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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(10): 100503, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573287

RESUMO

Quantum computing has seen tremendous progress in past years. Due to implementation complexity and cost, the future path of quantum computation is strongly believed to delegate computational tasks to powerful quantum servers on the cloud. Universal blind quantum computing (UBQC) provides the protocol for the secure delegation of arbitrary quantum computations, and it has received significant attention. However, a great challenge in UBQC is how to transmit a quantum state over a long distance securely and reliably. Here, we solve this challenge by proposing a resource-efficient remote blind qubit preparation (RBQP) protocol, with weak coherent pulses for the client to produce, using a compact and low-cost laser. We experimentally verify a key step of RBQP-quantum nondemolition measurement-in the field test over 100 km of fiber. Our experiment uses a quantum teleportation setup in the telecom wavelength and generates 1000 secure qubits with an average fidelity of (86.9±1.5)%, which exceeds the quantum no-cloning fidelity of equatorial qubit states. The results prove the feasibility of UBQC over long distances, and thus serves as a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(10): 100506, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573297

RESUMO

The twin-field (TF) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol and its variants are highly attractive because they can beat the well-known fundamental limit of the secret key rate for point-to-point QKD without quantum repeaters (repeaterless bound). In this Letter, we perform a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of TFQKD based on the protocol proposed by Curty, Azuma, and Lo, which removes the need for postselection on the matching of a global phase from the original TFQKD scheme and can deliver a high secret key rate. Furthermore, we employ a Sagnac loop structure to help overcome the major difficulty in the practical implementation of TFQKD, namely, the need to stabilize the phase of the quantum state over kilometers of fiber. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, the estimated secure key rate from our experimental TFQKD data at the high loss region surpasses the repeaterless bound of QKD with current technology.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(16): 160501, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075015

RESUMO

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can eliminate all detector side channels and it is practical with current technology. Previous implementations of MDI-QKD all used two symmetric channels with similar losses. However, the secret key rate is severely limited when different channels have different losses. Here we report the results of the first high-rate MDI-QKD experiment over asymmetric channels. By using the recent 7-intensity optimization approach, we demonstrate>10×higher key rate than the previous best-known protocols for MDI-QKD in the situation of large channel asymmetry, and extend the secure transmission distance by more than 20-50 km in standard telecom fiber. The results have moved MDI-QKD towards widespread applications in practical network settings, where the channel losses are asymmetric and user nodes could be dynamically added or deleted.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 378, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692532

RESUMO

An all-optical network is identified as a promising infrastructure for fast and energy-efficient communication. Recently, it has been shown that its quantum version based on 'all-photonic quantum repeaters'-inheriting, at least, the same advantages-expands its possibility to the quantum realm, that is, a global quantum internet with applications far beyond the conventional Internet. Here we report a proof-of-principle experiment for a key component for the all-photonic repeaters-called all-photonic time-reversed adaptive (TRA) Bell measurement, with a proposal for the implementation. In particular, our TRA measurement-based only on optical devices without any quantum memories and any quantum error correction-passively but selectively performs the Bell measurement only on single photons that have successfully survived their lossy travel over optical channels. In fact, our experiment shows that only the survived single-photon state is faithfully teleported without the disturbance from the other lost photons, as the theory predicts.

5.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13523, 2016 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886172

RESUMO

The quantum internet holds promise for achieving quantum communication-such as quantum teleportation and quantum key distribution (QKD)-freely between any clients all over the globe, as well as for the simulation of the evolution of quantum many-body systems. The most primitive function of the quantum internet is to provide quantum entanglement or a secret key to two points efficiently, by using intermediate nodes connected by optical channels with each other. Here we derive a fundamental rate-loss trade-off for a quantum internet protocol, by generalizing the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde bound to be applicable to any network topology. This trade-off has essentially no scaling gap with the quantum communication efficiencies of protocols known to be indispensable to long-distance quantum communication, such as intercity QKD and quantum repeaters. Our result-putting a practical but general limitation on the quantum internet-enables us to grasp the potential of the future quantum internet.

6.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8735, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515586

RESUMO

Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

7.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6787, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873153

RESUMO

Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(19): 190503, 2014 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24877922

RESUMO

We demonstrate the first implementation of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), which is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. Active phase randomization of each individual pulse is implemented to protect against attacks on imperfect sources. By optimizing the parameters in the decoy state protocol, we show that it is feasible to implement polarization encoding MDI-QKD with commercial off-the-shelf devices. A rigorous finite key analysis is applied to estimate the secure key rate. Our work paves the way for the realization of a MDI-QKD network, in which the users only need compact and low-cost state-preparation devices and can share complicated and expensive detectors provided by an untrusted network server.

9.
Nat Commun ; 5: 3732, 2014 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24776959

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution promises unconditionally secure communications. However, as practical devices tend to deviate from their specifications, the security of some practical systems is no longer valid. In particular, an adversary can exploit imperfect detectors to learn a large part of the secret key, even though the security proof claims otherwise. Recently, a practical approach--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution--has been proposed to solve this problem. However, so far its security has only been fully proven under the assumption that the legitimate users of the system have unlimited resources. Here we fill this gap and provide a rigorous security proof against general attacks in the finite-key regime. This is obtained by applying large deviation theory, specifically the Chernoff bound, to perform parameter estimation. For the first time we demonstrate the feasibility of long-distance implementations of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution within a reasonable time frame of signal transmission.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Modelos Teóricos , Teoria Quântica , Telecomunicações
10.
Opt Lett ; 38(7): 1083-5, 2013 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23546251

RESUMO

Frequency-shifted interferometry has shown great potential in optical fiber sensor multiplexing. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate a frequency-shifted interferometer (FSI) based on sideband interference. Comparing with previous implementation of FSI based on a Sagnac interferometer, this scheme is much simpler and compact. By scanning the driving frequency of a LiNbO3 phase modulator in the range of 4.5-5.5 GHz, we demonstrate a spatial resolution of 0.1 m, which is 50 times better than the previously reported results.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(24): 240504, 2012 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23004248

RESUMO

Quantum entanglement is fundamentally related to the operational setting of local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC). A more general class of operations known as separable operations (SEP) is often employed to approximate LOCC, but the exact difference between LOCC and SEP is unknown. In this letter, we compare the two classes in performing particular tripartite to bipartite entanglement conversions and report a gap as large as 12.5% between SEP and LOCC, which is the first known appreciable gap between the classes. Our results rely on constructing a computable entanglement monotone with a clear operational meaning that, unlike all other such monotones previously studied, is not monotonic under SEP. Finally, we prove the curious fact that convergent sequences of LOCC protocols need not be LOCC feasible in the limit.

12.
Opt Express ; 20(11): 12366-77, 2012 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22714224

RESUMO

A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG.


Assuntos
Lasers , Matemática , Teoria Quântica , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(13): 130503, 2012 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22540686

RESUMO

How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors.

14.
Opt Lett ; 35(3): 312-4, 2010 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20125705

RESUMO

We present a high-speed random number generation scheme based on measuring the quantum phase noise of a single-mode laser operating at a low intensity level near the lasing threshold. A delayed self-heterodyning system has been developed to measure the random phase fluctuation. By actively stabilizing the phase of the interferometer, a random number generation rate of 500 Mbit/s has been demonstrated and the generated random numbers have passed all the DIEHARD tests.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(26): 260501, 2007 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17678076

RESUMO

We describe a protocol for distilling maximally entangled bipartite states between random pairs of parties from those sharing a tripartite W state |W=(1/sqrt[3])(|100+|010+|001)(ABC), and show that the total distillation rate E(t)(infinity) [the total number of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs distilled per W, irrespective of who shares them] may be done at a higher rate than EPR distillation between specified pairs of parties. Specifically, the optimal rate for distillation to specified parties has been previously shown to be 0.92 EPR pairs per W, while our protocol can asymptotically distill 1 EPR pair per W between random pairs of parties, which we conjecture to be optimal. We thus demonstrate a tradeoff between overall distillation rate and final distribution of EPR pairs. We further show that there exist states with fixed lower-bounded E(t)(infinity), but arbitrarily small distillable entanglement for specified parties.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(7): 070501, 2006 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16606066

RESUMO

States with private correlations but little or no distillable entanglement were recently reported. Here, we consider the secure distribution of such states, i.e., the situation when an adversary gives two parties such states and they have to verify privacy. We present a protocol which enables the parties to extract from such untrusted states an arbitrarily long and secure key, even though the amount of distillable entanglement of the untrusted states can be arbitrarily small.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(7): 070502, 2006 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16606067

RESUMO

To increase dramatically the distance and the secure key generation rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), the idea of quantum decoys--signals of different intensities--has recently been proposed. Here, we present the first experimental implementation of decoy state QKD. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, we show that a secure key generation rate of 165 bit/s, which is 1/4 of the theoretical limit, can be obtained over 15 km of a telecommunication fiber. We also show that with the same experimental parameters, not even a single bit of secure key can be extracted with a non-decoy-state protocol. Compared to building single photon sources, decoy state QKD is a much simpler method for increasing the distance and key generation rate of unconditionally secure QKD.

18.
Opt Express ; 14(10): 4264-9, 2006 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19516579

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a polarization-insensitive phase modulation scheme based on frequency modulation of light waves using either one or a pair of acousto-optic modulators. A stable Sagnac quantum key distribution (QKD) system employing this technique is also proposed. The interference visibility for a 40km and a 10km fiber loop is 96% and 99% respectively, at single-photon level. We ran standard BB84 QKD protocol in a simplified Sagnac setup (40km fiber loop) continuously for one hour and the measured quantum bit error rate stayed within 2%-5% range.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(25): 250501, 2006 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17280334

RESUMO

Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum world. However, when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this Letter, we introduce a framework of quantum schemes where Alice commits a string of n bits to Bob, in such a way that she can only cheat on a bits and Bob can learn at most b bits of information before the reveal phase. Our results are twofold: we show by an explicit construction that in the traditional approach, where the reveal and guess probabilities form the security criteria, no good schemes can exist: a + b is at least n. If, however, we use a more liberal criterion of security, the accessible information, we construct schemes where a = 4log2(n) + O(1) and b = 4, which is impossible classically. Our findings significantly extend known no-go results for quantum bit commitment.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 94(23): 230504, 2005 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16090452

RESUMO

There has been much interest in quantum key distribution. Experimentally, quantum key distribution over 150 km of commercial Telecom fibers has been successfully performed. The crucial issue in quantum key distribution is its security. Unfortunately, all recent experiments are, in principle, insecure due to real-life imperfections. Here, we propose a method that can for the first time make most of those experiments secure by using essentially the same hardware. Our method is to use decoy states to detect eavesdropping attacks. As a consequence, we have the best of both worlds--enjoying unconditional security guaranteed by the fundamental laws of physics and yet dramatically surpassing even some of the best experimental performances reported in the literature.

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