for discussion of traditional oral health beliefs. The discussions were led by a facilitator. Transcripts were made, and data were extracted. RESULTS: The focus group discussions on traditional oral health beliefs addressed three themes: (a) the perception of oral health; (b) the impact of healthy teeth (oral health), in that healthy teeth essentially have an impact on physical health, emotions, and social status; and (c) toothache management, which was regarded as tooth decay (dental caries). Blackening teeth was a pain relief method. Blackened teeth were reported to be part of ethnic identity, and considered esthetically pleasing. It also indicated the marital status of women. CONCLUSION: Some Bulang people believed that healthy dentition has no spacing, pain, or functioning problems. Well-aligned dentition was associated with higher social status. Toothaches were considered to be caused by tooth worms. Consulting a monk was another way to manage a toothache. Tooth blackening was considered traditional, and effective for caries prevention.


Assuntos
Cultura , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , China/etnologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontalgia
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