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1.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases continue to play an important role for disease perception, health-economic considerations and public health in Germany. In recent years, infectious diseases have been linked to the development of non-communicable diseases. Analyses of the German National Cohort (GNC) may provide deeper insights into this issue and pave the way for new targeted approaches in disease prevention. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the tools used to assess infectious diseases and to present initial data on infectious disease frequencies, as well as to relate the GNC assessment tools to data collection methods in other studies in Germany. METHODS: As part of the baseline examination, questions regarding infectious diseases were administered using both an interview and a self-administered touchscreen questionnaire. Data from the initial 101,787 GNC participants were analysed. RESULTS: In the interview, 0.2% (HIV/AIDS) to 8.6% (shingles) of respondents reported ever having a medical diagnosis of shingles, postherpetic neuralgia (in cases where shingles was reported), hepatitis B/C, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis or sepsis if treated in hospital. In the questionnaire, 12% (cystitis) to 81% (upper respiratory tract infections) of respondents reported having experienced at least one occurrence of upper or lower respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, cystitis or fever within the past 12 months. OUTLOOK: The cross-sectional analyses of data and tools presented here - for example on determinants of susceptibility to self-reported infections - can be anticipated from the year 2021 onward. Beyond that, more extensive research into infectious disease epidemiology will follow, particularly once analyses of GNC biological materials have been performed.

2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caries and periodontitis are highly prevalent worldwide. Because detailed data on these oral diseases were collected within the framework of the German National Cohort (GNC), associations between oral and systemic diseases and conditions can be investigated. OBJECTIVES: The study protocol for the oral examination was designed to ensure a comprehensive collection of dental findings by trained non-dental staff within a limited examination time. At the mid-term of the GNC baseline examination, a first quality evaluation was performed to check the plausibility of results and to propose measures to improve the data quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A dental interview, saliva sampling and oral diagnostics were conducted. As part of the level­1 examination, the number of teeth and prostheses were recorded. As part of the level­2 examination, detailed periodontal, cariological and functional aspects were examined. All examinations were conducted by trained non-dental personnel. Parameters were checked for plausibility and variable distributions were descriptively analysed. RESULTS: Analyses included data of 57,967 interview participants, 56,913 level­1 participants and 6295 level­2 participants. Percentages of missing values for individual clinical parameters assessed in level 1 and level 2 ranged between 0.02 and 3.9%. Results showed a plausible distribution of the data; rarely, implausible values were observed, e.g. for measurements of horizontal and vertical overbite (overjet and overbite). Intra-class correlation coefficients indicated differences in individual parameters between regional clusters, study centres and across different examiners. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the feasibility of the study protocol by non-dental personnel and its successful integration into the GNC's overall assessment program. However, rigorous dental support of the study centres is required for quality management.

3.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198502

RESUMO

We have carried out meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (n = 23 784) of the first two principal components (PCs) that group together cortical regions with shared variance in their surface area. PC1 (global) captured variations of most regions, whereas PC2 (visual) was specific to the primary and secondary visual cortices. We identified a total of 18 (PC1) and 17 (PC2) independent loci, which were replicated in another 25 746 individuals. The loci of the global PC1 included those associated previously with intracranial volume and/or general cognitive function, such as MAPT and IGF2BP1. The loci of the visual PC2 included DAAM1, a key player in the planar-cell-polarity pathway. We then tested associations with occupational aptitudes and, as predicted, found that the global PC1 was associated with General Learning Ability, and the visual PC2 was associated with the Form Perception aptitude. These results suggest that interindividual variations in global and regional development of the human cerebral cortex (and its molecular architecture) cascade-albeit in a very limited manner-to behaviors as complex as the choice of one's occupation.

4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In epidemiologic studies, standardised measurement of socio-demographic and employment-related factors is becoming increasingly important, as variables such as gender, age, education or employment status are factors influencing health and disease risks. AIMS: The article gives an overview of the scientific background and assessment of socio-demographic factors in the German National Cohort Study. In addition, the distribution of individual characteristics in the cohort as well as relationships with health-related measures are presented by way of example. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on the data of the first half of the baseline survey (n = 101,724). On this basis, we present the distribution of key socio-demographic characteristics and analyse relationships with exemplary selected health indicators (body mass index, self-reported health) to assess the validity of socio-demographic data measurements. RESULTS: On average, study participants were 52.0 years old (SD = 12.4). Of the participants, 53.6% were women, 54.3% had high education, 60.1% were married and 72% were employed while 3.4% were unemployed. Well-established correlations between socio-demographic factors and health could be reproduced with the German National Cohort data. For example, low education, old age and unemployment were associated with an increased prevalence of obesity and poor self-reported health. DISCUSSION: The German National Cohort provides a comprehensive measurement of socio-demographic characteristics. Combined with a wide range of health data and the longitudinal measurements available in the future, this opens up new opportunities for health science and social epidemiological research in Germany.


Assuntos
Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise annoyance is associated with adverse health-related conditions and reduced wellbeing. Thereby, subjective noise annoyance depends on the objective noise exposure and is modified by personal and regional factors. OBJECTIVE: How many participants of the German National Cohort Study (GNC; NAKO Gesundheitsstudie) were annoyed by transportation noise during nighttime and what factors were associated with noise annoyance? MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 86,080 participants from 18 study centers, examined from 2014 to 2017. We used multinomial logistic regression to investigate associations of personal and regional factors to noise annoyance (slightly/moderately or strongly/extremely annoyed vs. not annoyed) mutually adjusting for all factors in the model. RESULTS: Two thirds of participants were not annoyed by transportation noise during nighttime and one in ten reported strong/extreme annoyance with highest percentages for the study centers Berlin-Mitte and Leipzig. The strongest associations were seen for factors related to the individual housing situation like the bedroom being positioned towards a major road (OR of being slightly/moderately annoyed: 4.26 [95% CI: 4.01;4.52]; OR of being strongly/extremely annoyed: 13.36 [95% CI: 12.47;14.32]) compared to a garden/inner courtyard. Participants aged 40-60 years and those in low- and medium-income groups reported greater noise annoyance compared to younger or older ones and those in the high-income group. CONCLUSION: In this study from Germany, transportation noise annoyance during nighttime varied by personal and regional factors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Berlim , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072217

RESUMO

Physical fitness is defined as an individual's ability to be physically active. The main components are cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength, and flexibility. Regardless of physical activity level, physical fitness is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality.The aim of the current study was to describe the physical fitness assessment methodology in the German National Cohort (NAKO) and to present initial descriptive results in a subsample of the cohort.In the NAKO, hand grip strength (GS) and CRF as physical fitness components were assessed at baseline using a hand dynamometer and a submaximal bicycle ergometer test, respectively. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated as a result of the bicycle ergometer test. The results of a total of 99,068 GS measurements and 3094 CRF measurements are based on a data set at halftime of the NAKO baseline survey (age 20-73 years, 47% men).Males showed higher values of physical fitness compared to women (males: GS = 47.8 kg, VO2max = 36.4 ml·min-1 · kg-1; females: GS = 29.9 kg, VO2max = 32.3 ml · min-1 · kg-1). GS declined from the age of 50 onwards, whereas VO2max levels decreased continuously between the age groups of 20-29 and ≥60 years. GS and VO2max showed a linear positive association after adjustment for body weight (males ß = 0.21; females ß = 0.35).These results indicate that the physical fitness measured in the NAKO are comparable to other population-based studies. Future analyses in this study will focus on examining the independent relations of GS and CRF with risk of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide assessment of the respiratory status on the basis of standardized lung function measurements has so far not been available in Germany. The present work describes the lung function tests in the German National Cohort (GNC) and presents initial results based on the GNC Midterm Baseline Dataset. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of lung function in the GNC comprised spirometry (level 1) and the determination of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, level 2). Our quality assurance concept included regular training of lung function test procedures at various GNC sites, interim evaluations of test quality, as well as regular calibration/measurement checks of test equipment. For spirometry, we established a stepwise procedure for offline quality control based on raw flow volume curves. RESULTS: In the present dataset (n = 101,734), spirometry was available for 86,893 study participants and FeNO was available for 15,228 participants. The average (±SD) FEV1 Z score (according to GLI 2012) was -0.321 ± 1.047, the FVC Z score was -0.153 ± 0.941, and the FEV1/FVC Z score was -0.337 ± 0.901. The difference in FEV1/FVC between current smokers and never-smokers increased with age. The average FeNO was 14.2 ÷ 2.0 ppb. Current smoking reduced FeNO levels by 43%, whereas respiratory allergy increased FeNO levels by 16% in nonsmokers. DISCUSSION: The results of spirometry and the FeNO measurements are in the expected range with regard to their distributions and correlates. The GNC provides a valuable basis for future investigations of respiratory health and its determinants as well as research into the prevention of respiratory diseases in Germany.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Asma , Expiração , Alemanha , Humanos , Espirometria
8.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 28, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individualization and patient-specific optimization of treatment is a major goal of modern health care. One way to achieve this goal is the application of high-resolution diagnostics together with the application of targeted therapies. However, the rising number of different treatment modalities also induces new challenges: Whereas randomized clinical trials focus on proving average treatment effects in specific groups of patients, direct conclusions at the individual patient level are problematic. Thus, the identification of the best patient-specific treatment options remains an open question. Systems medicine, specifically mechanistic mathematical models, can substantially support individual treatment optimization. In addition to providing a better general understanding of disease mechanisms and treatment effects, these models allow for an identification of patient-specific parameterizations and, therefore, provide individualized predictions for the effect of different treatment modalities. RESULTS: In the following we describe a software framework that facilitates the integration of mathematical models and computer simulations into routine clinical processes to support decision-making. This is achieved by combining standard data management and data exploration tools, with the generation and visualization of mathematical model predictions for treatment options at an individual patient level. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating model results in an audit trail compatible manner into established clinical workflows, our framework has the potential to foster the use of systems-medical approaches in clinical practice. We illustrate the framework application by two use cases from the field of haematological oncology.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome is caused by variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In patients with Lynch syndrome, CRCs can develop via different pathways. We studied associations between Lynch syndrome-associated variants in MMR genes and risks of adenoma and CRC and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in tumors in an international cohort of patients. METHODS: We combined clinical and molecular data from 3 studies. We obtained clinical data from 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome associated with variants in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 from Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland who received at least 2 surveillance colonoscopies and were followed for a median time of 7.8 years for development of adenomas or CRC. We performed DNA sequence analyses of 48 colorectal tumors (from 16 patients with mutations in MLH1, 29 patients with mutations in MSH2, and 3 with mutations in MSH6) for somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1. RESULTS: Risk of advanced adenoma in 10 years was 17.8% in patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 7.7% in MLH1 (P < .001). Higher proportions of patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 or MSH2 developed CRC in 10 years (11.3% and 11.4%) than patients with pathogenic variants in MSH6 (4.7%) (P = .001 and P = .003 for MLH1 and MSH2 vs MSH6, respectively). Somatic mutations in APC were found in 75% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 11% in MLH1 (P = .015). Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 were found in 50% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 vs 7% in MSH2 (P = .002). None of the 3 tumors with pathogenic variants in MSH6 had a mutation in CTNNB1, but all had mutations in APC. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of clinical and DNA sequence data from patients with Lynch syndrome from 3 countries, we associated pathogenic variants in MMR genes with risk of adenoma and CRC, and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in colorectal tumors. If these findings are confirmed, surveillance guidelines might be adjusted based on MMR gene variants.

10.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 543-552, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530861

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a disease with heterogeneous outcome. Stromal signatures have been correlated to survival in DLBCL. Their use, however, is hampered by the lack of assays for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material (FFPE). We constructed a lymphoma-associated macrophage interaction signature (LAMIS) interrogating features of the microenvironment using a NanoString assay applicable to FFPE. The clinical impact of the signature could be validated in a cohort of 466 patients enrolled in prospective clinical trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Patients with high expression of the signature (LAMIShigh) had shorter EFS, PFS, and OS. Multivariate analyses revealed independence from IPI factors in EFS (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, p-value = 0.001), PFS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.5, p-value = 0.001) and OS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.7, p-value = 0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusted for the IPI factors showed the signature to be independent from COO, MYC rearrangements and double expresser status (DE). LAMIShigh and simultaneous DE status characterized a patient subgroup with dismal prognosis and early relapse. Our data underline the importance of the microenvironment in prognosis. Combined analysis of stromal features, the IPI and DE may provide a new rationale for targeted therapy.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 999-1009, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081934

RESUMO

Comparably little is known about breast cancer (BC) risks in women from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations despite an indicative family history, as opposed to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We determined the age-dependent risks of first and contralateral breast cancer (FBC, CBC) both in noncarriers and carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, who participated in an intensified breast imaging surveillance program. The study was conducted between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2017, at 12 university centers of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Two cohorts were prospectively followed up for incident FBC (n = 4,380; 16,398 person-years [PY], median baseline age: 39 years) and CBC (n = 2,993; 10,090 PY, median baseline age: 42 years). Cumulative FBC risk at age 60 was 61.8% (95% CI 52.8-70.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 43.2% (95% CI 32.1-56.3%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 15.7% (95% CI 11.9-20.4%) for noncarriers. FBC risks were significantly higher than in the general population, with incidence rate ratios of 23.9 (95% CI 18.9-29.8) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 13.5 (95% CI 9.2-19.1) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 4.9 (95% CI 3.8-6.3) for BRCA1/2 noncarriers. Cumulative CBC risk 10 years after FBC was 25.1% (95% CI 19.6-31.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 6.6% (95% CI 3.4-12.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 3.6% (95% CI 2.2-5.7%) for noncarriers. CBC risk in noncarriers was similar to women with unilateral BC from the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm whether less intensified surveillance is justified in women from BRCA1/2 negative families with elevated risk.

12.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

13.
Ophthalmology ; 127(3): 357-368, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of sex on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at 768 circumpapillary locations based on OCT findings. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We investigated 5646 eyes of 5646 healthy participants from the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE)-Adult Study of a predominantly white population. METHODS: All participants underwent standardized systemic assessments and ocular imaging. Circumpapillary RNFL (cRNFL) thickness was measured at 768 points equidistant from the optic nerve head using spectral-domain OCT (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). To control ocular magnification effects, the true scanning radius was estimated by scanning focus. Student t test was used to evaluate sex differences in cRNFL thickness globally and at each of the 768 locations. Multivariable linear regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate individual contributions of various factors to cRNFL thickness variance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference in cRNFL thickness between males and females. RESULTS: Our population consisted of 54.8% females. The global cRNFL thickness was 1 µm thicker in females (P < 0.001). However, detailed analysis at each of the 768 locations revealed substantial location specificity of the sex effects, with RNFL thickness difference ranging from -9.98 to +8.00 µm. Females showed significantly thicker RNFLs in the temporal, superotemporal, nasal, inferonasal, and inferotemporal regions (43.6% of 768 locations), whereas males showed significantly thicker RNFLs in the superior region (13.2%). The results were similar after adjusting for age, body height, and scanning radius. The superotemporal and inferotemporal RNFL peaks shifted temporally in females by 2.4° and 1.9°, respectively. On regions with significant sex effects, sex explained more RNFL thickness variance than age, whereas the major peak locations and interpeak angle explained most of the RNFL thickness variance unexplained by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial sex effects on cRNFL thickness were found at 56.8% of all 768 circumpapillary locations, with specific patterns for different sectors. Over large regions, sex was at least as important in explaining the cRNFL thickness variance as was age, which is well established to have a substantial impact on cRNFL thickness. Including sex in the cRNFL thickness norm could therefore improve glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring.

14.
Lancet ; 394(10216): 2271-2281, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) are the standard treatment for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In the FLYER trial, we assessed whether four cycles of CHOP plus six applications of rituximab are non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP in a population of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with favourable prognosis. METHODS: This two-arm, open-label, international, multicentre, prospective, randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial was done at 138 clinical sites in Denmark, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Germany. We enrolled patients aged 18-60 years, with stage I-II disease, normal serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration, ECOG performance status 0-1, and without bulky disease (maximal tumour diameter <7·5 cm). Randomisation was computer-based and done centrally in a 1:1 ratio using the Pocock minimisation algorithm after stratification for centres, stage (I vs II), and extralymphatic sites (no vs yes). Patients were assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. CHOP comprised cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and vincristine (1·4 mg/m2, with a maximum total dose of 2 mg), all administered intravenously on day 1, plus oral prednisone or prednisolone at the discretion of the investigator (100 mg) administered on days 1-5. Rituximab was given at a dose of 375 mg/m2 of body surface area. Cycles were repeated every 21 days. No radiotherapy was planned except for testicular lymphoma treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival after 3 years. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of assigned treatment. A non-inferiority margin of -5·5% was chosen. The trial, which is completed, was prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00278421. FINDINGS: Between Dec 2, 2005, and Oct 7, 2016, 592 patients were enrolled, of whom 295 patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of R-CHOP and 297 were assigned to receive four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. Four patients in the four-cycles group withdrew informed consent before the start of treatment, so 588 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After a median follow-up of 66 months (IQR 42-100), 3-year progression-free survival of patients who had four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab was 96% (95% CI 94-99), which was 3% better (lower limit of the one-sided 95% CI for the difference was 0%) than six cycles of R-CHOP, demonstrating the non-inferiority of the four-cycles regimen. 294 haematological and 1036 non-haematological adverse events were documented in the four-cycles group compared with 426 haematological and 1280 non-haematological adverse events in the six-cycles group. Two patients, both in the six-cycles group, died during study therapy. INTERPRETATION: In young patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and favourable prognosis, four cycles of R-CHOP is non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP, with relevant reduction of toxic effects. Thus, chemotherapy can be reduced without compromising outcomes in this population. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dinamarca , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Israel , Itália , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Noruega , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mol Metab ; 29: 76-85, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human blood metabolites are influenced by a number of lifestyle and environmental factors. Identification of these factors and the proper quantification of their relevance provides insights into human biological and metabolic disease processes, is key for standardized translation of metabolite biomarkers into clinical applications, and is a prerequisite for comparability of data between studies. However, so far only limited data exist from large and well-phenotyped human cohorts and current methods for analysis do not fully account for the characteristics of these data. The primary aim of this study was to identify, quantify and compare the impact of a comprehensive set of clinical and lifestyle related factors on metabolite levels in three large human cohorts. To achieve this goal, we improve current methodology by developing a principled analysis approach, which could be translated to other cohorts and metabolite panels. METHODS: 63 Metabolites (amino acids, acylcarnitines) were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in three cohorts (total N = 16,222). Supported by a simulation study evaluating various analytical approaches, we developed an analysis pipeline including preprocessing, identification, and quantification of factors affecting metabolite levels. We comprehensively identified uni- and multivariable metabolite associations considering 29 environmental and clinical factors and performed metabolic pathway enrichment and network analyses. RESULTS: Inverse normal transformation of batch corrected and outlier removed metabolite levels accompanied by linear regression analysis proved to be the best suited method to deal with the metabolite data. Association analyses revealed numerous uni- and multivariable significant associations. 15 of the analyzed 29 factors explained >1% of variance for at least one of the metabolites. Strongest factors are application of steroid hormones, reticulocytes, waist-to-hip ratio, sex, haematocrit, and age. Effect sizes of factors are comparable across studies. CONCLUSIONS: We introduced a principled approach for the analysis of MS data allowing identification, and quantification of effects of clinical and lifestyle factors with metabolite levels. We detected a number of known and novel associations broadening our understanding of the regulation of the human metabolome. The large heterogeneity observed between cohorts could almost completely be explained by differences in the distribution of influencing factors emphasizing the necessity of a proper confounder analysis when interpreting metabolite associations.

16.
Z Gastroenterol ; 57(11): 1309-1320, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome and accounts for ~3 % of all CRCs. This autosomal dominant disorder is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM). One in 300 individuals of the general population are considered to be mutation carriers (300 000 individuals/Germany). Mutation carriers are at a high CRC risk of 15-46 % till the age of 75 years. LS also includes a variety of extracolonic malignancies such as endometrial, small bowel, gastric, urothelial, and other cancers. METHODS: The German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer consists of 14 university centers in Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and evaluate surveillance programs and to further translate the results in clinical care. We have revisited and updated the clinical management guidelines for LS patients in Germany. RESULTS: A surveillance colonoscopy should be performed every 12-24 months starting at the age of 25 years. At diagnosis of first colorectal cancer, an oncological resection is advised, an extended resection (colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis) has to be discussed with the patient. The lifetime risk for gastric cancer is 0.2-13 %. Gastric cancers detected during surveillance have a lower tumor stage compared to symptom-driven detection. The lifetime risk for small bowel cancer is 4-8 %. About half of small bowel cancer is located in the duodenum and occurs before the age of 35 years in 10 % of all cases. Accordingly, patients are advised to undergo an esophagogastroduodenoscopy every 12-36 months starting by the age of 25 years. CONCLUSION: LS colonic and extracolonic clinical management, surveillance and therapy are complex and several aspects remain unclear. In the future, surveillance and clinical management need to be more tailored to gene and gender. Future prospective trials are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750255

RESUMO

Background: Activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) is a hallmark of most cancers, and is required to prevent genome instability and to establish cellular immortality through reconstitution of capping of chromosome ends. TMM depends on the cancer type. Comparative studies linking tumor biology and TMM have potential impact for evaluating cancer onset and development. Methods: We have studied alterations of telomere length, their sequence composition and transcriptional regulation in mismatch repair deficient colorectal cancers arising in Lynch syndrome (LS-CRC) and microsatellite instable (MSI) sporadic CRC (MSI s-CRC), and for comparison, in microsatellite stable (MSS) s-CRC and in benign colon mucosa. Our study applied bioinformatics analysis of whole genome DNA and RNA sequencing data and a pathway model to study telomere length alterations and the potential effect of the "classical" telomerase (TEL-) and alternative (ALT-) TMM using transcriptomic signatures. Results: We have found progressive decrease of mean telomere length in all cancer subtypes compared with reference systems. Our results support the view that telomere attrition is an early event in tumorigenesis. TMM gets activated in all tumors studied due to concerted overexpression of a large fraction of genes with direct relation to telomere function, where only a very small fraction of them showed recurrent mutations. TEL-related transcriptional state was dominating in all CRC subtypes, showing, however, subtype-specific activation patterns; while contribution of the ALT-TMM was slightly more prominent in the hypermutated MSI s-CRC and LS-CRC. TEL-TMM is mainly activated by over-expression of DKC1 and/or TERT genes and their interaction partners, where DKC1 is more prominent in MSS than in MSI s-CRC and can serve as a transcriptomic marker of TMM activity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that transcriptional patterns are indicative for TMM pathway activation with subtle differences between TEL and ALT mechanisms in a CRC subtype-specific fashion. Sequencing data potentially provide a suited measure to study alterations of telomere length and of underlying transcriptional regulation. Further studies are needed to improve this method.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 297: 61-65, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electro-anatomical remodeling in atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with disease initiation and progression. Troponin T (TropT) - a specific biomarker for myocardial damage - is associated with AF incidence. However, its association with AF progression is understudied. The aim of the current analysis was to investigate the association between TropT and AF progression phenotypes: persistent AF and left atrial low voltage areas (LVAs). METHODS: Patients undergoing first AF ablation were included into analyses. LVAs were determined using high-density maps and defined as <0.5 mV. Blood samples from femoral vein were collected before catheter ablation. The analysis of TropT serum concentrations was performed using a high-sensitive assay from Roche Diagnostics. Biomarkers, clinical, anthropometric and echocardiographic data were compared with healthy individuals from the epidemiological cohort. RESULTS: The study included 824 healthy individuals without overt cardiovascular disease (54 ±â€¯10 years, 40% males) from epidemiological cohort and 241 AF patients (64 ±â€¯11 years, 59% males, 59% persistent AF, 27% LVAs). Patients with AF had higher TropT levels and larger left atrium (LA), while healthy individuals had better renal function and ejection fraction (all p < 0.001). In clinical cohort, there were significant differences between TropT levels according to AF progression groups: paroxysmal AF without/with LVAs (n = 86/12), persistent AF without/with LVAs (n = 90/53): means 7.3, 12.9, 8.4, 11.3 pg/ml, p < 0.001, respectively. Similar findings were observed for LA and renal function (all p < 0.001). On ROC analysis, TropT significantly predicted LVAs (AUC 0.675, 95%CI 0.598-0.752, p < 0.001) in AF patients. CONCLUSIONS: TropT may be useful to differentiate AF progression phenotypes.

19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 135, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation in epidemiologic studies is steadily declining, which may result in selection bias. It is therefore an ongoing challenge to clarify the determinants of participation to judge possible selection effects and to derive measures to minimise that bias. We evaluated the potential for selection bias in a recent population-based cohort study with low baseline participation and investigated reasons for nonparticipation. METHODS: LIFE-Adult is a cohort study in the general population of the city of Leipzig (Germany) designed to gain insights into the distribution and development of civilisation diseases. Nine thousand one hundred forty-five participants aged 40-79 years were randomly sampled in 2011-2014. We compared LIFE-Adult participants with both the Leipzig population and nonparticipants using official statistics and short questionnaire data. We applied descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the determinants of study participation. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of the invited persons participated in the LIFE-Adult baseline examination. Study participants were less often elderly women and more often married, highly educated, employed, and current nonsmokers compared to both the Leipzig population and nonparticipants. They further reported better health than nonparticipants. The observed differences were considerable in education and health variables. They were generally stronger in men than in women. For example, in male study participants aged 50-69, the frequency of high education was 1.5 times that of the general population, and the frequency of myocardial infarction was half that of nonparticipants. Lack of time and interest, as well as health problems were the main reasons for nonparticipation. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation suggests that the low baseline participation in LIFE-Adult is associated with the typical selection of study participants with higher social status and healthier lifestyle, and additionally less disease. Notably, education and health status seem to be crucial selection factors. Consequently, frequencies of major health conditions in the general population will likely be underestimated. A differential selection related to sex might also distort effect estimates. The extent of the assessment, the interest in the research topic, and health problems of potential participants should in future be considered in LIFE-Adult and in similar studies to raise participation and to minimise selection bias.

20.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 193: 105409, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201927

RESUMO

New reference intervals need to be established for a new analytical method with improved sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to establish the new reference intervals from infancy to senescence of nine steroid hormones (cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, DHEAS, and aldosterone) for LC-MS/MS method. Serum samples from 4678 reference individuals (age range: 0.3-79 years) were measured with LC-MS/MS. Samples were collected between 7 a.m. and 10 a.m. Exclusion criteria were concomitant endocrine diseases and body mass index ≥ 33. Generalized additive model for location, scale and shape, the nonparametric or robust method was applied. We established the reference intervals of the nine steroid hormones by sex, age, and pubertal stage. Below the age of one, we observed the surge of androgen and estrogen which implied mini-puberty. At the same period of life, aldosterone and cortisone levels were very high reflecting physiological hyperaldosteronism. An increase of steroid hormones during the pubertal development and slow decrease towards senescence after the peak at early adulthood were observed. Due to the increase of CBG synthesis, cortisol levels were increased under oral contraceptives (OC) significantly (p < 0.0001), while OC suppressed progesterone, 17-OHP, androstenedione, and estradiol (p < 0.0001). Our results will facilitate the interpretation of patient data in routine diagnostics with the use of LC-MS/MS method. Since LC-MS/MS methods have shown good comparability among the different laboratories, our reference intervals can be further adopted in other laboratories equipped with LC-MS/MS, once the validation with a small number of reference samples is performed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Caracteres Sexuais , Esteroides/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Anticoncepcionais Orais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Puberdade/metabolismo , Valores de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
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