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1.
Neuropharmacology ; : 107898, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839204

RESUMO

Epilepsy treatment is challenging due to a lack of essential diagnostic tools, including methods for reliable seizure detection in the ambulatory setting, to assess seizure risk over time and to monitor treatment efficacy. This lack of objective diagnostics constitutes a significant barrier to better treatments, raises methodological concerns about the antiseizure medication evaluation process and, to patients, is a main issue contributing to the disease burden. Recent years have seen rapid progress towards better diagnostics that meet these needs of epilepsy patients and clinicians. Availability of comprehensive data and the rise of more powerful computational analysis methods have driven progress in this area. Here, we provide an overview on data- and theory-driven approaches aimed at identifying methods to reliably detect and forecast seizures as well as to monitor brain excitability and treatment efficacy in epilepsy. We provide a particular account on neural criticality, the hypothesis that cortical networks may be poised in a critical state at the boundary between different types of dynamics, and discuss its role in informing diagnostics to track cortex excitability and seizure risk in recent experiments. With the further expansion of digitalization in medicine, tele-medicine and long-term, ambulatory monitoring, these computationally based methods may gain more relevance in epilepsy  in the future.

2.
CNS Drugs ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879852

RESUMO

Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is one of the most common pediatric neurological emergencies. Ongoing seizure activity is a dynamic process and may be associated with progressive impairment of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition due to rapid internalization of GABAA receptors. Further hyperexcitability may be caused by AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) receptors moving from subsynaptic sites to the synaptic membrane. Receptor trafficking during prolonged seizures may contribute to difficulties treating seizures of longer duration and may provide some of the pathophysiological underpinnings of established and refractory SE (RSE). Simultaneously, a practice change toward more rapid initiation of first-line benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment and faster escalation to second-line non-BZD treatment for established SE is in progress. Early administration of the recommended BZD dose is suggested. For second-line treatment, non-BZD anti-seizure medications (ASMs) include valproate, fosphenytoin, or levetiracetam, among others, and at this point there is no clear evidence that any one of these options is better than the others. If seizures continue after second-line ASMs, RSE is manifested. RSE treatment consists of bolus doses and titration of continuous infusions under continuous electro-encephalography (EEG) guidance until electrographic seizure cessation or burst-suppression. Ultimately, etiological workup and related treatment of CSE, including broad spectrum immunotherapies as clinically indicated, is crucial. A potential therapeutic approach for future studies may entail consideration of interventions that may accelerate diagnosis and treatment of SE, as well as rational and early polytherapy based on synergism between ASMs by utilizing medications targeting different mechanisms of epileptogenesis and epileptogenicity.

3.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 106564, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708430

RESUMO

This paper contains five contributions which were presented as part of the novel therapies section of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures. These illustrate recent advances being made in the management and therapy of status epilepticus. The five contributions concern: genetic variations in Na + channel genes and their importance in status epilepticus; the European Reference Network for rare and complex epilepsies EpiCARE; the North American Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG); Fenfluramine as a potential therapy for status epilepticus' and the valproate derivatives, valnoctamide and sec-butylpropylacetamide (SPD), as potential therapies for status epilepticus. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures".

4.
Seizure ; 71: 295-303, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Estimate the cost of status epilepticus (SE) admissions in the USA using claim databases based on ICD-10 codes. METHOD: Descriptive retrospective study using national estimates for the year 2016 from the KID's Inpatient Database (KID) for pediatric patients and from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for adults. These databases are comprehensive collections of all-payer, encounter-level hospital care data in the United States of America. RESULTS: From a population of 6,106,405 pediatric admissions there were 580 admissions related to SE. From a population of 29,274,158 adult admissions there were 1,405 admissions related to SE. The median (p25-p75) cost of pediatric admissions related to SE was $8,749 ($4,875-$19,067) in 2016 USA dollars [$9,295 ($5,180-$20,258) in inflation-adjusted 2019 USA dollars], and for adult admissions related to SE it was $14,678 ($7,203-$28,388) in 2016 USA dollars [$15,595 ($7,653-$30,161) in inflation-adjusted 2019 USA dollars]. Transforming to 2019 USA dollars, the values from the current study are consistent with prior estimates in the literature from the KID and NIS databases with a progressive increase, except for the cost of super-refractory SE in children that has increased disproportionately. CONCLUSIONS: This study estimates that the cost of admissions related to SE in the USA is approximately $9,000 in children and $15,000 in adults and shows that the cost estimates have not markedly changed with the advent of ICD-10.

5.
Pediatr Neurol ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with epilepsy are at risk for low vitamin D levels, increasing the risk for bone fractures, yet standardized bone health screening is not part of routine care. METHODS: We surveyed pediatric neurologists (n = 68) at our center regarding screening practices, using an 11-item survey; constructed a bone health treatment algorithm; and developed a training intervention to improve screening rates. RESULTS: The overall survey response rate was 47%. Among respondents, 64% estimated that they screened for bone health less than 25% of the time. Chart review before the intervention demonstrated an overall screening rate of 25.1% (n = 50/199). One year after implementation of a standardized algorithm, the overall screening rates increased to 53.8% (n = 100/186). The frequency of prescribing vitamin D for patients treated with antiepileptic medications increased among general neurologists (preintervention rate 16%, postintervention rate 51%, P < 0.01) as well as among epileptologists (preintervention rate 45%, postintervention rate 57%, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In a relatively short follow-up period, there were significant changes in care patterns regarding screening for bone health in pediatric patients with epilepsy. Further implementation measures are underway to increase bone health screening and care in this population.

6.
Seizure ; 70: 90-96, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323566

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the onset of pediatric refractory status epilepticus (rSE) is related to time of day. METHOD: We analyzed the time of day for the onset of rSE in this prospective observational study performed from June 2011 to May 2019 in pediatric patients (1 month to 21 years of age). We evaluated the temporal distribution of pediatric rSE utilizing a cosinor analysis. We calculated the midline estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR) and amplitude. MESOR is the estimated mean number of rSE episodes per hour if they were evenly distributed. Amplitude is the difference between MESOR and maximum rSE episodes/hour, or between MESOR and minimum rSE episodes/hour. We also evaluated the temporal distribution of time to treatment. RESULTS: We analyzed 368 patients (58% males) with a median (p25 - p75) age of 4.2 (1.3-9.7) years. The MESOR was 15.3 (95% CI: 13.9-16.8) and the amplitude was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.1-5.3), p = 0.0024, demonstrating that the distribution is not uniform, but better described as varying throughout the day with a peak in the morning (11am-12 pm) and trough at night (11 pm-12 am). The duration from rSE onset to application of the first non-benzodiazepine antiseizure medication peaked during the early morning (2am-3 am) with a minimum during the afternoon (2 pm-3 pm) (p = 0.0179). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of rSE onset is not uniform during the day. rSE onset shows a 24-h distribution with a peak in the mid-morning (11am-12 pm) and a trough at night (11 pm-12am).

7.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(S1): 15-21, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262717

RESUMO

Encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) evolves over time, and three stages can be recognized: before the onset of CSWS, during CSWS, and after the CSWS period. Clinical seizures tend to remit spontaneously around puberty. This pattern is independent of the etiological lesion. The CSWS also disappears in all cases. Focal abnormalities instead, may persist for some time after the disappearance of CSWS. The disappearance of the clinical seizures and CSWS may be simultaneous or seizures may disappear before or after disappearance of the CSWS pattern on the EEG. Electroclinical parameters in the pre-CSWS period that have been proposed to predict a poor outcome are early-onset seizures, appearance of new seizures, and a significant increase in seizure frequency. From the electrical point of view, an increase in the frequency of the interictal EEG paroxysms while awake and during sleep and bilateral spike-and-wave paroxysms may also be predictive of a poor evolution in CSWS. When CSWS disappears, neurocognitive and behavioral status improve, but in most patients, residual moderate to severe neurocognitive impairments remain. In non-lesional epilepsy, cognitive recovery after cessation of the CSWS depends on the severity and duration of the initial regression. The duration of the CSWS seems to be the most important predictor of cognitive outcome. Early recognition and effective therapy to reduce the seizures and resolve the CSWS may be crucial to improve long-term prognosis. Cognitive recovery is observed in patients who respond well to AED treatment and outcome depends on the etiology.

8.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(5): 365-370, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether clinical EEG reports obtained from children in the intensive care unit with refractory status epilepticus could provide data for comparative effectiveness research studies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study to assess the documentation of key variables within clinical continuous EEG monitoring reports based on the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's standardized EEG terminology for children with refractory status epilepticus from 10 academic centers. Two pediatric electroencephalographers reviewed the EEG reports. We compared reports generated using free text or templates. RESULTS: We reviewed 191 EEG reports. Agreement between the electroencephalographers regarding whether a variable was described in the report ranged from fair to very good. The presence of electrographic seizures (ES) was documented in 46% (87/191) of reports, and these reports documented the time of first ES in 64% (56/87), ES duration in 72% (63/85), and ES frequency in 68% (59/87). Reactivity was documented in 16% (31/191) of reports, and it was more often documented in template than in free-text reports (40% vs. 14%, P = 0.006). Other variables were not differentially reported in template versus free-text reports. CONCLUSIONS: Many key EEG features are not documented consistently in clinical continuous EEG monitoring reports, including ES characteristics and reactivity assessment. Standardization may be needed for clinical EEG reports to provide informative data for large multicenter observational studies.

9.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(S1): 5-12, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149900

RESUMO

Five pediatric and adult neurologists with clinical and research interests in Encephalopathy related to Status Epilepticus during slow Sleep (ESES) express their opinions on definition, diagnostic assessment and terminology that may be considered for this condition. The aim of this "debate" is to identify aspects in which there is a shared opinion and areas where there are still controversies in the classification and suggest areas which demand further studies and research.

10.
Epilepsy Behav ; 97: 44-50, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181428

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Early-life epilepsies (ELEs) include some of the most challenging forms of epilepsy to manage. Given recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances, a contemporary assessment of the immediate short-term outcomes can provide a valuable framework for identifying priorities and benchmarks for evaluating quality improvement efforts. METHODS: Children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and onset <3 years were prospectively recruited through 17 US hospitals, from 2012 to 2015 and followed for 1 year after diagnosis. Short-term outcome included mortality, drug resistance, evolution of nonsyndromic epilepsy to infantile spasms (IS) and from IS to other epilepsies, and developmental decline. Multivariable analyses assessed the risk of each outcome. RESULTS: Seven hundred seventy-five children were recruited, including 408 (53%) boys. Median age at onset was 7.5 months (interquartile range (IQR): 4.2-16.5), and 509 (66%) had onset in the first year of life. Of 22 deaths that occurred within one year of epilepsy diagnosis, 21 were children with epilepsy onset in infancy (<12 months). Of 680 children followed ≥6 months, 239 (35%) developed drug-resistant seizures; 34/227 (15%) infants with nonsyndromic epilepsy developed IS, and 48/210 (23%) initially presenting with IS developed additional seizure types. One hundred of 435 (23%) with initially typical development or only mild/equivocal delays at seizure onset, had clear developmental impairment within one year after initial diagnosis. Each outcome had a different set of predictors; however, younger age and impaired development at seizure onset were broadly indicative of poorer outcomes. Type of epilepsy and early identification of underlying cause were not reliable predictors of these outcomes. CONCLUSION: Early-life epilepsies carry a high risk of poor outcome which is evident shortly after epilepsy diagnosis. Onset in infancy and developmental delay is associated with an especially high risk, regardless of epilepsy type. The likelihood of poor outcomes is worrisome regardless of specific clinical profiles.

11.
Epilepsia ; 60(6): 1209-1220, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is an important cause of mortality in epilepsy. However, there is a gap in how often providers counsel patients about SUDEP. One potential solution is to electronically prompt clinicians to provide counseling via automated detection of risk factors in electronic medical records (EMRs). We evaluated (1) the feasibility and generalizability of using regular expressions to identify risk factors in EMRs and (2) barriers to generalizability. METHODS: Data included physician notes for 3000 patients from one medical center (home) and 1000 from five additional centers (away). Through chart review, we identified three SUDEP risk factors: (1) generalized tonic-clonic seizures, (2) refractory epilepsy, and (3) epilepsy surgery candidacy. Regular expressions of risk factors were manually created with home training data, and performance was evaluated with home test and away test data. Performance was evaluated by sensitivity, positive predictive value, and F-measure. Generalizability was defined as an absolute decrease in performance by <0.10 for away versus home test data. To evaluate underlying barriers to generalizability, we identified causes of errors seen more often in away data than home data. To demonstrate how small revisions can improve generalizability, we removed three "boilerplate" standard text phrases from away notes and repeated performance. RESULTS: We observed high performance in home test data (F-measure range = 0.86-0.90), and low to high performance in away test data (F-measure range = 0.53-0.81). After removing three boilerplate phrases, away performance improved (F-measure range = 0.79-0.89) and generalizability was achieved for nearly all measures. The only significant barrier to generalizability was use of boilerplate phrases, causing 104 of 171 errors (61%) in away data. SIGNIFICANCE: Regular expressions are a feasible and probably a generalizable method to identify variables related to SUDEP risk. Our methods may be implemented to create large patient cohorts for research and to generate electronic prompts for SUDEP counseling.

12.
Neurology ; 92(20): e2339-e2348, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare the cost and effectiveness of nonbenzodiazepine antiepileptic drugs (non-BZD AEDs) for treatment of BZD-resistant convulsive status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: Decision analysis model populated with effectiveness data from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, and cost data from publicly available prices. The primary outcome was cost per seizure stopped ($/SS). Sensitivity analyses evaluated the robustness of the results across a wide variation of the input parameters. RESULTS: We included 24 studies with 1,185 SE episodes. The most effective non-BZD AED was phenobarbital (PB) with a probability of SS of 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.88), followed by valproate (VPA) (0.71 [95% CI: 0.61-0.79]), lacosamide (0.66 [95% CI: 0.51-0.79]), levetiracetam (LEV) (0.62 [95% CI: 0.5-0.73]), and phenytoin/fosphenytoin (PHT) (0.53 [95% CI: 0.39-0.67]). In pairwise comparisons, PB was more effective than PHT (p = 0.002), VPA was more effective than PHT (p = 0.043), and PB was more effective than LEV (p = 0.018). The most cost-effective non-BZD AED was LEV (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER]: $18.55/SS), followed by VPA (ICER: $94.44/SS), and lastly PB (ICER: $847.22/SS). PHT and lacosamide were not cost-effective compared to the other options. Sensitivity analyses showed marked overlap in cost-effectiveness, but PHT was consistently less cost-effective than LEV, VPA, and PB. CONCLUSION: VPA and PB were more effective than PHT for SE. There is substantial overlap in the cost-effectiveness of non-BZD AEDs for SE, but available evidence does not support the preeminence of PHT, neither in terms of effectiveness nor in terms of cost-effectiveness.

13.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 7(2)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035586

RESUMO

Replacement of fee-for-service with capitation arrangements, forces physicians and institutions to minimize health care costs, while maintaining high-quality care. In this report we described how patients and their families (or caregivers) can work with members of the medical care team to achieve these twin goals of maintaining-and perhaps improving-high-quality care and minimizing costs. We described how increased self-management enables patients and their families/caregivers to provide electronic patient-reported outcomes (i.e., symptoms, events) (ePROs), as frequently as the patient or the medical care team consider appropriate. These capabilities also allow ongoing assessments of physiological measurements/phenomena (mHealth). Remote surveillance of these communications allows longer intervals between (fewer) patient visits to the medical-care team, when this is appropriate, or earlier interventions, when it is appropriate. Systems are now available that alert medical care providers to situations when interventions might be needed.

14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 96: 69-79, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100658

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current literature on multimodal changes of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in people with epilepsy (PWE). We included studies reporting ANS measures of at least two modalities and with a minimum of one group of people with epilepsy. We screened two hundred eighty-three abstracts and sixty-six full texts, of which twenty-two met our inclusion criteria. Eleven studies reported ictal and interictal cardiac and respiratory changes. Three studies investigated the correlation between cardiac and respiratory markers, whereby two found no correlation and one showed a relation. Six studies evaluated electrodermal and cardiac parameters and showed effects on both ANS subsystems that jointly indicate a shift toward increased sympathetic activity for people with epilepsy during rest and during activity. Two studies assessed three modalities and reveal epilepsy-related alterations within the ANS. In summary, there is a growing interest in multimodal monitoring approaches, such as combining at least two ANS modalities, to describe epilepsy-related changes in ANS activity and to test for the potential to use ANS markers for seizure detection and prediction. Most studies report multiple unimodal analyses while only few studies analyzed multimodal patterns. Patterns of changes depend on the type of epilepsy and differ on an individual level; therefore, a multimodal approach might offer an approach to more individualized monitoring and, ultimately, management.

15.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(3): 186-194, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conventional video-EEG monitoring is required to diagnose seizures accurately in neonates. This tool is resource-intense and has limited availability in many centers. Seizure prediction models could help allocate resources by improving efficiency in which conventional video-EEG monitoring is used to detect subclinical seizures. The aim of this retrospective study was to create a neonate-specific seizure prediction model using clinical characteristics and EEG background findings. METHODS: We conducted a 3-year retrospective study of all consecutive neonates who underwent conventional video-EEG monitoring at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Variables including age, EEG indication, high-risk clinical characteristics, and EEG background informed seizure prediction models based on a multivariable logistic regression model. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to construct time to first EEG seizure. RESULTS: Prediction models with clinical variables or background EEG features alone versus combined clinical and background EEG features were created from 210 neonates who met inclusion criteria. The combined clinical and EEG model had a higher area under the curve for combined sensitivity and specificity to 83.0% when compared to the clinical model (76.4%) or EEG model (66.2%). The same trend of higher sensitivity of the combined model was found for time to seizure outcome. CONCLUSIONS: While both clinical and EEG background features were predictive of neonatal seizures, the combination improved overall prediction of seizure occurrence and prediction of time to first seizure as compared with prediction models based solely on clinical or EEG features alone. With prospective validation, this model may improve efficiency of patient-oriented EEG monitoring.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos
16.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 9(1): 83-88, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859011

RESUMO

The improved use of Electronic Health Record (EHR) Systems provides an opportunity to improve the overall efficiency and quality of care of patients with epilepsy. Tools and strategies that may be incorporated into the use of EHRs include utilizing patient generated data, clinical decision support systems and natural language processing systems. Standardization of data from EHR systems may lead to improvement in clinical research through the creation of data collections and multi-center collaborations. Challenges to collaborative use of EHR Systems across centers include costs and the diversity of EHR systems.

17.
Neurology ; 92(17): 802-810, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894443

RESUMO

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a clinical presentation, not a specific diagnosis, in a patient without active epilepsy or other preexisting relevant neurologic disorder, with new onset of refractory status epilepticus (RSE) that does not resolve after 2 or more rescue medications, without a clear acute or active structural, toxic, or metabolic cause. Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome is a subset of NORSE in which fever began at least 24 hours prior to the RSE. Both terms apply to all age groups. Until recently, NORSE was a poorly recognized entity without a consistent definition or approach to care. We review the current state of knowledge in NORSE and propose a roadmap for future collaborative research. Research investigating NORSE should prioritize the following 4 domains: (1) clinical features, etiology, and pathophysiology; (2) treatment; (3) adult and pediatric evaluation and management approaches; and (4) public advocacy, professional education, and family support. We consider international collaboration and multicenter research crucial in achieving these goals.

18.
Seizure ; 66: 104-111, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluate outcome of in-home diagnostic ambulatory video-EEG monitoring (AVEM) performed on a nationwide cohort of patients over one calendar year, and we compare our findings with outcomes of inpatient adult and pediatric VEM performed during the same year at two academic epilepsy centers. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. We obtained AVEM outcome data from an independent ambulatory-EEG testing facility. Inpatient VEM data from a 4-bed adult epilepsy center and an 8-bed pediatric epilepsy center were also included. Primary outcome measure was composite percentage of VEM records with epileptiform activity on EEG tracings or at least one video-recorded pushbutton event. We assessed patient-reported symptoms documented in AVEM event diaries. RESULTS: Of 9221 AVEM recordings performed across 28 states, 62.5% attained primary outcome. At least one patient-activated pushbutton event was captured on video in 54% of AVEM recordings (53.6% in adults, 56.1% in children). Epileptiform activity was reported in 1657 (18.0%) AVEM recordings (1473 [88.9%] only interictal, 9 [0.5%] only ictal, 175 [10.6%] both interictal and ictal). Most common patient-reported symptomatology during AVEM pushbutton events was behavioral/autonomic/emotional in adults and children. Compared to AVEM, inpatient VEM captured more confirmed representative events in adult and pediatric samples. CONCLUSIONS: AVEM is useful for non-urgent diagnostic evaluation of events.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Diseases ; 7(1)2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736492

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate an automated trigger algorithm designed to detect potentially adverse events in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), who were monitored remotely between visits. We embedded a trigger algorithm derived from parent-reported ADHD rating scales within an electronic patient monitoring system. We categorized clinicians' alert resolution outcomes and compared Vanderbilt ADHD rating scale scores between patients who did or did not have triggered alerts. A total of 146 out of 1738 parent reports (8%) triggered alerts for 98 patients. One hundred and eleven alerts (76%) required immediate clinician review. Nurses successfully contacted parents for 68 (61%) of actionable alerts; 46% (31/68) led to a change in care plan prior to the next scheduled appointment. Compared to patients without alerts, patients with alerts demonstrated worsened ADHD severity (ß = 5.8, 95% CI: 3.5⁻8.1 [p < 0.001] within 90 days prior to an alert. The trigger algorithm facilitated timely changes in the care plan in between face-to-face visits.

20.
Neurology ; 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of genetic testing strategies in patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology. METHODS: This meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness study compared strategies involving 3 genetic tests: chromosomal microarray (CMA), epilepsy panel (EP) with deletion/duplication testing, and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a cost-effectiveness model, using "no genetic testing" as a point of comparison. RESULTS: Twenty studies provided information on the diagnostic yield of CMA (8 studies), EP (9 studies), and WES (6 studies). The diagnostic yield was highest for WES: 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33-0.57) (0.32 [95% CI: 0.22-0.44] adjusting for potential publication bias), followed by EP: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18-0.29), and CMA: 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06-0.12). The most cost-effective test was WES with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $15,000/diagnosis. However, after adjusting for potential publication bias, the most cost-effective test was EP (ICER: $15,848/diagnosis) followed by WES (ICER: $34,500/diagnosis). Among combination strategies, the most cost-effective strategy was WES, then if nondiagnostic, EP, then if nondiagnostic, CMA (ICER: $15,336/diagnosis), although adjusting for potential publication bias, the most cost-effective strategy was EP ± CMA ± WES (ICER: $18,385/diagnosis). While the cost-effectiveness of individual tests and testing strategies overlapped, CMA was consistently less cost-effective than WES and EP. CONCLUSION: WES and EP are the most cost-effective genetic tests for epilepsy. Our analyses support, for a broad population of patients with unexplained epilepsy, starting with these tests. Although less expensive, CMA has lower yield, and its use as the first-tier test is thus not supported from a cost-effectiveness perspective.

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