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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is the most frequent editing event in humans. It converts adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA regions (in coding and non-coding RNAs) through the action of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. Long non-coding RNAs, particularly abundant in the brain, account for a large fraction of the human transcriptome, and their important regulatory role is becoming progressively evident in both normal and transformed cells. RESULTS: Herein, we present a bioinformatic analysis to generate a comprehensive inosinome picture in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), using an ad hoc index and searching for de novo editing events in the normal brain cortex as well as in glioblastoma, a highly aggressive human brain cancer. We discovered >10,000 new sites and 335 novel lncRNAs that undergo editing, never reported before. We found a generalized downregulation of editing at multiple lncRNA sites in glioblastoma samples when compared to the normal brain cortex. CONCLUSION: Overall, our study discloses a novel layer of complexity that controls lncRNAs in the brain and brain cancer.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066218

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic disorders rare in childhood, often occurring in patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes or germinal predisposition syndromes. Among the latter, one of the most frequent involves the gene GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2), coding for a transcriptional regulator of hematopoiesis. The genetic lesion as well as the clinical phenotype are extremely variable; many patients present hematological malignancies, especially MDS with the possibility to evolve into acute myeloid leukemia. Variable immune dysfunction, especially resulting in B- and NK-cell lymphopenia, lead to severe infections, including generalized warts and mycobacterial infection. Defects of alveolar macrophages lead to pulmonary alveolar proteinosis through inadequate clearance of surfactant proteins. Currently, there are no clear guidelines for the monitoring and treatment of patients with GATA2 mutations. In patients with MDS, the only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that restores normal hematopoiesis preventing the progression to acute myeloid leukemia and clears long-standing infections. However, to date, the donor type, conditioning regimen, and the optimal time to proceed to HSCT, as well as the level of chimerism needed to reverse the phenotype, remain unclear highlighting the need for consensus guidelines.

3.
Blood ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067614

RESUMO

This Phase I study investigated the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) of inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), a CD22-directed antibody-drug conjugate, in pediatric patients with multiple-relapsed/refractory (R/R) CD22-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients (≥1-<18 years) received three InO doses (Days 1, 8, 15) per course. Dose-escalation was based on dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) during Course 1 . Dose level 1 (DL1)=1.4 mg/m2 (0.6-0.4-0.4 mg/m2); DL2=1.8 mg/m2 (0.8-0.5-0.5 mg/m2). Secondary endpoints included safety, anti-leukemic activity, and pharmacokinetics. Twenty-five patients (23 evaluable for DLT) were enrolled. In Course 1, first cohort, 1/6 (DL1) and 2/5 (DL2) patients experienced DLTs; subsequent review considered DL2 DLTs to be non-dose-limiting. Dose was de-escalated to DL1 while awaiting protocol amendment to re-evaluate DL2 in a second cohort, where 0/6 (DL1) and 1/6 (DL2) patients had a DLT. Twenty-three patients experienced Grade 3-4 adverse events; hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome was reported in two patients after subsequent chemotherapy. Overall response rate after Course 1 was 80% [95% CI: 59-93%] (20/25 patients; DL1=75% [43-95%], DL2=85% [55-98%]); 84% [60-97%] of responders obtained minimal residual disease-negative CR; 12-month overall survival was 40% [95% CI: 25-66%]. Nine patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplant or chimeric-antigen receptor T-cells after InO. InO median maximum concentrations were comparable to simulated adult concentrations. InO was well tolerated, demonstrating anti-leukemic activity in heavily pre-treated children with CD22-positive R/R ALL. RP2D was established as 1.8 mg/m2/course, as in adults.

4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 133, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Covid-19 outbreak developed in Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna (Italy) at the end of February 2020. Fear of an imminent saturation of available ICU beds generated the notion that rationing of intensive care resources could have been necessary. RESULTS: In order to evaluate the impact of Covid-19 on the ICU capacity to manage critically ill patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of the first 2 weeks of the outbreak (February 24-March 8). Data were collected from regional registries and from a case report form sent to participating sites. ICU beds increased from 1545 to 1989 (28.7%), and patients receiving respiratory support outside the ICU increased from 4 (0.6%) to 260 (37.0%). Patients receiving respiratory support outside the ICU were significantly older [65 vs. 77 years], had more cerebrovascular (5.8 vs. 13.1%) and renal (5.3 vs. 10.0%) comorbidities and less obesity (31.4 vs. 15.5%) than patients admitted to the ICU. PaO2/FiO2 ratio, respiratory rate and arterial pH were higher [165 vs. 244; 20 vs. 24 breath/min; 7.40 vs. 7.46] and PaCO2 and base excess were lower [34 vs. 42 mmHg; 0.60 vs. 1.30] in patients receiving respiratory support outside the ICU than in patients admitted to the ICU, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in ICU beds and use of out-of-ICU respiratory support allowed effective management of the first 14 days of the Covid-19 outbreak, avoiding resource rationing.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962238

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by the variable presence of congenital somatic abnormalities, bone marrow failure (BMF), and a predisposition to develop cancer. Monoallelic germline mutations in at least five genes involved in the FA pathway are associated with the development of sporadic hematological and solid malignancies. The key function of the FA pathway is to orchestrate proteins involved in the repair of interstrand cross-links (ICLs), to prevent genomic instability and replication stress. Recently, many studies have highlighted the importance of FA genes in noncanonical pathways, such as mitochondria homeostasis, inflammation, and virophagy, which act, in some cases, independently of DNA repair processes. Thus, primary defects in DNA repair mechanisms of FA patients are typically exacerbated by an impairment of other cytoprotective pathways that contribute to the multifaceted clinical phenotype of this disease. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of FA, with a focus on the cytosolic noncanonical roles of FA genes, discussing how they may contribute to cancer development, thus suggesting opportunities to envisage novel therapeutic approaches.

6.
Blood Adv ; 4(18): 4417-4429, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931582

RESUMO

In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are the cornerstones of treatment in high-risk cases, with severe late effects and a still high risk of disease recurrence as the main drawbacks. The identification of targeted, more effective, safer drugs is thus desirable. We performed a high-throughput drug-screening assay of 1280 compounds and identified thioridazine (TDZ), a drug that was highly selective for the t(6;11)(q27;q23) MLL-AF6 (6;11)AML rearrangement, which mediates a dramatically poor (below 20%) survival rate. TDZ induced cell death and irreversible progress toward the loss of leukemia cell clonogenic capacity in vitro. Thus, we explored its mechanism of action and found a profound cytoskeletal remodeling of blast cells that led to Ca2+ influx, triggering apoptosis through mitochondrial depolarization, confirming that this latter phenomenon occurs selectively in t(6;11)AML, for which AF6 does not work as a cytoskeletal regulator, because it is sequestered into the nucleus by the fusion gene. We confirmed TDZ-mediated t(6;11)AML toxicity in vivo and enhanced the drug's safety by developing novel TDZ analogues that exerted the same effect on leukemia reduction, but with lowered neuroleptic effects in vivo. Overall, these results refine the MLL-AF6 AML leukemogenic mechanism and suggest that the benefits of targeting it be corroborated in further clinical trials.

7.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920979

RESUMO

Persistent mortality rates of medulloblastoma (MB) and severe side effects of the current therapies require the definition of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumor progression. Using cultured MB cancer stem cells and xenograft tumors generated in mice, we show that low expression of miR-326 and its host gene ß-arrestin1 (ARRB1) promotes tumor growth enhancing the E2F1 pro-survival function. Our models revealed that miR-326 and ARRB1 are controlled by a bivalent domain, since the H3K27me3 repressive mark is found at their regulatory region together with the activation-associated H3K4me3 mark. High levels of EZH2, a feature of MB, are responsible for the presence of H3K27me3. Ectopic expression of miR-326 and ARRB1 provides hints into how their low levels regulate E2F1 activity. MiR-326 targets E2F1 mRNA, thereby reducing its protein levels; ARRB1, triggering E2F1 acetylation, reverses its function into pro-apoptotic activity. Similar to miR-326 and ARRB1 overexpression, we also show that EZH2 inhibition restores miR-326/ARRB1 expression, limiting E2F1 pro-proliferative activity. Our results reveal a new regulatory molecular axis critical for MB progression.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942636

RESUMO

The intratumor heterogeneity represents one of the most difficult challenges for the development of effective therapies to treat pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). These brain tumors are composed of heterogeneous cell subpopulations that coexist and cooperate to build a functional network responsible for their aggressive phenotype. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms sustaining such network will be crucial for the identification of new therapeutic strategies. To study more in-depth these mechanisms, we sought to apply the Multifluorescent Marking Technology. We generated multifluorescent pGBM and DIPG bulk cell lines randomly expressing six different fluorescent proteins and from which we derived stable optical barcoded single cell-derived clones. In this study, we focused on the application of the Multifluorescent Marking Technology in 2D and 3D in vitro/ex vivo culture systems. We discuss how we integrated different multimodal fluorescence analysis platforms, identifying their strengths and limitations, to establish the tools that will enable further studies on the intratumor heterogeneity and interclonal interactions in pGBM and DIPG.

9.
Prog Neurobiol ; : 101892, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795489

RESUMO

A major challenge in neurobiology is the identification of the mechanisms by which protein misfolding leads to cellular toxicity. Many neurodegenerative disorders, in which aberrant protein conformers aggregate into pathological inclusions, present the chronic activation of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response. The adaptive effects of the PERK pathway include reduction of translation by transient inhibition of eIF2α and antioxidant protein production via induction of Nrf2 transcription factor. In contrast, PERK prolonged activation leads to sustained reduction in protein synthesis and induction of cell death pathways. To further investigate the role of the PERK pathway in neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on Down syndrome (DS), in which aging confers a high risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). By investigating human DS frontal cortices, we found early and sustained PERK activation associated with the induction of eIF2α and ATF4 downstream signals. We also observed that the Nrf2 response is uncoupled from PERK and its antioxidant effects are repressed in a mechanism implicating the transcription repressor Bach1. The pharmacological inhibition of PERK in DS mice reduced eIF2α-related translational repression and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation, favoring the rescue of Nrf2/Bach1 imbalance. The further analysis of peripheral cells from living DS individuals provided strong support of the pathological link between PERK and trisomy 21. Our results suggest that failure to regulate the PERK pathway is a peculiar characteristic of DS pathology and it may represent an essential step to promote cellular dysfunction, which actively contributes in the brain to the early development of AD.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 can develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with high mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the functional and morphological features of COVID-19-associated ARDS and to compare these with the characteristics of ARDS unrelated to COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective observational study was done at seven hospitals in Italy. We enrolled consecutive, mechanically ventilated patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and who met Berlin criteria for ARDS, who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between March 9 and March 22, 2020. All patients were sedated, paralysed, and ventilated in volume-control mode with standard ICU ventilators. Static respiratory system compliance, the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air, ventilatory ratio (a surrogate of dead space), and D-dimer concentrations were measured within 24 h of ICU admission. Lung CT scans and CT angiograms were done when clinically indicated. A dataset for ARDS unrelated to COVID-19 was created from previous ARDS studies. Survival to day 28 was assessed. FINDINGS: Between March 9 and March 22, 2020, 301 patients with COVID-19 met the Berlin criteria for ARDS at participating hospitals. Median static compliance was 41 mL/cm H2O (33-52), which was 28% higher than in the cohort of patients with ARDS unrelated to COVID-19 (32 mL/cm H2O [25-43]; p<0·0001). 17 (6%) of 297 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS had compliances greater than the 95th percentile of the classical ARDS cohort. Total lung weight did not differ between the two cohorts. CT pulmonary angiograms (obtained in 23 [8%] patients with COVID-19-related ARDS) showed that 15 (94%) of 16 patients with D-dimer concentrations greater than the median had bilateral areas of hypoperfusion, consistent with thromboembolic disease. Patients with D-dimer concentrations equal to or less than the median had ventilatory ratios lower than those of patients with D-dimer concentrations greater than the median (1·66 [1·32-1·95] vs 1·90 [1·50-2·33]; p=0·0001). Patients with static compliance equal to or less than the median and D-dimer concentrations greater than the median had markedly increased 28-day mortality compared with other patient subgroups (40 [56%] of 71 with high D-dimers and low compliance vs 18 [27%] of 67 with low D-dimers and high compliance, 13 [22%] of 60 with low D-dimers and low compliance, and 22 [35%] of 63 with high D-dimers and high compliance, all p=0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS have a form of injury that, in many aspects, is similar to that of those with ARDS unrelated to COVID-19. Notably, patients with COVID-19-related ARDS who have a reduction in respiratory system compliance together with increased D-dimer concentrations have high mortality rates. FUNDING: None.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764469

RESUMO

NK cells can exert remarkable graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect in HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT). Here, we dissected the NK-cell repertoire of 80 pediatric acute leukemia patients previously reported to have an excellent clinical outcome after αßT/B-depleted haplo-HSCT. This graft manipulation strategy allows the co-infusion of mature immune cells, mainly NK and γδT cells, and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To promote NK-cell based antileukemia activity, 36/80 patients were transplanted with an NK alloreactive donor, defined according to the KIR/KIR-Ligand mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction. The analysis of the reconstituted NK-cell repertoire in these patients showed relatively high proportions of mature and functional KIR+NKG2A-CD57+ NK cells, including the alloreactive NK cell subset, one month after HSCT. Thus, the NK cells adoptively transfused with the graft persist as a mature source of effector cells while new NK cells differentiate from the donor HSCs. Notably, the alloreactive NK cell subset was endowed with the highest anti-leukemia activity and its size in the reconstituted repertoire could be influenced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) reactivation. While the phenotypic pattern of donor NK cells did not impact on post-transplant HCMV reactivation, in the recipients, HCMV infection/reactivation fostered a more differentiated NK-cell phenotype. In this cohort, no significant correlation between differentiated NK cells and relapse-free survival was observed.

13.
Mol Aspects Med ; : 100870, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800530

RESUMO

Cells of the innate immunity play an important role in tumor immunotherapy. Thus, NK cells can control tumor growth and metastatic spread. Thanks to their strong cytolytic activity against tumors, different approaches have been developed for exploiting/harnessing their function in patients with leukemia or solid tumors. Pioneering trials were based on the adoptive transfer of autologous NK cell-enriched cell populations that were expanded in vitro and co-infused with IL-2. Although relevant results were obtained in patients with advanced melanoma, the effect was mostly limited to certain metastatic localizations, particularly to the lung. In addition, the severe IL-2-related toxicity and the preferential IL-2-induced expansion of Treg limited this type of approach. This limitation may be overcome by the use of IL-15, particularly of modified IL-15 molecules to improve its half-life and optimize the biological effects. Other approaches to harness NK cell function include stimulation via TLR, the use of bi- and tri-specific NK cell engagers (BiKE and TriKE) linking activating NK receptors (e.g. CD16) to tumor-associated antigens and even incorporating an IL-15 moiety (TriKE). As recently shown, in tumor patients, NK cells may also express inhibitory checkpoints, primarily PD-1. Accordingly, the therapeutic use of checkpoint inhibitors may unleash NK cells against PD-L1+ tumors. This effect may be predominant and crucial in tumors that have lost HLA cl-I expression, thus resulting "invisible" to T lymphocytes. Additional approaches in which NK cells may represent an important tool for cancer therapy, are to exploit the unique properties of the "adaptive" NK cells. These CD57+ NKG2C+ cells, despite their mature stage and a potent cytolytic activity, maintain a strong proliferating capacity. This property revealed to be crucial in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly in the haplo-HSCT setting, to cure high-risk leukemias. T depleted haplo-HSCT (e.g. from one of the parents) allowed to save the life of thousands of patients lacking a HLA-compatible donor. In this setting, NK cells have been shown to play an essential role against leukemia cells and infections. Another major advance is represented by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered NK cells. CAR-NK, different from CAR-T cells, may be obtained from allogeneic donors since they do not cause GvHD. Accordingly, they may represent "off-the-shelf" products to promptly treat tumor patients, with affordable costs. Different from NK cells, helper ILC (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3), the innate counterpart of T helper cell subsets, remain rather ambiguous with respect to their anti-tumor activity. A possible exception is represented by a subset of ILC3: their frequency in peri-tumoral tissues in patients with NSCLC directly correlates with a better prognosis, possibly reflecting their ability to contribute to the organization of tertiary lymphoid structures, an important site of T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. It is conceivable that innate immunity may significantly contribute to the major advances that immunotherapy has ensured and will continue to ensure to the cure of cancer.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827505

RESUMO

Medical advances have dramatically improved the long-term prognosis of children and adolescents with inborn errors of immunity (IEIs). Transfer of the medical care of individuals with pediatric IEIs to adult facilities is also a complex task because of the large number of distinct disorders, which requires involvement of patients and both pediatric and adult care providers. To date, there is no consensus on the optimal pathway of the transitional care process and no specific data are available in the literature regarding patients with IEIs. We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the transition process to adult health care services for patients with IEIs. Physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network centers formulated and answered questions after examining the currently published literature on the transition from childhood to adulthood. The authors voted on each recommendation. The most frequent IEIs sharing common main clinical problems requiring full attention during the transitional phase were categorized into different groups of clinically related disorders. For each group of clinically related disorders, physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network institutions focused on selected clinical issues representing the clinical hallmark during early adulthood.

15.
HLA ; 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827207

RESUMO

With the aim to individuate alleles that may reflect a higher susceptibility to the disease, in the present study we analyzed the HLA allele frequency distribution in a group of 99 Italian patients affected by a severe or extremely severe form of COVID-19. After the application of Bonferroni's correction for multiple tests, a significant association was found for HLA-DRB1*15:01, -DQB1*06:02 and -B*27:07, after comparing the results to a reference group of 1017 Italian individuals, previously typed in our laboratory. The increased frequencies observed may contribute to identify potential markers of susceptibility to the disease, although controversial results on the role of single HLA alleles in COVID-19 patients have been recently reported.

16.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2215-2229, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856140

RESUMO

The B cell surface antigen CD19 is a target for treating B cell malignancies, such as B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The BiTE® immuno-oncology platform includes blinatumomab, which is approved for relapsed/refractory B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with minimal residual disease. Blinatumomab is also being evaluated in combination with other agents (tyrosine kinase inhibitors, checkpoint inhibitors, and chemotherapy) in various treatment settings, including frontline protocols. An extended half-life BiTE molecule is also under investigation. Patients receiving blinatumomab may experience cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity; however, these events may be less frequent and severe than in patients receiving other CD19-targeted immunotherapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy. We review BiTE technology for treating malignancies that express CD19, analyzing the benefits and limitations of this bispecific T cell engager platform from clinical experience with blinatumomab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Análise Custo-Benefício , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/economia , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/patologia , Pré-Medicação , Qualidade de Vida , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Evasão Tumoral
17.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679582

RESUMO

At the time of writing, there are already millions of documented infections worldwide by the novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2)), with hundreds of thousands of deaths. The great majority of fatal events have been recorded in adults older than 70 years; of them, a large proportion had comorbidities. Since data regarding the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics in neonates and children developing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are scarce and originate mainly from one country (China), we reviewed all the current literature from 1 December 2019 to 7 May 2020 to provide useful information about SARS-CoV2 viral biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, prevention, and hospital organization for clinicians dealing with this selected population. IMPACT: Children usually develop a mild form of COVID-19, rarely requiring high-intensity medical treatment in pediatric intensive care unit.Vertical transmission is unlikely, but not completely excluded.Children with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 must be isolated and healthcare workers should wear appropriate protective equipment.Some clinical features (higher incidence of fever, vomiting and diarrhea, and a longer incubation period) are more common in children than in adults, as well as some radiologic aspects (more patchy shadow opacities on CT scan images than ground-glass opacities).Supportive and symptomatic treatments (oxygen therapy and antibiotics for preventing/treating bacterial coinfections) are recommended in these patients.

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