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1.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 48(1): 14-20, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk indicators associated with root caries among the Hong Kong older adults who attended long-term care facilities regularly. METHODS: Nonfrail older adults with at least six natural teeth from 10 long-term social or residential care facilities were examined. The clinical examinations were conducted by two calibrated dentists in the institutions. Portal dental chairs, intra-oral LED lights, disposable mouth mirrors, periodontal probes and CPI probes were used in the examinations. Negative binomial regression analyses were performed to identify the risk indicators associated with root caries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to detect the associations between DF-root and D-root, and selected person-level and tooth surface-level factors. RESULTS: A total of 353 older adults (mean age 74.9 years) were examined. The prevalence of DF-root and D-root was 43.1% and 30.0%, respectively. The mean DF-root and D-root scores were 1.3 and 0.7, respectively. Relative to participants without DF-root, those with root caries experience were older and had more exposed root surfaces, and a higher proportion were partial denture wearers. There was a positive correlation between the DF-root score and the age of the participant, and with the numbers of exposed root surfaces, missing teeth and teeth with coronal caries. Higher prevalence of DF-root was observed among the older participants, and caries experience of root surfaces with greater gingival recession and visible plaque was higher. Lingual root surfaces and roots in the mandibular anterior region had the lowest rates of DF-root. CONCLUSIONS: People who are older have a higher prevalence and severity of root caries. Coronal caries experience, maxillary teeth, buccal root surfaces, gingival recession and plaque on the root surface are positively associated with root caries in older adults.

2.
J Dent ; 89: 103166, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk predictors of root caries and to describe their relationship with the incidence and increment of root caries. DATA: Observational longitudinal studies. SOURCES: Four electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus) (From 1 January 1990 to 31 January 2019). STUDY SELECTION: Information on the factors associated with the incidence or increment of decayed and filled root surfaces (DF-root) and/or decayed root surfaces (D-root) were extracted by two reviewers independently. The factors were put into six categories, namely social-demographic background, general health, health behaviors, fluoride exposure, oral health habits and oral health condition. From the 440 potential papers identified, 19 papers reporting on 16 cohort studies were finally included. The total sample size was 7340 participants from different countries worldwide, with age ranging from 20 to 100 years. Positive correlations between new root caries and age, baseline root caries experience, gingival recession and use of tobacco were reported while negative correlations were found for socio-economic status, good oral hygiene and use of fluorides. Mixed findings were detected for the association between new root caries and the number of natural teeth. CONCLUSION: This systematic review discovered a number of root caries risk predictors in different categories. People who are older, in lower socio-economic status or tobacco users, and those with more root caries experience, gingival recession and poor oral hygiene have higher risk of developing new root caries. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review provides support that improvement of oral hygiene, prevention of gingival recession, and use of fluoride would be useful strategy for prevention of new root caries.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8405, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182718

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of arginine (Arg) in NaF toothpaste. 24-h mono-/3-species biofilm cultures of S. mutans, S. sanguis and S. gordonii inoculated sHA discs were subjected to treatment with toothpaste supernatants prepared as - [1]:2% Arg -NaF (0.147% F), [2]:4% Arg-NaF (0.144% F), [3]:8% Arg - NaF (0.138% F), [4]:NaF (0.15%) and [5]:deionized water. After 24-h incubation, the mono-species biofilms were subjected to viability assay using WST-8, SEM and confocal imaging (CLSM). The 3-species biofilm were quantified for bacterial composition by PCR analysis, SEM, CLSM, and RNA isolation with reverse-transcription PCR analysis. Increasing arginine concentrations in NaF toothpaste had no effect on microbial viability. The mono-/3-species biofilm imaging depicted that the 2% Arg-NaF and 4% Arg-NaF had a biofilm disrupting effect. The 3-species biofilm bacterial composition indicated that the 2% Arg-NaF group maintained an ecological homeostasis by inhibiting S. mutans growth and enriching the growth of S. sanguis and S. gordonii. The 2% Arg-NaF group significantly downregulated the expression of virulent gtfB gene and upregulated the expression of sagP with relative dominance of arcA. Incorporation of 2% arginine in NaF toothpaste might enrich the alkali-producing bacteria and provide enhanced counter mechanisms against cariogenic pathogen when compared to NaF toothpaste.

4.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 19(1): 28-33, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several significant issues on clinical trials reporting the effect of arginine-containing dental products have been addressed in systematic reviews and meta-analyses identifying the need for high-quality randomized clinical trials. A further methodological analysis of the given systematic reviews with meta-analysis on arginine products might provide information for future high-quality randomized clinical trials and current clinical practice. OBJECTIVE(S): The objective was to perform a meta-epidemiological assessment of meta-analyses reporting the anticaries effect of arginine-containing formulations. METHODS: The data on risk-of-bias assessment, effect size measure, dispersion of estimated precision, and follow-up period were summarized for the meta-epidemiological review analysis. RESULTS: Studies with larger magnitude of effect sizes might present with unclear random sequence generation and unclear allocation concealment representing the selection bias. There was a significant strong negative correlation between the follow-up time and dispersion of precision estimates (rs = -0.79, P = .034). CONCLUSION: Results show that clinical trials on arginine dental products have methodological shortcomings. Both the selection bias and follow-up period influence the effect size magnitude and subsequent precision dispersion during evidence synthesis in clinical trials on arginine-containing dental products.

5.
Oral Dis ; 25(2): 617-633, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was to assess the effectiveness of a conventional oral hygiene care programme (COHCP) and an advanced oral hygiene care programme (AOHCP) on prevalence and viable counts of oral opportunistic pathogens among patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation. METHODS: A total of 94 patients were randomized to two groups. Subjects were block randomized to either (a) COHCP: manual toothbrushing with oral hygiene instruction (OHI); or (b) AOHCP: powered toothbrushing, mouthrinsing with chlorhexidine and OHI. Prevalence and viable counts of oral opportunistic pathogens including yeasts, aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, were assessed at baseline, the end of 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of oral opportunistic pathogens within each group over the clinical trial period. A significant decrease in the viable counts of S. aureus was found over the clinical trial period within AOHCP group (p < 0.05), while the viable counts of yeasts and anaerobic gram-negative bacillus (AGNB) remained stable within each group. Regression analysis failed to detect an association between intervention and the prevalence/viable counts of oral opportunistic pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Neither oral healthcare programme significantly affects AGNB, yeast or S. aureus over the study period in terms of prevalence and viable counts.


Assuntos
Boca/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Método Simples-Cego , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Investig Clin Dent ; 10(1): e12376, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499181

RESUMO

The aim of the present review was to describe the updated prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) among 5-year-old children globally. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search to identify English publications from January 2013 to December 2017 using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus. Search MeSH key words were "dental caries" and "child, preschool". The inclusion criteria were epidemiological surveys reporting the caries status of 5-year-old children with the decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) index. The quality of the publications was evaluated with the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Among the 2410 identified publications, 37 articles of moderate or good quality were included. Twenty of the included studies were conducted in Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Nepal, and Thailand), seven in Europe (Greece, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy), six in South America (Brazil), two in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia and Turkey), one in Oceania (Australia), and one in Africa (Sudan). The prevalence of ECC ranged from 23% to 90%, and most of them (26/37) were higher than 50%. The mean dmft score varied from 0.9 to 7.5. Based on the included studies published in the recent 5 years, there is a wide variation of ECC prevalence across countries, and ECC remains prevalent in most countries worldwide.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dente Decíduo , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Oceania/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Gerodontology ; 36(1): 18-29, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549089

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to explain through the life-course and life-span perspectives of developmental regulation theory the controls on dental experiences and beliefs throughout the lives of older people in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. BACKGROUND: Dental diseases and disabilities among older people are serious public health concerns in China. METHODS: A facilitator conducted eight focus groups, three in Hong Kong and five in Guangzhou, involving a total of 51 participants. She encouraged discussions about lifetime events to explain dental experiences and beliefs. Transcripts were coded and analysed using a constant comparative approach to identify themes that explained the regulators of dental experiences throughout the participants' lives. RESULTS: Participants explained the influence of culture and history through critical events, and how external and internal factors regulated their current oral health status and beliefs. They emphasised the role of Traditional Chinese Medicine and family, and the stress of social upheaval compounded by a scarcity of dental services. They revealed also how current choice of dental services and health promotional programs, helped by personal food choice, self-reliance, and scepticism, helped them to adjust and cope with dental diseases and disabilities and the commercialisation of dental services. CONCLUSIONS: Dental experiences and beliefs of older people living in Guangzhou and Hong Kong were regulated strongly during personal development by culture and history during critical events, and by various controlling factors, such as health promotion and choice of services supplemented by food choice, nutritional balance, self-reliance, scepticism and social adjustments.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Idoso , China , Cultura , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino
8.
J Dent ; 78: 65-71, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remineralising effect and bacterial growth inhibition of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution and 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish on artificial dentine caries lesions. METHODS: Demineralised dentine blocks were treated with SDF + NaF (Group 1), SDF (Group 2), NaF (Group 3) and water (Group 4) and subjected to a Streptococcus mutans biofilm challenge. Lesion depth, precipitates' characteristics and matrix (collagen)-to-mineral ratio were evaluated by micro-computer tomography (micro-CT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The biofilm kinetics, viability and topography were assessed by counts of colony forming units (CFUs), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA test. RESULTS: The lesion depths of Groups 1-4 were 170 ± 28 µm, 160 ± 32 µm, 353 ± 38 µm and 449 ± 24 µm, respectively. The addition of NaF to SDF did not show better remineralisation than SDF (p = 0.491). Metallic silver and silver chloride were found in Groups 1 and 2. The amide I-to-hydrogen phosphate ratios of the four groups were 0.14 ± 0.02, 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.05 and 0.49 ± 0.16, respectively, and the addition of NaF to SDF did not offer better protection against collagen exposure than SDF (p = 0.986). The Log10 CFUs of Groups 1-4 were 5.75 ± 0.56, 4.49 ± 0.57, 6.55 ± 0.39 and 6.40 ± 0.38, respectively. The presence of NaF reduced the antibacterial effect of SDF (p < 0.001). The SEM and CLSM images supported the findings. CONCLUSION: Application of SDF with or without NaF reduced the demineralisation of dentine caries, but SDF exerted stronger inhibition of biofilm growth than SDF with NaF. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: NaF varnish affects the antibacterialeffects of SDF, the adjunctive application of SDF solution and NaF varnish is not recommended to arrest dentine caries in clinic.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dentina , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata , Fluoreto de Sódio , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico
9.
J Investig Clin Dent ; 9(1)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685949

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to explore traditional oral health beliefs among the Bulang ethnic minority group in China. METHODS: Eighteen village leaders, chiefs, elders, and seniors in Yunnan, China were assigned to three focus groups for discussion of traditional oral health beliefs. The discussions were led by a facilitator. Transcripts were made, and data were extracted. RESULTS: The focus group discussions on traditional oral health beliefs addressed three themes: (a) the perception of oral health; (b) the impact of healthy teeth (oral health), in that healthy teeth essentially have an impact on physical health, emotions, and social status; and (c) toothache management, which was regarded as tooth decay (dental caries). Blackening teeth was a pain relief method. Blackened teeth were reported to be part of ethnic identity, and considered esthetically pleasing. It also indicated the marital status of women. CONCLUSION: Some Bulang people believed that healthy dentition has no spacing, pain, or functioning problems. Well-aligned dentition was associated with higher social status. Toothaches were considered to be caused by tooth worms. Consulting a monk was another way to manage a toothache. Tooth blackening was considered traditional, and effective for caries prevention.


Assuntos
Cultura , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , China/etnologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontalgia
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7632, 2017 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794410

RESUMO

This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral hygiene care in improving oral health- and health-related quality of life (OHRQoL and HRQoL) among patients receiving outpatient stroke rehabilitation. Subjects were randomized to: (1) a conventional oral hygiene care programme (COHCP) comprising a manual toothbrush, and oral hygiene instruction, or (2) an advanced oral hygiene care programme (AOHCP) comprising a powered toothbrush, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse, and oral hygiene instruction. The interventional period lasted for 3 months, followed by a 3-month observational period. HRQoL was assessed by SF-12, and OHRQoL was assessed by Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), and Oral Health Transitional Scale (OHTS). Participants in AOHCP group had significantly better OHRQoL at the end of clinical trial as assessed by OHTS (p < 0.01), and at the end of observational study as assessed by GOHAI (p < 0.05) than those in the COHCP. Participants in the AOHCP group had significantly better HRQoL as assessed by physical component summary score (PCS) the end of both 3 and 6 months (both p < 0.05). This study provided the evidence that the AOHCP was more effective than the COHCP within stroke rehabilitation in improving subjective health.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Escovação Dentária , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Adolesc Health ; 61(3): 378-384, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28532895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling strategy to help people change their behaviors. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of MI in improving adolescents' oral health. METHODS: Fifteen secondary schools were randomly assigned to three groups: (I) prevailing health education, (II) MI, and (III) MI coupled with interactive dental caries risk assessment (MI + RA). Adolescents (n = 512) with unfavorable oral health behaviors (infrequent toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) were recruited; 161, 163, and 188 in groups I-III, respectively. Participants in the three groups received their respective interventions. At baseline and after 6 and 12 months, participants completed a questionnaire on their oral health self-efficacy and behaviors. Their oral hygiene (dental plaque score) and dental caries (number of decayed surfaces/teeth status) were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with group I, subjects in groups II and III were more likely to reduce their snacking frequency (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals {CIs}]: 7.12 [1.80-28.16] and 11.17 [2.90-42.98], respectively) and increase their toothbrushing frequency (odds ratios [95% CIs]: 5.26 [2.28-12.16] and 11.45 [4.99-26.26], respectively) after 12 months. Taking group I as a reference, groups II and III had lower number of new carious teeth △D ICDAS II 1-6MFT (ß [95% CI]: -.24 [-.44 to -.04] and -.31 [-.51 to -.11], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MI was more effective than prevailing health education strategy in eliciting positive changes in adolescents' oral health behaviors and preventing dental caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escovação Dentária
13.
Quintessence Int ; 48(6): 481-486, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of electric or manual toothbrushes in plaque removal and gingivitis control in visually impaired adolescents. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A randomized, controlled, examiner-blind crossover design was used in the study. Study subjects were 12- to 16-year-old visually impaired students from the School for the Blind in Guangzhou. Students in the test group used electric toothbrushes, whereas those in the control group used manual toothbrushes. The study consisted of two stages. Oral health status of the students was recorded at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks of each stage. In total, 42 visually impaired students were recruited in the study at baseline during the first stage. Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (Q-H PI) and Loe and Silness Gingival Index (GI) were used. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis was used to compare the mean Q-H PI and GI scores obtained at baseline, 2-week, and 4-week examinations between the test and control groups. RESULTS: In total, 33 subjects completed the study. No significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding Q-H PI and GI at baseline, whereas Q-H PI and GI values of the test group were significant reduced compared with those of the control group at 2 weeks and 4 weeks (P < .001). CONCLUSION: An electric toothbrush reduced plaque and gingivitis more than manual toothbrushing among visually impaired school children.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Adolescente , Criança , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal , Cremes Dentais , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Dent ; 61: 48-54, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of an advanced oral hygiene care programme (AOHCP) and a conventional oral hygiene care programme (COHCP) in improving oral hygiene, and reducing gingival bleeding among patients with stroke during outpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: Subjects were randomized to receive (i) the COHCP comprising a manual toothbrush, toothpaste, and oral hygiene instruction, or (ii) the AOHCP comprising a powered toothbrush, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse, toothpaste, and oral hygiene instruction. Dental plaque, gingival bleeding, and other clinical oral health outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of the clinical trial, and the end of observation period. Development of infectious complications was also monitored. RESULTS: Participants of both programmes had a significant reduction in the percentages of sites with moderate to abundant dental plaque (p<0.001) and with gingival bleeding (p<0.05). Those in the AOHCP had significantly less plaque and gingival bleeding than those in the COHCP controlling for other factors at the end of the clinical trial period (both p<0.001) and the observational period (plaque: p<0.05, gingival bleeding: p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Although both oral hygiene care programmes were effective in terms of plaque and gingival bleeding control, the AOHCP was more effective than the COHCP in reducing dental plaque and gingival bleeding. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlighted the value of oral hygiene programmes within stroke outpatient rehabilitation and provides evidence to advocate for the inclusion of oral hygiene care programmes within stroke outpatient rehabilitation for patients with normal cognitive abilities.


Assuntos
Higiene Bucal , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Gengiva , Hong Kong , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal/classificação , Método Simples-Cego , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Cremes Dentais
15.
J Investig Clin Dent ; 8(3)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477327

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of radiographic measurements for dental implants planning using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and helical computed tomography (HCT). METHODS: Six pig ribs were wrapped by putty impression material, with radiographic markers placed. Two CBCT and an HCT were taken following the standard protocols. Twenty-five locations were selected, with vertical and horizontal dimensions measured using the default software, as well as on the processed HCT films by a digital caliper. The actual dimensions of the ribs measured by the digital caliper served as the control. Differences between radiographic dimensions and the actual dimensions were tested by two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: No differences were found between measurements made by CBCT and HCT images using the default software (P > 0.05). However, both measurements were statistically-significantly lower than the control (P < 0.001), and the mean difference was 0.3 mm. Measurements made on HCT films were statistically-significantly greater than the control (P < 0.001), and the mean difference was 0.5 mm. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of CBCT and HCT are similar, and both are reliable tools for implant planning. It is preferable to perform the planning using default software, rather than making direct measurements on films.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Animais , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Suínos , Terapia Assistida por Computador
16.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 14(6): 555-561, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27957565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical research was to analyze the effectiveness of DIAGNOdent in detecting root caries without dental scaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The status of 750 exposed, unfilled root surfaces was assessed by visual-tactile examination and DIAGNOdent before and after root scaling. The sensitivity and specificity of different cut-off DIAGNOdent values in diagnosing root caries with reference to visual-tactile criteria were evaluated on those root surfaces without visible plaque/calculus. The DIAGNOdent values from sound and carious root surfaces were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS: On root surfaces without plaque/calculus, significantly different (p < 0.05) DIAGNOdent readings were obtained from sound root surfaces (12.2 ± 11.1), active carious root surfaces (37.6 ± 31.7) and inactive carious root surfaces (20.9 ± 10.5) before scaling. On root surfaces with visible plaque, DIAGNOdent readings obtained from active carious root surfaces (29.6 ± 20.8) and inactive carious root surfaces (27.0 ± 7.2) were not statistically significantly different (p > 0.05). Furthermore, on root surfaces with visible calculus, all DIAGNOdent readings obtained from sound root surfaces were > 50, which might be misinterpreted as carious. After scaling, the DIAGNOdent readings obtained from sound root surfaces (8.1 ± 11.3), active carious root surfaces (37.9 ± 31.9) and inactive carious root surfaces (24.9 ± 11.5) presented significant differences (p < 0.05). A cut-off value between 10 and 15 yielded the highest combined sensitivity and specificity in detecting root caries on root surfaces without visible plaque/calculus before scaling, but the combined sensitivity and specificity are both around 70%. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that on exposed, unfilled root surfaces without visible plaque/calculus, DIAGNOdent can be used as an adjunct to the visual-tactile criteria in detecting root-surface status without pre-treatment by dental scaling.


Assuntos
Cárie Radicular/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Raspagem Dentária , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(12)2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898021

RESUMO

Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3-4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children's risk of developing caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Actinomyces/classificação , Actinomyces/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Prevotella/classificação , Prevotella/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus mutans/classificação , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Veillonella/classificação , Veillonella/genética
18.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 44(4): 400-7, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27071352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the pathways from modifiable risk factors to oral health status in husbands and wives, and correlation in oral health KAP and status between married couples in Hong Kong. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey using a combination of random household and purposive sampling. Socio-economic status (SES), smoking, oral health knowledge (K), attitudes (A), and practices (P) of individuals were collected by questionnaire. Tooth status, periodontal status, and oral hygiene status were collected by oral examination. RESULTS: Altogether, 432 families (359 husbands and 419 wives) with a 5- to 7-year-old child participated in this study. Husbands' oral health status was found to be directly associated with their oral health behaviors and smoking habit and indirectly with their socio-economic status, oral health knowledge, and attitudes. The explained variance of husbands' oral health status was 47.2%. Wives' oral health status was only directly associated with their oral health behaviors and indirectly with their socio-economic status, oral health knowledge, and attitudes. The explained variance of wives' oral health status was 53.2%. The correlation coefficient between couple's oral health practices and status was 0.98 and 0.43, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesized pathways from socio-economic status and modifiable factors to the oral health status in husbands and wives are not rejected. Oral health practices and status were correlated among married couples.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 15: 83, 2015 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26205649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though oral cavity cancer (OCC; ICD 10 codes C01, C02, C03, C04, C05, and C06) ranks eleventh among the world's most common cancers, accounting for approximately 2 % of all cancers, a trend analysis of OCC in Hong Kong is lacking. Hong Kong has experienced rapid economic growth with socio-cultural and environmental change after the Second World War. This together with the collected data in the cancer registry provides interesting ground for an epidemiological study on the influence of socio-cultural and environmental factors on OCC etiology. METHODS: A multidirectional statistical analysis of the OCC trends over the past 25 years was performed using the databases of the Hong Kong Cancer Registry. The age, period, and cohort (APC) modeling was applied to determine age, period, and cohort effects on OCC development. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to find secular trend changes of both age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates. RESULTS: The APC model detected that OCC development in men was mainly dominated by the age effect, whereas in women an increasing linear period effect together with an age effect became evident. The joinpoint regression analysis showed a general downward trend of age-standardized incidence rates of OCC for men during the entire investigated period, whereas women demonstrated a significant upward trend from 2001 onwards. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that OCC incidence in Hong Kong appears to be associated with cumulative risk behaviors of the population, despite considerable socio-cultural and environmental changes after the Second World War.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 15: 53, 2015 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25929433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical-dental collaboration is essential for improving resource efficiency and standards of care. However, few studies have been conducted on it. This study aimed to investigate the attitude and awareness of medical and dental students about collaboration between medical and dental practices in Hong Kong. METHODS: All medical and dental students in Hong Kong were invited to complete a questionnaire survey at their universities, hospitals and residential halls. It contained 8 questions designed to elicit their attitudes about the collaboration between medical and dental practice. Students were also asked about their awareness of the collaboration between dentistry and medicine. The questionnaires were directly distributed to medical and dental students. The finished questionnaires were immediately collected by research assistants on site. RESULTS: A total of 1,857 questionnaires were distributed and 809 (44%) were returned. Their mean attitude score (SD) towards medical-dental collaboration was 6.37 (1.44). Most students (77%) were aware of the collaboration between medical and dental practice in Hong Kong. They considered that Ear, Nose & Throat, General Surgery and Family Medicine were the 3 most common medical disciplines which entailed collaboration between medical and dental practice. CONCLUSION: In this study, the medical and dental students in general demonstrated a good attitude and awareness of the collaboration between medical and dental practice in Hong Kong. This established an essential foundation for fostering medical-dental collaboration, which is vital to improving resource efficiency and standards of care.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conscientização , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Prática Profissional , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica , Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Educação Médica , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral , Nível de Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Otolaringologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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