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1.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391870

RESUMO

Importance: Breast milk substitutes (BMS) are important nutritional products evaluated in clinical trials. Concerns have been raised about the risk of bias in BMS trials, the reliability of claims that arise from such trials, and the potential for BMS trials to undermine breastfeeding in trial participants. Existing clinical trial guidance does not fully address issues specific to BMS trials. Objectives: To establish new methodological criteria to guide the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of BMS trials and to support clinical trialists designing and undertaking BMS trials, editors and peer reviewers assessing trial reports for publication, and regulators evaluating the safety, nutritional adequacy, and efficacy of BMS products. Design, Setting, and Participants: A modified Delphi method was conducted, involving 3 rounds of anonymous questionnaires and a face-to-face consensus meeting between January 1 and October 24, 2018. Participants were 23 experts in BMS trials, BMS regulation, trial methods, breastfeeding support, infant feeding research, and medical publishing, and were affiliated with institutions across Europe, North America, and Australasia. Guidance development was supported by an industry consultation, analysis of methodological issues in a sample of published BMS trials, and consultations with BMS trial participants and a research ethics committee. Results: An initial 73 criteria, derived from the literature, were sent to the experts. The final consensus guidance contains 54 essential criteria and 4 recommended criteria. An 18-point checklist summarizes the criteria that are specific to BMS trials. Key themes emphasized in the guidance are research integrity and transparency of reporting, supporting breastfeeding in trial participants, accurate description of trial interventions, and use of valid and meaningful outcome measures. Conclusions and Relevance: Implementation of this guidance should enhance the quality and validity of BMS trials, protect BMS trial participants, and better inform the infant nutrition community about BMS products.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the impact of early life acetaminophen on asthma risk is still not clear, potential interactions with Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) genes due to reduced antioxidant function in particular polymorphisms, and possible impact on lung function, have never been investigated in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between early life acetaminophen use, adolescent asthma and lung function and to assess potential interactions by GST polymorphisms. METHODS: Acetaminophen use was recorded 18 times up to 2 years of age (n=575, 92.7%). Participants were genotyped for GST polymorphisms (GSTM1/T1/P1) (n=429, 69.2%). Asthma and lung function were measured at 12 (n=365, 58.9%) and 18 years (n=413, 66.6%). Regression models assessed associations and interactions. RESULTS: Doubling of days of acetaminophen use was associated with reduced pre-bronchodilator (BD) Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) (ß-coefficient=-0.10 [95%CI -0·19, -0·01]) and Mid-Expiratory Flow (MEF) (-0.09 [-0·18, 0]) at 18 years, but this association was not found when restricted for non-respiratory reasons, suggesting confounding by indication. However, in children with GSTM1 null and GSTT1 present, increasing acetaminophen use for non-respiratory reasons was associated with reduced FEV1 and MEF at 18 years (interaction between GSTM1/T1 and acetaminophen p<0·05). Increased acetaminophen use was associated with asthma at 18 years for children with GSTP1 Ile/Ile (OR=1·66, 1·07, 2·57), but not other GSTP1 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings need to be investigated for consistency in other studies but suggest that children carrying risk genotypes may be susceptible to respiratory consequences from acetaminophen use.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interaction between early life viral respiratory illness and atopy in the genesis of asthma has been widely discussed in the literature as the "two-hit hypothesis." OBJECTIVE: To synthesize evidence regarding the association of childhood viral respiratory illness and atopy in the development of persistent wheezing and asthma. METHODS: A systematic review was performed, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Human studies investigating early life associations between atopy and viral respiratory illness with outcomes of asthma and wheezing were included. Meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association of viral illness across atopic and nonatopic groups. Subgroup analysis was undertaken to investigate potential effect modification of age at outcome. RESULTS: Nine cohort studies were included, with data available for meta-analysis in 4 birth cohort studies. There was a stronger association of viral respiratory illness with persistent asthma/wheeze in atopic (odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% CI, 1.46-11.06) compared with nonatopic (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.22-4.40) individuals; however, the evidence for this was limited. In 3 studies amenable to subanalysis based on outcome age, a stronger effect was observed up to 7 years for those with atopy (OR, 7.27; 95% CI 4.65-11.36) compared with those without atopy (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.09-4.87). CONCLUSIONS: There was a stronger association between viral respiratory illness and asthma/wheeze outcomes in individuals with atopy as compared with those without atopy. When outcomes were considered at younger ages, a greater differential effect was observed. Within the limitations of the few available studies however, definite conclusions cannot be made. There was also insufficient evidence for differential effects of early versus late atopy. Further research, in particular regarding virus type, timing of atopy, and atopic phenotype, would contribute to untangling this complex association.

5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(4): 429-437, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967855

RESUMO

Rationale: Poor lung function, a significant predictor of mortality, has been observed in postmenopausal women compared with those still menstruating. Menopausal age is a risk factor for several adverse health outcomes, but little evidence exists on the impact of menopausal age on lung function impairments, especially regarding post-bronchodilator lung function measures.Objectives: To investigate the association between age at menopause and pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function outcomes.Methods: During the sixth-decade follow-up of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort (mean age, 53 yr), information was collected on most recent menstrual period and menopausal status. Lung function was measured at age 7 years and again at 53 years. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine the association between age at menopause and pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, controlling for early and adult life confounders.Results: Women reporting an early age at natural menopause (<45 yr) had lower post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (-168 ml; 95% confidence interval, -273 to -63) and lower forced vital capacity (-186 ml; 95% confidence interval, -302 to -70) than postmenopausal women who experienced menopause at a later age (≥45 yr). No association was observed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio. Adjustment for early-life confounders strengthened these associations.Conclusions: This study provides new evidence that early menopause is associated with reduced lung function that is suggestive of restriction, but not obstruction, even after adjustment for early-life confounders. Given the important link between poor lung function and mortality, clinicians should be aware of the risk of diminished lung function in postmenopausal women who experience menopause at an early age.

6.
Respirology ; 25(3): 289-297, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early menarche is increasing in prevalence worldwide, prompting clinical and public health interest on its links with pulmonary function. We aimed to investigate the relationship between early menarche and lung function in middle age. METHODS: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (born 1961; n = 8583), was initiated in 1968. The 5th Decade follow-up data (mean age: 45 years) included age at menarche and complex lung function testing. The 6th Decade follow-up (age: 53 years) repeated spirometry and gas transfer factor. Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were performed to determine the association between age at menarche and adult lung function and investigate biological pathways, including the proportion mediated by adult-attained height. RESULTS: Girls reporting an early menarche (<12 years) were measured to be taller with greater lung function at age 7 years compared with those reporting menarche ≥12 years. By 45 years of age, they were shorter and had lower post-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (adjusted mean difference: -133 mL; 95% CI: -233, -33), forced vital capacity (-183 mL; 95% CI: -300, -65) and functional residual capacity (-168 mL; 95% CI: -315, -21). Magnitudes of spirometric deficits were similar at age 53 years. Forty percent of these total effects were mediated through adult-attained height. CONCLUSION: Early menarche was associated with reduced adult lung function. This is the first study to investigate post-BD outcomes and quantify the partial role of adult height in this association.

7.
Environ Res ; 181: 108911, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thunderstorm asthma is defined as epidemics of asthma occurring shortly after a thunderstorm. While grass pollen has been implicated in thunderstorm asthma events, little is known about the role of fungi and studies have not been synthesised. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to evaluate whether grass pollen is necessary in thunderstorm asthma events and whether fungi also play a part in these associations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using six electronic databases (i.e. CINAHL, Medline (Ovid), Web of Science, ProQuest Central, EMBASE and Google Scholar) and checked reference lists. The search terms used were pollen AND thunderstorm* AND asthma. The inclusion criteria were studies published in English with original human data relating to outdoor pollen and thunderstorm asthma. RESULTS: Twenty of 2198 studies were eligible. Reported findings differed due to variation in methodological approaches and a meta-analysis was not possible. Nonetheless, of the 20 studies included, 15 demonstrated some relationship with nine demonstrating lagged effects up to four days for increasing grass pollen counts associated with increased risk of thunderstorm asthma. Of the 10 studies that examined fungi, nine demonstrated a positive relationship with thunderstorm asthma. The fungal taxa involved varied, depending on whether measurements were recorded before, during or after the thunderstorm. Nevertheless, none of the studies considered fungi as a potential effect modifier for the pollen-thunderstorm asthma association. CONCLUSION: We found evidence to suggest that grass pollen was a necessary factor for thunderstorm asthma but there are other as yet unrecognised environmental factors that may also be important. Further research is required to examine the role of fungi and other environmental factors such as air quality as potential effect modifiers of the association.

8.
Chest ; 157(2): 334-341, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is ongoing debate regarding the impact of early postnatal exposure to antibiotics on the development of asthma, the possibility that antibiotic exposure may impair lung function has not previously been examined. Furthermore, it is unclear if specific types of antibiotics may have a greater effect, or if children with genetic mutations in the oxidative stress response glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily may be at greater risk. METHODS: Parent-reported data of childhood antibiotic use from birth to 2 years, including type and indication, were collected from a birth cohort of 620 infants with a family history of allergy. Spirometry was performed at age 12 and 18 years, and results are presented as z scores. Participants were genotyped for GST-P, GST-M, and GST-T polymorphisms. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations while adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: Neither increasing days of exposure nor earlier exposure to antibiotics was associated with reduced FEV1 (at 18 years, per doubling of days of exposure = -0.03 z score units; 95% CI, -0.11 to 0.04) or FVC (< 0.01; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.07). There was no evidence that GST-risk polymorphisms (M1, P1, and T1) increased susceptibility, and specific types of antibiotics also did not increase risk of lung function deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing exposure to oral antibiotics in early postnatal life was not associated with reduced lung function in children with a family history of allergic diseases. Although unwarranted use of antibiotics in children should be minimized, concerns regarding long-term lung health should not be a driving influence for this rationalization of use.

9.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(3): 302-312, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800292

RESUMO

Rationale: Interactions between early life and adult insults on lung function decline are not well understood, with most studies investigating prebronchodilator (pre-BD) FEV1 decline.Objectives: To investigate relationships between adult risk factors and pre- and post-BD lung function decline and their potential effect modification by early life and genetic factors.Methods: Multiple regression was used to examine associations between adult exposures (asthma, smoking, occupational exposures, traffic pollution, and obesity) and decline in both pre- and post-BD spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) between ages 45 and 53 years in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (n = 857). Effect modification of these relationships by childhood respiratory risk factors, including low childhood lung function and GST (glutathione S-transferase) gene polymorphisms, was investigated.Results: Baseline asthma, smoking, occupational exposure to vapors/gases/dusts/fumes, and living close to traffic were associated with accelerated decline in both pre- and post-BD FEV1. These factors were also associated with FEV1/FVC decline. Occupational exposure to aromatic solvents was associated with pre-BD but not post-BD FEV1 decline. Maternal smoking accentuated the effect of personal smoking on pre- and post-BD FEV1 decline. Lower childhood lung function and having the GSTM1 null allele accentuated the effect of occupational exposure to vapors/gases/dusts/fumes and personal smoking on post-BD FEV1 decline. Incident obesity was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and more pronounced in FVC.Conclusions: This study provides new evidence for accentuation of individual susceptibility to adult risk factors by low childhood lung function, GSTM1 genotype, and maternal smoking.

10.
Thorax ; 75(1): 28-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adult spirometry following community-acquired childhood pneumonia has variably been reported as showing obstructive or non-obstructive deficits. We analysed associations between doctor-diagnosed childhood pneumonia/pleurisy and more comprehensive lung function in a middle-aged general population cohort born in 1961. METHODS: Data were from the prospective population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort. Analysed lung function was from ages 7 years (prebronchodilator spirometry only, n=7097), 45 years (postbronchodilator spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor and static lung volumes, n=1220) and 53 years (postbronchodilator spirometry and transfer factor, n=2485). Parent-recalled histories of doctor-diagnosed childhood pneumonia and/or pleurisy were recorded at age 7. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used. RESULTS: At age 7, compared with no episodes, childhood pneumonia/pleurisy-ever was associated with reduced FEV1:FVC for only those with current asthma (beta-coefficient or change in z-score=-0.20 SD, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.02, p=0.028, p interaction=0.036). At age 45, for all participants, childhood pneumonia/pleurisy-ever was associated with a restrictive pattern: OR 3.02 (1.5 to 6.0), p=0.002 for spirometric restriction (FVC less than the lower limit of normal plus FEV1:FVC greater than the lower limit of normal); total lung capacity z-score -0.26 SD (95% CI -0.38 to -0.13), p<0.001; functional residual capacity -0.16 SD (-0.34 to -0.08), p=0.001; and residual volume -0.18 SD (-0.31 to -0.05), p=0.008. Reduced lung volumes were accompanied by increased carbon monoxide transfer coefficient at both time points (z-score +0.29 SD (0.11 to 0.49), p=0.001 and +0.17 SD (0.04 to 0.29), p=0.008, respectively). DISCUSSION: For this community-based population, doctor-diagnosed childhood pneumonia and/or pleurisy were associated with obstructed lung function at age 7 for children who had current asthma symptoms, but with evidence of 'smaller lungs' when in middle age.

11.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105160, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater levels of serum per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are known to be associated with higher uric acid which itself leads to a number of chronic diseases. However, whether this association varies across PFAS isomers which recently have been found to be associated with human health remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To address this research gap, we explored isomer-specific associations between serum PFAS and uric acid in Chinese adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of associations between serum PFAS isomer and serum uric acid in 1612 participants from the Isomer of C8 Health Project. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze serum isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and other PFASs as continuous and categorical predictors of uric acid, adjusted for confounders. The association was also stratified by kidney function stage based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GF-1, GF-2, GF-3a, and GF-3b/4). RESULTS: We found positive associations between serum PFAS isomer concentrations and uric acid. Uric acid levels were greater for each log-unit increase in branched PFOA (ß = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.40), linear PFOA (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26), branched PFOS (ß = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17) and linear PFOS (ß = 0.06, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.14) concentration. The associations between PFAS and uric acid showed an inverted 'U' shaped pattern across kidney function stages. For example, uric acid level was greater with each log-unit increase in total-PFOA among GF-1 (ß = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.37), this relationship was greater in GF-3a (ß = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.89) and decreased in GF-3b/4 (ß = -0.22, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.39). We also found the odds of hyperuricemia increased linearly with increasing branched PFOA in quartiles (odds ratio = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.86, 3.85 at the highest quartile). CONCLUSION: We report novel results in which PFAS associations with uric acid varied according to isomer and adult kidney function. Besides, our findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies in finding a positive association between serum PFAS concentrations and serum uric acid, especially for PFOA. Our results indicate that more research is needed to more clearly assess the impact of PFAS isomers on human health, which will help to refine regulation policies for PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Isomerismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Úrico/química
12.
J Asthma ; : 1-9, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380704

RESUMO

Background: While atopic conditions are associated with increased risk of mental health problems, the evidence that a range of allergic conditions are associated with psychological distress in young people is less clear. Methods: We recruited a longitudinal birth cohort study of 620 children with a family history of allergic disease. At the 18-year follow up, atopic sensitization was determined by skin prick testing. Surveys were used to determine psychological distress (Kessler 6), quality of life (SF12), respiratory symptoms and management, presence of current eczema and hay fever. Regression models were used to identify predictors of psychological distress and quality of life, while controlling for potential confounders. Results: Prevalence of serious psychological distress was quite low (n = 22, 5.3%), and there were no associations between psychological distress and current atopic sensitization, symptoms of hay fever, eczema or asthma. Smoking status and lower level of maternal education were associated with lower physical quality of life (SF12 PCS subscale). Psychological distress total score, lower maternal education, smoking, female sex, and current eczema were associated with worse mental quality of life (SF12 MCS subscale). Conclusion: We found relatively low levels of psychological distress in this cohort of young adults, despite a high prevalence of allergic diseases. Positive social factors may serve to buffer psychological distress amongst the cohort accounting for the low prevalence of serious psychological distress observed.

13.
Environ Res ; 178: 108675, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many outdoor fungal spores are ubiquitous, respirable and possibly allergenic. They may contribute to asthma symptoms; however, little is known about their effects on respiratory function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if outdoor fungal spore levels were associated with lung function or airway inflammation, and whether fungal sensitization or current asthma modified any associations. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between same day (Lag0) and cumulative 3-day lagged (Lag0-3) counts of 12 outdoor fungal spore taxa and pre-bronchodilator spirometry (FEV1, FVC, FEF25%-75%), bronchodilator response (BDR) and airway inflammation (fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) nitrogen oxides (NOx) and pH were investigated in 936 Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study participants during September 2009 to December 2011. Generalized linear models were used to quantify associations with lung function, FeNO and EBC pH; generalized estimating equations for BDR; and ordinal logistic regression for EBC NOx. Models were adjusted for age, sex, height, temperature, relative humidity, grass pollen and sample storage time. Potential effect modification by fungal sensitization and current asthma were examined using interaction terms. RESULTS: Mixed associations were found. Higher levels of Ustilago/smuts were associated with lower lung function at Lag0 (FEV1: 21ml [95%CI -36, -7]; FEF25%-75%: 39ml [-65, -13]) and Lag0-3 (FEV1: 9ml [-14, -4]; FEF25%-75% -18ml [-27, -9]). Positive BDR was associated with Ustilago/smuts (Lag0 OR = 1.1 [1.04, 1.2]; Lag0-3 OR = 1.04 [1.02, 1.07]), Alternaria (Lag0 OR = 1.3 [1.0, 1.6]) and Drechslera (Lag0 OR = 1.1 [1.03, 1.2]). Higher EBC NOx was associated with Cladosporium (Lag0-3 OR = 1.1 [1.0, 1.2]), Alternaria (Lag0-3 OR = 1.1 [1.0, 1.3]). No associations were found with higher FeNO. In those with fungal sensitization, Ustilago/smuts and Drechslera were associated with lower FEV1 and FVC; Cladosporium was associated with increased FEV1, FVC and FEF25%-75% but also with higher FeNO and lower EBC pH. In those with current asthma, Alternaria, Ustilago/smuts and Drechslera were associated with lower FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75% and EBC pH. CONCLUSION: Exposure to outdoor fungal spores may be associated with lower lung function and increased airway inflammation, particularly in those with fungal sensitization and/or current asthma.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248069

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether history of asthma/allergies in childhood was associated with avoidance of jobs with exposure to asthmagens in early adulthood. The Melbourne Atopic Cohort Study recruited 620 children at high risk of allergic diseases at birth (1990-1994). Asthma, hay fever and eczema were evaluated by questionnaires during childhood. A follow-up in early adulthood (mean age: 18 years) collected information on the current job. Occupational exposure to asthmagens/irritants was evaluated using a job-exposure matrix. The association between history of asthma/allergies in childhood and working in a job with exposure to asthmagens/irritants was evaluated by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex and parental education. Among 363 participants followed-up until early adulthood, 17% worked in a job with exposure to asthmagens/irritants. History of asthma (35%) was not associated with working in an exposed job (adjusted OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.65-2.09). Subjects with history of hay fever (37%) and eczema (40%) were more likely to enter exposed jobs (significant for hay fever: 1.78, 1.00-3.17; but not eczema: 1.62, 0.91-2.87). In conclusion, young adults with history of allergies were more likely to enter exposed jobs, suggesting no avoidance of potentially hazardous exposures. Improved counselling against high risk jobs may be needed for young adults with these conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/complicações , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(6): 754-769, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An infant's age at introduction of complementary solids may contribute to food allergy. We aimed to synthesize the literature on the association between age at introduction of complementary solids, excluding milk products, and food allergy and sensitization. DESIGN: We searched the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE (January 1946-February 2017) using solid food, allergy and sensitization terms. METHODS: Two authors selected papers according to inclusion criteria, identifying 16 cohort studies, 1 case-control study and 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Pooled effects across studies were estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Cohort studies-Introducing complementary solids at age ≥ 4 months vs <4 months was not associated with food allergy (OR 1.22; 95% CI, 0.76-1.96) but was associated with food sensitization (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.57-2.38). First exposure from age 4 to 6 months vs <4 months was not associated with food allergy (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.64-1.60) but was associated with food sensitization (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.55-3.86). Randomized controlled trials-Egg exposure from age 4 months was associated with reduced egg allergy (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.44-0.90) and sensitization (OR 0.76, 95% CI, 0.51-0.95). Peanut exposure from age 4 months compared to delayed exposure was associated with reduced peanut allergy (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14-0.57). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence from observational studies that introducing solids before 4 months protected against food allergy, but there was evidence for protection against food sensitization. From RCTs, introducing egg from 4 to 6 months and peanut from 4 to 11 months reduced the risk of egg allergy, peanut allergy and egg sensitization. PROSPERO systematic review registry (CRD42016033473).

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e024594, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The skin is an important barrier against environmental allergens, but infants have relatively impaired skin barrier function. There is evidence that impaired skin barrier function increases the risk of allergic sensitisation, atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy. We hypothesise that regular prophylactic use of emollients, particularly those that are designed to improve skin barrier structure and function, will help prevent these conditions. With the aim of determining if application of a ceramide-dominant emollient two times per day reduces the risk of AD and food allergy, we have commenced a multicentre phase III, outcome assessor blinded, randomised controlled trial of this emollient applied from birth to 6 months. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Infants (n=760) with a family history of allergic disease will be recruited from maternity hospitals in Melbourne. The primary outcomes are as follows: the presence of AD, assessed using the UK Working Party criteria, and food allergy using food challenge, in the first 12 months of life as assessed by a blinded study outcome assessor. Secondary outcomes are as follows: food sensitisation (skin prick test), skin barrier function, AD severity, the presence of new onset AD after treatment cessation (between 6 and 12 months) and the presence of parent reported AD/eczema. Recruitment commenced in March 2018. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The PEBBLES Study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) (#37090A) and the Mercy Hospital for Women (2018-008). Parents or guardians will provide written informed consent. Outcomes will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presented at scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ACTRN12617001380381 and NCT03667651.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 663: 60-67, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry and for commercial products. Their immunomodulatory effects are a growing health concern in children. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common childhood viral infection, and increased incidence of which has parallel the rise in PFAS exposure in the Asia-Pacific region. OBJECTIVE: We conducted the first study to assess whether prenatal exposure to PFAS was associated with a reduction in HFMD virus antibodies in infants. METHODS: We enrolled 201 mother-infant pairs from the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study from July to October 2013. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to determine concentrations of specific PFAS isomers in cord blood. Neutralizing antibodies titers were measured against two HFMD viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16), in cord blood serum and blood serum at three months of age. RESULTS: Higher umbilical cord blood PFAS concentrations were associated with lower EV71 and CA16 antibody concentrations. A doubling in the composite sum of cord blood PFASs in three month old infants was associated with significant increase in the risk of HFMD antibody concentration below clinical protection level (≥1:8 titers) for CA16 (odds ratio, OR: 2.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 5.61] and for EV71 (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.45, 4.28). This association was higher in boys at three months of age for CA16. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cord blood PFAS exposure is associated with lower HFMD antibody in infancy. Given the widespread nature of PFAS exposures and the high global incidence of HFMD globally, these findings have substantial public health implications and therefore, these associations need to be replicated in a larger study to more definitively address the risk.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/virologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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