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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394878

RESUMO

According to the WHO, unmanaged insecticide resistance may lead to increases in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Bangladesh, having made significant progress in malaria control efforts, has recently seen an upswing in malaria cases-58% of which occurred in Bandarban district. Toward identifying entomological drivers of increased malaria, an entomological survey including Anopheles susceptibility to the insecticides in use was conducted in Bandarban. Anopheles vagus, the primary vector of malaria, was found to be resistant to both permethrin and deltamethrin-with only 29% and 55% mortality at 30 minutes, respectively. Intervention strategies in this area-all based on pyrethroids, may need to be reevaluated toward closing this gap in protection and increasing intervention efficacy.

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431275

RESUMO

A cluster-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of a spatial repellent (SR) against malaria infection in Sumba, Indonesia. Following radical cure in 1,341 children aged ≥ 6 months to ≤ 5 years in 24 clusters, households were given transfluthrin or placebo passive emanators (devices designed to release vaporized chemical). Monthly blood screening and biweekly human-landing mosquito catches were performed during a 10-month baseline (June 2015-March 2016) and a 24-month intervention period (April 2016-April 2018). Screening detected 164 first-time infections and an accumulative total of 459 infections in 667 subjects in placebo-control households, and 134 first-time and 253 accumulative total infections among 665 subjects in active intervention households. The 24-cluster protective effect of 27.7% and 31.3%, for time to first-event and overall (total new) infections, respectively, was not statistically significant. Purportedly, this was due in part to zero to low incidence in some clusters, undermining the ability to detect a protective effect. Subgroup analysis of 19 clusters where at least one infection occurred during baseline showed 33.3% (P-value = 0.083) and 40.9% (P-value = 0.0236, statistically significant at the one-sided 5% significance level) protective effect to first infection and overall infections, respectively. Among 12 moderate- to high-risk clusters, a statistically significant decrease in infection by intervention was detected (60% PE). Primary entomological analysis of impact was inconclusive. Although this study suggests SRs prevent malaria, additional evidence is required to demonstrate the product class provides an operationally feasible and effective means of reducing malaria transmission.

3.
Malar J ; 19(1): 89, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate Anopheles species identification is key for effective malaria vector control. Identification primarily depends on morphological analysis of field samples as well as molecular species-specific identifications. During an intra-laboratory assessment (proficiency testing) of the Anopheles funestus group multiplex PCR assay, it was noted that Anopheles arabiensis can be misidentified as Anopheles leesoni, a zoophilic member of the An. funestus group. The aim of this project was, therefore, to ascertain whether other members of the Anopheles gambiae complex can also be misidentified as An. leesoni when using the standard An. funestus multiplex PCR. METHODS: The An. funestus multiplex PCR was used to amplify DNA from An. gambiae complex specimens. These included specimens from the laboratory colonies and field samples from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Amplified DNA from these specimens, using the universal (UV) and An. leesoni species-specific primers (LEES), were sequence analysed. Additionally, An. leesoni DNA was processed through the diagnostic An. gambiae multiplex PCR to determine if this species can be misidentified as a member of the An. gambiae complex. RESULTS: Laboratory-colonized as well as field-collected samples of An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, Anopheles merus, Anopheles quadriannulatus, Anopheles coluzzii as well as Anopheles moucheti produced an amplicon of similar size to that of An. leesoni when using an An. funestus multiplex PCR. Sequence analysis confirmed that the UV and LEES primers amplify a segment of the ITS2 region of members of the An. gambiae complex and An. moucheti. The reverse was not true, i.e. the An. gambiae multiplex PCR does not amplify DNA from An. leesoni. CONCLUSION: This investigation shows that An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, An. merus, An. quadriannulatus, An. coluzzii and An. moucheti can be misidentified as An. leesoni when using An. funestus multiplex PCR. This shows the importance of identifying specimens using standard morphological dichotomous keys as far as possible prior to the use of appropriate PCR-based identification methods. Should there be doubt concerning field-collected specimens molecularly identified as An. leesoni, the An. gambiae multiplex PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) can be used to eliminate false identifications.

4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 557, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of malaria in the highlands of Ethiopia is poorly understood and usually attributed to importation by mobile populations or local transmission by Anopheles arabiensis. To characterize and identify Anopheles species present in a highland area of northern Ethiopia, adult and larval collections were performed in Gondar town and the neighboring Senbet Debir village (Dembia district, > 2000 meters above sea level, masl), in addition to Bahir Dar town (capital of Amhara region) and Kumer Aftit village (Metema district, < 2000 masl). METHODS: CDC-light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes and larval collections were performed from rain pools for rearing into adults for species identification. Collections were made September-March 2016-2018. Adult mosquitoes were identified morphologically and a subset of randomly chosen specimens were identified to species by sequencing the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). RESULTS: The primary species of Anopheles identified at elevations higher than 2000 masl was An. cinereus, which was confirmed molecularly by ITS2 and cox1 sequencing. Interestingly, two unknown species were also sequenced, in addition to two specimens of An. pretoriensis. The species collected at sites with elevations less than 2000 masl (Bahir Dar town and Kumer Aftit village) was An. arabiensis. Three Plasmodium falciparum-positive specimens were identified molecularly as An. cinereus. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Plasmodium-positive An. cinereus in areas greater than 2000 masl incriminates this species as a potential vector contributing to non-peak malaria transmission in Ethiopian highland areas.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007606, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381570

RESUMO

Dengue virus transmission is endemic in Makassar, Indonesia, with the majority of cases reported soon after the start of the annual rainy season. Before 2006, larval source reduction, larvaciding, and reactive routine, outdoor, insecticide fogging campaigns did not result in a reduction in seasonal dengue incidence. Beginning in 2006, village volunteers conducted comprehensive surveys for immature Aedes during the dry season, when vector populations were at their lowest. Based on this pre-season vector data, a single additional pre-emptive outdoor fogging with Malathion was conducted once annually before the rains began in villages with a pre-defined proportion of sampled houses positive for Aedes immatures. This additional procedure was associated with reduced temporal larval indices as well as an 83% reduction in reported cases during the transmission season over the 8-year period of implementation. Two cities adjacent to Makassar experienced substantial but smaller reductions in dengue incidence; while other cities further from the intervention area did not. This represents the first time an integrated intervention strategy has been coupled with substantially reduced dengue transmission in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Dengue/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Cidades , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Inseticidas , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Chuva
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 399, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sampling methodologies for mosquitoes that are capable of transmitting vector-borne infectious diseases provide critical information on entomological endpoints. Reliable and meaningful field data is vital to the understanding of basic vector biology as well as disease transmission. Various traps take advantage of different vector behaviors and are inevitably subject to sampling biases. This study represents the first comparison of kelambu traps (KT) to barrier screens (BS), barrier screens with eaves (BSE) and indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLCs). METHODS: Two trap comparison studies were undertaken. In the first study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 26 trapping nights to evaluate the kelambu trap relative to indoor and outdoor HLCs. In the second study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 12 trapping nights to compare the kelambu trap, barrier screen, barrier screen with eaves and outdoor HLCs. The kelambu trap, barrier screen and barrier screen with eaves obstruct the flight of mosquitos. HLCs target host-seeking behaviors. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor HLCs for overall Anopheles mosquito abundance. All five of the molecularly identified Anopheles species collected by HLCs, An. aconitus, An. barbirostris, An. peditaeniatus, An. vagus and An. tessellatus, are reported as vectors of malaria in Indonesia. The kelambu trap (n = 2736) collected significantly more Anopheles mosquitoes than indoor HLCs (n = 1286; Z = 3.193, P = 0.004), but not the outdoor HLCs (n = 1580; Z = 2.325, P = 0.053). All traps collected statistically similar abundances for the primary species, An. barbirostris. However, both comparison studies found significantly higher abundances for the kelambu trap for several secondary species compared to all other traps: An. nigerriumus, An. parangensis, An. tessellatus and An. vagus. The kelambu trap retained the highest species richness and Gini-Simpson's diversity index for both comparison studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the kelambu trap collects overall Anopheles abundance and species-specific abundances at statistically similar or higher rates than HLCs in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Therefore, the kelambu trap should be considered as an exposure-free alternative to HLCs for research questions regarding Anopheles species in this malaria endemic region.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Comportamento Alimentar , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Indonésia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 385, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population density, dispersion patterns, flight distances, and survival rate of vector mosquitoes are all contributors to vectorial capacity that may be estimated in a single experimental method: mark-release-recapture (MRR). In this study, these key parameters were measured for mosquito populations in Karama, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. METHODS: Two mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments were carried out in Karama village to characterize seasonality differences, if any: wet season (December 2013, MRR1) and dry season (May 2014, MRR2). For both experiments, mosquitoes were marked according to release site/date and were released on four consecutive nights. Four sampling methodologies were utilized to enable recapture: human landing catches (HLCs), kelambu traps and barrier screens. RESULTS: 98.7% of all catches were molecularly confirmed as Anopheles barbirostris. During the wet season, An. barbirostris demonstrated no preference toward endophagy. In the dry season, An. barbirostris demonstrated an endophagic preference. The duration of the feeding cycle for An. barbirostris was determined to be 5 days during the wet season and 3.7 days during the dry season, though an anomaly likely caused the wet season feeding cycle to be overestimated. The largest percentages of recaptured mosquitoes were collected in a single site during both seasons. The only significant relationship with mosquito dispersal was site of release and recapture. Finally, dispersal rates of An. barbirostris frequently ranged up to 800 m (the maximum measurable distance in this study) within a single day of release. CONCLUSIONS: This study estimated key vector parameters for An. barbirostris an understudied species complex, in Karama, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. Despite the length of the feeding cycle, the high indoor biting rates demonstrated by An. barbirostris in Karama suggest that the use of IRSs and LLINs, especially during the dry season, would have a substantial impact on the panmictic An. barbirostris population.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Feminino , Indonésia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
9.
Malar J ; 18(1): 227, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysis of anti-malarial antibody responses has the potential to improve characterization of the variation in exposure to infection in low transmission settings, where conventional measures, such as entomological estimates and parasitaemia point prevalence become less sensitive and expensive to measure. This study evaluates the use of sero-epidemiological analysis to investigate heterogeneity of transmission in area conducting elimination in Indonesia. METHODS: Filter paper bloodspots and epidemiological data were collected through a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in two sub-districts in Sabang municipality, Aceh province, Indonesia in 2013. Antibody responses to merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-119) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seroconversion rates (SCR) were estimated by fitting a simple reversible catalytic model to seroprevalence data for each antibody. Spatial analysis was performed using a Normal model (SaTScan v.9.4.2) to identify the clustering of higher values of household antibody responses. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with exposure. RESULTS: 1624 samples were collected from 605 households. Seroprevalence to any P. falciparum antigen was higher than to any P. vivax antigen, 6.9% (95% CI 5.8-8.2) vs 2.0% (95% CI 1.4-2.8). SCR estimates suggest that there was a significant change in P. falciparum transmission with no exposure seen in children under 5 years old. Plasmodium falciparum SCR in over 5 years old was 0.008 (95% CI 0.003-0.017) and 0.012 (95% CI 0.005-0.030) in Sukakarya and Sukajaya sub-districts, respectively. Clusters of exposure were detected for both P. falciparum and P. vivax, most of them in Sukajaya sub-district. Higher age, P. vivax seropositivity and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net (LLIN) were associated with higher P. falciparum exposure. CONCLUSION: Analysis of community-based serological data helps describe the level of transmission, heterogeneity and factors associated with malaria transmission in Sabang. This approach could be an important additional tool for malaria monitoring and surveillance in low transmission settings in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 606, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decisions on when vector control can be withdrawn after malaria is eliminated depend on the receptivity or potential of an area to support vector populations. To guide malaria control and elimination programmes, the potential of biting rates, sporozoite rates, entomological inoculation rates and parity rates to estimate malaria receptivity and transmission were compared within and among geographically localised villages of active transmission in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. RESULTS: Malaria transmission and transmission potential was heterogeneous in both time and space both among and within villages as defined by anopheline species composition and biting densities. Biting rates during the peak biting period (from 18:00 to 00:00 h) of the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, ranged from less than 0.3 bites per person per half night in low receptivity villages to 26 bites per person in highly receptive villages. Within villages, sites with high anopheline biting rates were significantly clustered. Sporozoite rates provided evidence for continued transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale by An. farauti and for incriminating An. hinesorum, as a minor vector, but were unreliable as indicators of transmission intensity. CONCLUSIONS: In the low transmission area studied, sporozoite, entomological inoculation and parity rates could not be measured with the precision required to provide guidance to malaria programmes. Receptivity and potential transmission risk may be most reliably estimated by the vector biting rate. These results support the meaningful design of operational research programmes to ensure that resources are focused on providing information that can be utilised by malaria control programmes to best understand both transmission, transmission risk and receptivity across different areas.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 533, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As currently implemented, malaria vector surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa targets endophagic and endophilic mosquitoes, leaving exophagic (outdoor blood-feeding) mosquitoes underrepresented. We evaluated the recently developed host decoy trap (HDT) and compared it to the gold standard, human landing catch (HLC), in a 3 × 3 Latin square study design outdoors in western Kenya. HLCs are considered to represent the natural range of Anopheles biting-behaviour compared to other sampling tools, and therefore, in principle, provide the most reliable profile of the biting population transmitting malaria. The HDT incorporates the main host stimuli that attract blood-meal seeking mosquitoes and can be baited with the odours of live hosts. RESULTS: Numbers and species diversity of trapped mosquitoes varied significantly between HLCs and HDTs baited with human (HDT-H) or cattle (HDT-C) odour, revealing important differences in behaviour of Anopheles species. In the main study in Kisian, the HDT-C collected a nightly mean of 43.2 (95% CI: 26.7-69.8) Anopheles, compared to 5.8 (95% CI: 4.1-8.2) in HLC, while HDT-H collected 0.97 (95% CI: 0.4-2.1), significantly fewer than the HLC. Significantly higher proportions of An. arabiensis were caught in HDT-Cs (0.94 ± 0.01; SE) and HDT-Hs (0.76 ± 0.09; SE) than in HLCs (0.45 ± 0.05; SE) per trapping night. The proportion of An. gambiae (s.s.) was highest in HLC (0.55 ± 0.05; SE) followed by HDT-H (0.20 ± 0.09; SE) and least in HDT-C (0.06 ± 0.01; SE). An unbaited HDT placed beside locales where cattle are usually corralled overnight caught mostly An. arabiensis with proportions of 0.97 ± 0.02 and 0.80 ± 0.2 relative to the total anopheline catch in the presence and absence of cattle, respectively. A mean of 10.4 (95% CI: 2.0-55.0) Anopheles/night were trapped near cattle, compared to 0.4 (95% CI: 0.1-1.7) in unbaited HDT away from hosts. CONCLUSIONS: The capability of HDTs to combine host odours, heat and visual stimuli to simulate a host provides the basis of a system to sample human- and cattle-biting mosquitoes. HDT-C is particularly effective for collecting An. arabiensis outdoors. The HDT offers the prospect of a system to monitor and potentially control An. arabiensis and other outdoor-biting mosquitoes more effectively.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Odorantes , Animais , Bovinos , Vetores de Doenças , Entomologia/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 440, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito sampling methods target different aspects of mosquito behavior and are subject to trap and location specific biases. The barrier screen sampling method was developed and tested to sample free-flying, blood-fed, and host-seeking mosquitoes. During a pilot study, this method was useful in obtaining an unbiased sample of mosquitoes flying between outdoor larval habitats, and sites where blood meals were obtained. However, a relatively small number of blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Indonesia during the pilot study. The sampling method was extended in South Lampung, Indonesia, to enable the collection of blood-fed mosquitoes. This study aimed to intercept mosquitoes flying between human habitations and larval habitats with a barrier screen and to characterize mosquito composition, flight characteristics (direction, height and time), abdominal status, and parity. RESULTS: Barrier screens intercepted 15 different mosquito species in South Lampung: eight Anopheles spp. and seven Culex spp. Species compositions varied among the villages in South Lampung. About 15% of Anopheles spp. caught were blood-fed, of which 28.2% of those tested had fed on humans. This is the first time human blood-fed anophelines have been collected in Indonesia using barrier screens. Blood meals identified included cow, dog, goat, and human, as well as mixed blood meals. Activity of unfed An. subpictus, the primary vector collected, flying towards human habitations peaked between 20:00-12:00 h, with a slow decline in activity until 18:00 h. Unfed and fed An. sundaicus, had a different activity profile compared to An. subpictus. Other species demonstrated varied peak activity times, with earlier activity occurring as a general trend. For the Anopheles mosquitoes collected, 55.5% were collected below 0.5 m and 83.9% were captured resting < 1 m from the ground. Parity dissections enabled age structure by species, which revealed species-specific traits such as nulliparous An. subpictus being more active early in the night relative to An. sundaicus. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that barrier screens are an effective mosquito sampling method that can be used to gain insights into local mosquito species composition, flight characteristics (direction, height and time), abdominal status, and parity.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Culex/fisiologia , Abdome , Animais , Sangue , Feminino , Indonésia , Projetos Piloto , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(9): 1364-1372, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579195

RESUMO

Background: Mass screening and treatment (MST) aims to reduce malaria risk in communities by identifying and treating infected persons without regard to illness. Methods: A cluster-randomized trial evaluated malaria incidence with and without MST. Clusters were randomized to 3, 2, or no MST interventions: MST3, 6 clusters (156 households/670 individuals); MST2, 5 clusters (89 households/423 individuals); and MST0, 5 clusters (174 households/777 individuals). All clusters completed the study with 14 residents withdrawing. In a cohort of 324 schoolchildren (MST3, n = 124; MST2, n = 57; MST0, n = 143) negative by microscopy at enrollment, we evaluated the incidence density of malaria during 3 months of MST and 3 months following. The MST intervention involved community-wide expert malaria microscopic screening and standard therapy with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and primaquine for glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase-normal subjects. All blood examinations included polymerase chain reaction assays, which did not guide on-site treatment. Results: The risk ratios for incidence density of microscopically patent malaria in MST3 or MST2 relative to that in MST0 clusters were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53-1.91) and 1.22 (95% CI, .42-3.55), respectively. Similar results were obtained with molecular analysis and species-specific (P. falciparum and P. vivax) infections. Microscopically subpatent, untreated infections accounted for 72% of those infected. Conclusions: Two or 3 rounds of MST within 3 months did not impact the force of anopheline mosquito-borne infection in these communities. The high rate of untreated microscopically subpatent infections likely explains the observed poor impact. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01878357.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/transmissão , Programas de Rastreamento , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia , Malária/diagnóstico , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Malar J ; 17(1): 13, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of vector control efforts can vary based on the interventions used and local mosquito behaviour and adaptability. In many settings, biting patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes can shift in response to interventions targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes, often resulting in higher proportions of mosquitoes feeding outside or at times when people are not protected. These behaviourally resistant mosquitoes have been shown to sustain residual malaria transmission and limit control efforts. Therefore, it is important to accurately sample mosquitoes to understand their behaviour. METHODS: A variety of traps were evaluated in three geographically diverse sites in malaria-endemic Indonesia to investigate local mosquito feeding behaviour and determine effective traps for surveillance. RESULTS: Eight traps were evaluated in three sites: Canti village, Lampung, Kaliharjo village, Purworejo, and Saketa village, Halmahera, Indonesia, including the gold standard human landing collection (HLC) and a variety of traps targeting host-seeking and resting mosquitoes both indoors and outdoors. Trapping, using indoor and outdoor HLC, the Ifakara tent trap C, goat and human-occupied tents, resting pots and boxes, and CDC miniature light traps was conducted for 16 nights in two sites and 8 nights in a third site, using a Latin square design. Trap efficacy varied by site, with outdoor HLC yielding the highest catch rates in Canti and Kaliharjo and a goat-baited tent trap proving most effective in Saketa. In Canti village, anthropophilic Anopheles sundaicus were caught indoors and outdoors using HLCs, peaking in the early morning. In Kaliharjo, a variety of mosquitoes were caught, mostly outdoors throughout the night. HLC was ineffective in Saketa, the only site where a goat-baited tent trap was tested. This trap was effective in catching zoophilic vectors outdoors before midnight. CONCLUSIONS: Different trapping methods were suitable for different species, likely reflecting differences in behaviour among species. The three villages, each located on a different island in the Indonesian archipelago, contained mosquito populations with unique behaviours. These data suggest that the effectiveness of specific vector monitoring and control measures may vary by location.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Entomologia/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Cabras , Humanos , Indonésia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28507198

RESUMO

The rapid spread of mosquito resistance to currently available insecticides, and the current lack of an efficacious malaria vaccine are among many challenges that affect large-scale efforts for malaria control. As goals of malaria elimination and eradication are put forth, new vector-control paradigms and tools and/or further optimization of current vector-control products are required to meet public health demands. Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission and present gains against malaria mortality and morbidity may be maintained as long as vector-intervention strategies are sustained and adapted to underlying vector-related transmission dynamics. The following provides a brief overview of vector-control strategies and tools either in use or under development and evaluation that are intended to exploit key entomological parameters toward driving down transmission.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Malar J ; 16(1): 310, 2017 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indonesia is home to a variety of malaria vectors whose specific bionomic traits remain largely uncharacterized. Species-specific behaviours, such as host feeding preferences, impact the dynamics of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control interventions. METHODS: To examine species-specific host attraction and feeding behaviours, a Latin square design was used to compare Anopheles mosquitoes attracted to human, cow, and goat-baited tents. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected hourly from the inside walls of each baited tent. Species were morphologically and then molecularly identified using rDNA ITS2 sequences. The head and thorax of individual specimens were analysed for Plasmodium DNA using PCR. Bloodmeals were identified using a multiplex PCR. RESULTS: A total of 1024, 137, and 74 Anopheles were collected over 12 nights in cow, goat, and human-baited tents, respectively. The species were identified as Anopheles kochi, Anopheles farauti s.s., Anopheles hackeri, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles indefinitus, Anopheles punctulatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus, and Anopheles vanus, many of which are known to transmit human malaria. Molecular analysis of blood meals revealed a high level of feeding on multiple host species in a single night. Anopheles kochi, An. indefinitus, and An. vanus were infected with Plasmodium vivax at rates comparable to primary malaria vectors. CONCLUSIONS: The species distributions of Anopheles mosquitoes attracted to human, goat, and cow hosts were similar. Eight of nine sporozoite positive samples were captured with animal-baited traps, indicating that even predominantly zoophilic mosquitoes may be contributing to malaria transmission. Multiple host feeding and flexibility in blood feeding behaviour have important implications for malaria transmission, malaria control, and the effectiveness of intervention and monitoring methods, particularly those that target human-feeding vectors.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Bovinos , Cabras , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Malária/transmissão , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Malar J ; 16(1): 230, 2017 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular tools for detecting malaria-infected mosquitoes with improved practicality, sensitivity and specificity, and high-throughput are required. A common PCR technique used to detect mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium spp. is a nested PCR assay based on the 18s-rRNA gene. However, this technique has several technical limitations, is laborious and time consuming. METHODS: In this study, a PCR-based on the Plasmodium cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene was compared with the 18s-rRNA nested PCR using serial dilutions (330-0.0012 pg) of DNA from Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi and with DNA from 48 positive and negative Kenyan mosquitoes (previously detected by using both ELISA and PCR). This assay for Plasmodium spp. DNA detection using the fast COX-I PCR assay was then performed individually on 2122 field collected mosquitoes (from the Solomon Islands) in which DNA was extracted from head and thorax. RESULTS: The fast COX-I PCR assay took 1 h to run and consistently detected as low as to 0.043 pg of parasite DNA (equivalent to two parasites) in a single PCR, while analyses with the 18s-rRNA nested PCR required 4 h to complete with a consistent detection threshold of 1.5 pg of DNA. Both assays produced concordant results when applied to the 48 Kenyan control samples with known Plasmodium spp. infection status. The fast COX-I PCR identified 23/2122 Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes from the Solomon Islands. CONCLUSIONS: This new COX-I PCR adapted for a single PCR reaction is a faster, simpler, cheaper, more sensitive technique amenable to high-throughput analyses for Plasmodium DNA detection in mosquitoes and is comparable to the 18s-rRNA nested PCR. The improved sensitivity seen with the fast COX-I PCR will improve the accuracy of mosquito infection rate determination.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Feminino , Melanesia , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/enzimologia , Plasmodium vivax/enzimologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Esporozoítos/enzimologia , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(4): e0005546, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the Australasian region using ABC analysis.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Aedes/genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Australásia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Indonésia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Ilhas do Pacífico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 9: 451, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27527601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination is unlikely to occur if vector control efforts focus entirely on transmission occurring indoors without addressing vectors that bite outdoors and outside sleeping hours. Additional control tools such as spatial repellents may provide the personal protection required to fill this gap. However, since repellents do not kill mosquitoes it is unclear if vectors will be diverted from households that use spatial repellents to those that do not. METHODS: A crossover study was performed over 24 weeks in Kilombero, Tanzania. The density of resting and blood-engorged mosquitoes and human blood index (HBI) of malaria vector species per household was measured among 90 households using or not using 0.03 % transfluthrin coils burned outdoors under three coverage scenarios: (i) no coverage (blank coils); (ii) complete coverage of repellent coils; and (iii) incomplete coverage of repellent and blank coils. Mosquitoes were collected three days a week for 24 weeks from the inside and outside of all participating households using mosquito aspirators. Paired indoor and outdoor human landing collections were performed in three random households for six consecutive nights to confirm repellent efficacy of the coils and local vector biting times. RESULTS: The main vectors were Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto), which fed outdoors, outside sleeping hours, on humans as well as animals. Anopheles arabiensis landings were reduced by 80 % by the spatial repellent although household densities were not reduced. The HBI for An. arabiensis was significantly higher among households without repellents in the incomplete coverage scenario compared to houses in the no coverage scenario (Odds ratio 1.71; 95 % CI: 1.04-2.83; P = 0.03). This indicated that An. arabiensis mosquitoes seeking a human blood meal were diverted from repellent users to non-users. The repellent coils did not affect An. funestus densities or HBI. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial malaria vector activity is occurring outside sleeping hours in the Kilombero valley. Repellent coils provided some protection against local An. arabiensis but did not protect against local (and potentially pyrethroid-resistant) An. funestus. Pyrethroid-based spatial repellents may offer a degree of personal protection, however the overall public health benefit is doubtful and potentially iniquitous as their use may divert malaria vectors to those who do not use them.


Assuntos
Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/fisiologia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Malária/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Malar J ; 15(1): 288, 2016 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27216734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam, high coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), larvicide application (LA) and mosquito-proofed housing, was complemented with improved access to artemisinin-based combination therapy and rapid diagnostic tests by the end of 2012. METHODS: Three rounds of city-wide, cluster-sampled cross-sectional surveys of malaria parasite infection status, spanning 2010 to 2012, were complemented by two series of high-resolution, longitudinal surveys of vector density. RESULTS: Larvicide application using a granule formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) had no effect upon either vector density (P = 0.820) or infection prevalence (P = 0.325) when managed by a private-sector contractor. Infection prevalence rebounded back to 13.8 % in 2010, compared with <2 % at the end of a previous Bti LA evaluation in 2008. Following transition to management by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), LA consistently reduced vector densities, first using the same Bti granule in early 2011 [odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) = 0.31 (0.14, 0.71), P = 0.0053] and then a pre-diluted aqueous suspension formulation from mid 2011 onwards [OR (95 % CI) = 0.15 (0.07, 0.30), P â‰ª 0.000001]. While LA by MoHSW with the granule formulation was associated with reduced infection prevalence [OR (95 % CI) = 0.26 (0.12, 0.56), P = 0.00040], subsequent liquid suspension use, following a mass distribution to achieve universal coverage of LLINs that reduced vector density [OR (95 % CI) = 0.72 (0.51, 1.01), P = 0.057] and prevalence [OR (95 % CI) = 0.80 (0.69, 0.91), P = 0.0013], was not associated with further prevalence reduction (P = 0.836). Sleeping inside houses with complete window screens only reduced infection risk [OR (95 % CI) = 0.71 (0.62, 0.82), P = 0.0000036] if the evenings and mornings were also spent indoors. Furthermore, infection risk was only associated with local vector density [OR (95 % CI) = 6.99 (1.12, 43.7) at one vector mosquito per trap per night, P = 0.037] among the minority (14 %) of households lacking screening. Despite attenuation of malaria transmission and immunity, 88 % of infected residents experienced no recent fever, only 0.4 % of these afebrile cases had been treated for malaria, and prevalence remained high (9.9 %) at the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: While existing vector control interventions have dramatically attenuated malaria transmission in Dar es Salaam, further scale-up and additional measures to protect against mosquito bites outdoors are desirable. Accelerated elimination of chronic human infections persisting at high prevalence will require active, population-wide campaigns with curative drugs.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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