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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29323, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519430

RESUMO

Blinatumomab is a BiTE® (bispecific T-cell engager) immuno-oncology therapy, which has demonstrated significant activity in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R B-ALL); however, a subset of patients relapse. Monitoring expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)19 in relapsed patients is critical to inform sequencing of subsequent therapies. The expression of CD19 in 59 pediatric patients with R/R B-ALL was analyzed on the day of diagnosis of R/R B-ALL and on days 15 and 29 of cycle 1 of blinatumomab. Most patients treated with one cycle of blinatumomab retained expression of CD19, and would therefore be eligible for subsequent anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 704110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447374

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with malignancy, neurological and immunological disorders, i.e., fragile patients, have been excluded from COVID-19 vaccine trials. However, this population may present immune response abnormalities, and relative reduced vaccine responsiveness. Here we review the limited current evidence on the immune responses to vaccination of patients with different underlying diseases. To address open questions we present the VAX4FRAIL study aimed at assessing immune responses to vaccination in a large transdisease cohort of patients with cancer, neurological and rheumatological diseases.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 788, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385425

RESUMO

In the last months, many studies have clearly described several mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cell and tissue level, but the mechanisms of interaction between host and SARS-CoV-2, determining the grade of COVID-19 severity, are still unknown. We provide a network analysis on protein-protein interactions (PPI) between viral and host proteins to better identify host biological responses, induced by both whole proteome of SARS-CoV-2 and specific viral proteins. A host-virus interactome was inferred, applying an explorative algorithm (Random Walk with Restart, RWR) triggered by 28 proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The analysis of PPI allowed to estimate the distribution of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in the host cell. Interactome built around one single viral protein allowed to define a different response, underlining as ORF8 and ORF3a modulated cardiovascular diseases and pro-inflammatory pathways, respectively. Finally, the network-based approach highlighted a possible direct action of ORF3a and NS7b to enhancing Bradykinin Storm. This network-based representation of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be a framework for pathogenic evaluation of specific clinical outcomes. We identified possible host responses induced by specific proteins of SARS-CoV-2, underlining the important role of specific viral accessory proteins in pathogenic phenotypes of severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Imunidade/imunologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1312-1321, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown activity in osteosarcoma and might enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. We aimed to determine the recommended phase 2 dose and antitumour activity of lenvatinib with etoposide plus ifosfamide in patients with refractory or relapsed osteosarcoma. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, multicohort, phase 1/2 trial was done at 17 hospitals in six countries. Eligible patients were aged 2-25 years, had relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma, measurable or evaluable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, Lansky play-performance score or Karnofsky performance score of 50% or higher, up to one previous VEGF or VEGF receptor-targeted therapy, and a life expectancy of at least 3 months. This study includes a combination dose-finding phase 1 part (cohort 3A) and a phase 2 combination expansion in patients with osteosarcoma (cohort 3B). Lenvatinib was administered orally at a starting dose of 11 mg/m2 per day, capped at 24 mg per day, and etoposide (100 mg/m2 per day) plus ifosfamide (3000 mg/m2 per day) were administered intravenously on days 1-3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of five cycles. Lenvatinib monotherapy continued after these five cycles until disease progression, toxic effects, or patient choice to discontinue. The phase 1 primary endpoint was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose by evaluating dose-limiting toxicity and the phase 2 primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 4 months. Progression-free survival was measured in the full analysis set, which included all patients enrolled for efficacy outcomes; safety was assessed in all patients who received any study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02432274. FINDINGS: 30 patients were screened for enrolment into cohort 3A between May 9, 2016, and June 3, 2019, and 22 patients for enrolment into cohort 3B between Sept 13, 2018, and July 18, 2019. Eight patients from cohort 3A and two from cohort 3B were ineligible for enrolment in the study. In phase 1, dose-limiting toxicities were observed in three patients (one in the lenvatinib 11 mg/m2 combination group and two in the 14 mg/m2 combination group) and the recommended phase 2 dose was determined as lenvatinib 14 mg/m2 per day (with daily dose cap of 24 mg) and etoposide 100 mg/m2 per day plus ifosfamide 3000 mg/m2 per day administered intravenously on days 1-3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of five cycles. 35 patients from phase 1 (cohort 3A; n=15) and phase 2 (cohort 3B; n=20) were treated at the recommended phase 2 dose and their results were pooled. Progression-free survival at 4 months was 51% (95% CI 34-69) in 18 of 35 patients per the binomial estimate. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (27 [77%] of 35), thrombocytopenia (25 [71%]), anaemia (19 [54%]), and decreased white blood cell count (19 [54%]). 26 [74%] of 35 patients had serious treatment-emergent adverse events and no treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Lenvatinib with etoposide plus ifosfamide shows promising antitumour activity with no new safety signals in patients with refractory and relapsed osteosarcoma. These findings warrant further investigation in an ongoing randomised phase 2 study (NCT04154189). FUNDING: Eisai and Merck Sharp & Dohme.

5.
Blood Purif ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344006

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by a state of hyperinflammation. Blood purification techniques can blunt the inflammatory process with a rapidly relevant nonselective effect on the cytokine storm, thus potentially translating into survival benefit for these patients. In this cohort, we evaluated the impact of hemoadsorption with CytoSorb combined with continuous kidney replacement therapy used as adjunctive therapy in 6 critically ill children with multiple organ dysfunction due to HLH. In our series, we found a reduction in inflammatory biomarkers in patients with HLH secondary to infection. Ferritin, one of the most important bedside biomarkers of HLH, showed a reduction in most of the treated patients. The same results were found measuring interleukin-6 and interleukin-10. The same patients showed hemodynamic stabilization measured by the Vasopressor-Inotropic-Score, and reduction in the organ disease score measured with the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score. In our cohort, mortality was less than expected based on the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 score at pediatric intensive care unit admission. Our study shows that hemoperfusion could be a valuable therapeutic option in HLH: stronger scientific evidence is needed to confirm our preliminary experience.

7.
Blood Adv ; 5(14): 2901-2908, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297046

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for most children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Novel therapies controlling the disorder prior to HSCT are needed. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study to evaluate the safety and antileukemic activity of azacitidine monotherapy prior to HSCT in newly diagnosed JMML patients. Eighteen patients enrolled from September 2015 to November 2017 were treated with azacitidine (75 mg/m2) administered IV once daily on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was the number of patients with clinical complete remission (cCR) or clinical partial remission (cPR) after 3 cycles of therapy. Pharmacokinetics, genome-wide DNA-methylation levels, and variant allele frequencies of leukemia-specific index mutations were also analyzed. Sixteen patients completed 3 cycles and 5 patients completed 6 cycles. After 3 cycles, 11 patients (61%) were in cPR and 7 (39%) had progressive disease. Six of 16 patients (38%) who needed platelet transfusions were transfusion-free after 3 cycles. All 7 patients with intermediate- or low-methylation signatures in genome-wide DNA-methylation studies achieved cPR. Seventeen patients received HSCT; 14 (82%) were leukemia-free at a median follow-up of 23.8 months (range, 7.0-39.3 months) after HSCT. Azacitidine was well tolerated and plasma concentration--time profiles were similar to observed profiles in adults. In conclusion, azacitidine monotherapy is a suitable option for children with newly diagnosed JMML. Although long-term safety and efficacy remain to be fully elucidated in this population, these data demonstrate that azacitidine provides valuable clinical benefit to JMML patients prior to HSCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02447666.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil , Adulto , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/genética , Mutação
8.
Acta Neuropathol ; 142(3): 537-564, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302498

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a childhood malignant brain tumour comprising four main subgroups characterized by different genetic alterations and rate of mortality. Among MB subgroups, patients with enhanced levels of the c-MYC oncogene (MBGroup3) have the poorest prognosis. Here we identify a previously unrecognized role of the pro-autophagy factor AMBRA1 in regulating MB. We demonstrate that AMBRA1 expression depends on c-MYC levels and correlates with Group 3 patient poor prognosis; also, knockdown of AMBRA1 reduces MB stem potential, growth and migration of MBGroup3 stem cells. At a molecular level, AMBRA1 mediates these effects by suppressing SOCS3, an inhibitor of STAT3 activation. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy profoundly affects both stem and invasion potential of MBGroup3 stem cells, and a combined anti-autophagy and anti-STAT3 approach impacts the MBGroup3 outcome. Taken together, our data support the c-MYC/AMBRA1/STAT3 axis as a strong oncogenic signalling pathway with significance for both patient stratification strategies and targeted treatments of MBGroup3.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298672

RESUMO

Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, predominantly located in the nucleolus, that regulates a multiplicity of different biological processes. NPM1 localization in the cell is finely tuned by specific signal motifs, with two tryptophan residues (Trp) being essential for the nucleolar localization. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), several NPM1 mutations have been reported, all resulting in cytoplasmic delocalization, but the putative biological and clinical significance of different variants are still debated. We explored HOXA and HOXB gene expression profile in AML patients and found a differential expression between NPM1 mutations inducing the loss of two (A-like) Trp residues and those determining the loss of one Trp residue (non-A-like). We thus expressed NPM1 A-like- or non-A-like-mutated vectors in AML cell lines finding that NPM1 partially remained in the nucleolus in the non-A-like NPM1-mutated cells. As a result, only in A-like-mutated cells we detected HOXA5, HOXA10, and HOXB5 hyper-expression and p14ARF/p21/p53 pathway deregulation, leading to reduced sensitivity to the treatment with either chemotherapy or Venetoclax, as compared to non-A-like cells. Overall, we identified that the NPM1 mutational status mediates crucial biological characteristics of AML cells, providing the basis for further sub-classification and, potentially, management of this subgroup of patients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244664

RESUMO

GATA2 deficiency is a heterogeneous multi-system disorder characterized by a high risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloid leukemia. We analyzed the outcome of 65 patients reported to the registry of the European Working Group (EWOG) of MDS in childhood carrying a germline GATA2 mutation (GATA2mut) who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). At 5 years the probability of overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) was 75% and 70%, respectively. Non-relapse mortality and relapse equally contributed to treatment failure. There was no evidence of increased incidence of graft-versus-host-disease or excessive rates of infections or organ toxicities. Advanced disease and monosomy 7 (-7) were associated with worse outcome. Patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) and normal karyotype showed an excellent outcome (DFS 90%) compared to RCC and -7 (DFS 67%). Comparing outcome of GATA2mut with GATA2wt patients, there was no difference in DFS in patients with RCC and normal karyotype. The same was true for patients with -7 across morphological subtypes. We demonstrate that HSCT outcome is independent of GATA2 germline mutations in pediatric MDS suggesting the application of standard MDS algorithms and protocols. Our data support considering HSCT early in the course of GATA2 deficiency in young individuals.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(3): 228-238, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a major complication of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, becomes glucocorticoid-refractory or glucocorticoid-dependent in approximately 50% of patients. Robust data from phase 3 randomized studies evaluating second-line therapy for chronic GVHD are lacking. In retrospective surveys, ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK1-JAK2) inhibitor, showed potential efficacy in patients with glucocorticoid-refractory or -dependent chronic GVHD. METHODS: This phase 3 open-label, randomized trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of ruxolitinib at a dose of 10 mg twice daily, as compared with the investigator's choice of therapy from a list of 10 commonly used options considered best available care (control), in patients 12 years of age or older with moderate or severe glucocorticoid-refractory or -dependent chronic GVHD. The primary end point was overall response (complete or partial response) at week 24; key secondary end points were failure-free survival and improved score on the modified Lee Symptom Scale at week 24. RESULTS: A total of 329 patients underwent randomization; 165 patients were assigned to receive ruxolitinib and 164 patients to receive control therapy. Overall response at week 24 was greater in the ruxolitinib group than in the control group (49.7% vs. 25.6%; odds ratio, 2.99; P<0.001). Ruxolitinib led to longer median failure-free survival than control (>18.6 months vs. 5.7 months; hazard ratio, 0.37; P<0.001) and higher symptom response (24.2% vs. 11.0%; odds ratio, 2.62; P = 0.001). The most common (occurring in ≥10% patients) adverse events of grade 3 or higher up to week 24 were thrombocytopenia (15.2% in the ruxolitinib group and 10.1% in the control group) and anemia (12.7% and 7.6%, respectively). The incidence of cytomegalovirus infections and reactivations was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with glucocorticoid-refractory or -dependent chronic GVHD, ruxolitinib led to significantly greater overall response, failure-free survival, and symptom response. The incidence of thrombocytopenia and anemia was greater with ruxolitinib. (Funded by Novartis and Incyte; REACH3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03112603.).


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotoferese , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135100

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR T-cells) for the treatment of relapsing/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia have led to exciting clinical results. However, CAR T-cell approaches revealed a potential risk of CD19-/CAR+ leukemic relapse due to inadvertent transduction of leukemia cells. BACKGROUND: METHODS: We evaluated the impact of a high percentage of leukemia blast contamination in patient-derived starting material (SM) on CAR T-cell drug product (DP) manufacturing. In vitro as well as in vivo models were employed to identify characteristics of the construct associated with better profile of safety in case of inadvertent B-cell leukemia transduction during CAR T-cell manufacturing. RESULTS: The presence of large amounts of CD19+ cells in SM did not affect the transduction level of DPs, as well as the CAR T-cell rate of expansion at the end of standard production of 14 days. DPs were deeply characterized by flow cytometry and molecular biology for Ig-rearrangements, showing that the level of B-cell contamination in DPs did not correlate with the percentage of CD19+ cells in SM, in the studied patient cohort. Moreover, we investigated whether CAR design may affect the control of CAR+ leukemia cells. We provided evidences that CAR.CD19 short linker (SL) prevents complete epitope masking in CD19+CAR+ leukemia cells and we demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that CD19 +CAR(SL)+leukemic cells are killed by CAR.CD19 T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data suggest that a VL-VH SL may result in a safe CAR-T product, even when manufacturing starts from biological materials characterized by heavy contamination of leukemia blasts.

17.
Blood ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192312

RESUMO

Comparison of treatment strategies in de novo pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) requires standardized measures of efficacy. Key parameters that define disease-related events, including 'complete remission' (CR), 'treatment failure' (TF; not achieving CR), and 'relapse' (loss of CR) require an updated consensus incorporating modern diagnostics. We collected the definitions of CR, TF and relapse from recent and current pediatric clinical trials for the treatment of ALL, including the key components of response evaluation (timing, anatomic sites, detection methods, and thresholds), and found significant heterogeneity, most notably in the definition of TF. Representatives of the major international ALL clinical trial groups convened to establish consensus definitions. CR should be defined at a time point no earlier than at the end of induction (EOI), and should include the reduction of blasts below a specific threshold in bone marrow and extramedullary sites, incorporating minimal residual disease (MRD) techniques for marrow evaluations. TF should be defined as failure to achieve CR by a pre-specified time point in therapy. Relapse can only be defined in patients who have achieved CR, and must include a specific threshold of leukemic cells in the bone marrow confirmed by MRD, the detection of central nervous system leukemia, or documentation of extramedullary disease. Definitions of TF and relapse should harmonize with eligibility criteria for clinical trials in relapsed/refractory ALL. These consensus definitions will enhance the ability to compare outcomes across pediatric ALL trials, and facilitate development of future international collaborative trials.

18.
Blood ; 138(7): 557-570, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010415

RESUMO

Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment contributes to the regulation of normal hematopoiesis through a finely tuned balance of self-renewal and differentiation processes, cell-cell interaction, and secretion of cytokines that during leukemogenesis are altered and favor tumor cell growth. In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chemotherapy is the standard of care, but >30% of patients still relapse. The need to accelerate the evaluation of innovative medicines prompted us to investigate the role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the leukemic niche to define its contribution to the mechanism of leukemia drug escape. We generated a humanized 3-dimensional (3D) niche with AML cells and MSCs derived from either patients (AML-MSCs) or healthy donors. We observed that AML cells establish physical connections with MSCs, mediating a reprogrammed transcriptome inducing aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation and severely compromising their immunomodulatory capability. We confirmed that AML cells modulate h-MSCs transcriptional profile promoting functions similar to the AML-MSCs when cocultured in vitro, thus facilitating leukemia progression. Conversely, MSCs derived from BM of patients at time of disease remission showed recovered healthy features at transcriptional and functional levels, including the secretome. We proved that AML blasts alter MSCs activities in the BM niche, favoring disease development and progression. We discovered that a novel AML-MSC selective CaV1.2 channel blocker drug, lercanidipine, is able to impair leukemia progression in 3D both in vitro and when implanted in vivo if used in combination with chemotherapy, supporting the hypothesis that synergistic effects can be obtained by dual targeting approaches.

19.
EMBO J ; 40(10): e103563, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932238

RESUMO

The early secretory pathway and autophagy are two essential and evolutionarily conserved endomembrane processes that are finely interlinked. Although growing evidence suggests that intracellular trafficking is important for autophagosome biogenesis, the molecular regulatory network involved is still not fully defined. In this study, we demonstrate a crucial effect of the COPII vesicle-related protein TFG (Trk-fused gene) on ULK1 puncta number and localization during autophagy induction. This, in turn, affects formation of the isolation membrane, as well as the correct dynamics of association between LC3B and early ATG proteins, leading to the proper formation of both omegasomes and autophagosomes. Consistently, fibroblasts derived from a hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) patient carrying mutated TFG (R106C) show defects in both autophagy and ULK1 puncta accumulation. In addition, we demonstrate that TFG activity in autophagy depends on its interaction with the ATG8 protein LC3C through a canonical LIR motif, thereby favouring LC3C-ULK1 binding. Altogether, our results uncover a link between TFG and autophagy and identify TFG as a molecular scaffold linking the early secretion pathway to autophagy.

20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29110, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MYCN amplification represents a powerful prognostic factor in neuroblastoma (NB) and may occasionally account for intratumoral heterogeneity. Radiomics is an emerging field of advanced image analysis that aims to extract a large number of quantitative features from standard radiological images, providing valuable clinical information. PROCEDURE: In this retrospective study, we aimed to create a radiogenomics model by correlating computed tomography (CT) radiomics analysis with MYCN status. NB lesions were segmented on pretherapy CT scans and radiomics features subsequently extracted using a dedicated library. Dimensionality reduction/features selection approaches were then used for features procession and logistic regression models have been developed for the considered outcome. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were included in this study, as training dataset, of which 24 presented MYCN amplification. In total, 232 radiomics features were extracted. Eight features were selected through Boruta algorithm and two features were lastly chosen through Pearson correlation analysis: mean of voxel intensity histogram (p = .0082) and zone size non-uniformity (p = .038). Five-times repeated three-fold cross-validation logistic regression models yielded an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.879 on the training set. The model was then applied to an independent validation cohort of 21 patients, of which five presented MYCN amplification. The validation of the model yielded a 0.813 AUC value, with 0.85 accuracy on previously unseen data. CONCLUSIONS: CT-based radiomics is able to predict MYCN amplification status in NB, paving the way to the in-depth analysis of imaging based biomarkers that could enhance outcomes prediction.

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