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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(4): 043901, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043012

RESUMO

We present a new measurement method which can be used to image the gap nodal structure of superconductors whose pairing symmetry is under debate. This technique utilizes a high quality factor microwave resonance involving the sample of interest. While supporting a circularly symmetric standing wave current pattern, the sample is perturbed by a scanned laser beam, creating a photoresponse that was previously shown to reveal the superconducting gap anisotropy. Simulation and the measurement of the photoresponse of an unpatterned Nb film show less than 8% anisotropy, as expected for a superconductor with a nearly isotropic energy gap along with expected systematic uncertainty. On the other hand, measurement of a YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film shows a clear 4-fold symmetric image with ∼12.5% anisotropy, indicating the well-known 4-fold symmetric dx2-y2 gap nodal structure in the ab-plane. The deduced gap nodal structure can be further cross-checked by low temperature surface impedance data, which are simultaneously measured. The important advantage of the presented method over the previous spiral resonator method is that it does not require a complicated lithographic patterning process which limits one from testing various kinds of materials due to photoresponse arising from patterning defects. This advantage of the presented technique, and the ability to measure unpatterned samples such as planar thin films and single crystals, enables one to survey the pairing symmetry of a wide variety of unconventional superconductors.

2.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4047-4054, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605918

RESUMO

We show that the chemical inhomogeneity in ternary three-dimensional topological insulators preserves the topological spin texture of their surface states against a net surface magnetization. The spin texture is that of a Dirac cone with helical spin structure in the reciprocal space, which gives rise to spin-polarized and dissipation-less charge currents. Thanks to the nontrivial topology of the bulk electronic structure, this spin texture is robust against most types of surface defects. However, magnetic perturbations break the time-reversal symmetry, enabling magnetic scattering and loss of spin coherence of the charge carriers. This intrinsic incompatibility precludes the design of magnetoelectronic devices based on the coupling between magnetic materials and topological surface states. We demonstrate that the magnetization coming from individual Co atoms deposited on the surface can disrupt the spin coherence of the carriers in the archetypal topological insulator Bi2Te3, while in Bi2Se2Te the spin texture remains unperturbed. This is concluded from the observation of elastic backscattering events in quasiparticle interference patterns obtained by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The mechanism responsible for the protection is investigated by energy resolved spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, and it is ascribed to the distorted adsorption geometry of localized magnetic moments due to Se-Te disorder, which suppresses the Co hybridization with the surface states.

3.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36212, 2016 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796339

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

4.
Sci Adv ; 2(9): e1600807, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704046

RESUMO

The mechanism of unconventional superconductivity in iron-based superconductors (IBSs) is one of the most intriguing questions in current materials research. Among non-oxide IBSs, (Ba1-x K x )Fe2As2 has been intensively studied because of its high superconducting transition temperature and fascinating evolution of the superconducting gap structure from being fully isotropic at optimal doping (x ≈ 0.4) to becoming nodal at x > 0.8. Although this marked evolution was identified in several independent experiments, there are no details of the gap evolution to date because of the lack of high-quality single crystals covering the entire K-doping range of the superconducting dome. We conducted a systematic study of the London penetration depth, λ(T), across the full phase diagram for different concentrations of point-like defects introduced by 2.5-MeV electron irradiation. Fitting the low-temperature variation with the power law, Δλ ~ Tn , we find that the exponent n is the highest and the Tc suppression rate with disorder is the smallest at optimal doping, and they evolve with doping being away from optimal, which is consistent with increasing gap anisotropy, including an abrupt change around x ≃ 0.8, indicating the onset of nodal behavior. Our analysis using a self-consistent t-matrix approach suggests the ubiquitous and robust nature of s± pairing in IBSs and argues against a previously suggested transition to a d-wave state near x = 1 in this system.


Assuntos
Compostos de Ferro/química , Fenômenos Físicos , Supercondutividade , Anisotropia , Temperatura Alta , Magnetismo/métodos , Fônons
5.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16540, 2015 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563908

RESUMO

We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. Our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(5): 057001, 2015 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699463

RESUMO

Inelastic neutron scattering is employed to investigate the impact of electronic nematic order on the magnetic spectra of LaFeAsO and Ba(Fe(0.953)Co(0.047))(2)As(2). These materials are ideal to study the paramagnetic-nematic state, since the nematic order, signaled by the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition at T(S), sets in well above the stripe antiferromagnetic ordering at T(N). We find that the temperature-dependent dynamic susceptibility displays an anomaly at T(S) followed by a sharp enhancement in the spin-spin correlation length, revealing a strong feedback effect of nematic order on the low-energy magnetic spectrum. Our findings can be consistently described by a model that attributes the structural or nematic transition to magnetic fluctuations, and unveils the key role played by nematic order in promoting the long-range stripe antiferromagnetic order in iron pnictides.

7.
Nature ; 496(7443): 69-73, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23552945

RESUMO

The technological demand to push the gigahertz (10(9) hertz) switching speed limit of today's magnetic memory and logic devices into the terahertz (10(12) hertz) regime underlies the entire field of spin-electronics and integrated multi-functional devices. This challenge is met by all-optical magnetic switching based on coherent spin manipulation. By analogy to femtosecond chemistry and photosynthetic dynamics--in which photoproducts of chemical and biochemical reactions can be influenced by creating suitable superpositions of molecular states--femtosecond-laser-excited coherence between electronic states can switch magnetic order by 'suddenly' breaking the delicate balance between competing phases of correlated materials: for example, manganites exhibiting colossal magneto-resistance suitable for applications. Here we show femtosecond (10(-15) seconds) photo-induced switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, by observing the establishment (within about 120 femtoseconds) of a huge temperature-dependent magnetization with photo-excitation threshold behaviour absent in the optical reflectivity. The development of ferromagnetic correlations during the femtosecond laser pulse reveals an initial quantum coherent regime of magnetism, distinguished from the picosecond (10(-12) seconds) lattice-heating regime characterized by phase separation without threshold behaviour. Our simulations reproduce the nonlinear femtosecond spin generation and underpin fast quantum spin-flip fluctuations correlated with coherent superpositions of electronic states to initiate local ferromagnetic correlations. These results merge two fields, femtosecond magnetism in metals and band insulators, and non-equilibrium phase transitions of strongly correlated electrons, in which local interactions exceeding the kinetic energy produce a complex balance of competing orders.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Magnéticos , Teoria Quântica , Biologia , Química , Dicroísmo Circular , Eletrônica , Ferro/química , Magnetismo , Óptica e Fotônica , Fotossíntese , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Sci Rep ; 2: 726, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23061009

RESUMO

Topological insulators, a new quantum state of matter, create exciting opportunities for studying topological quantum physics and for exploring spintronic applications due to their gapless helical metallic surface states. Here, we report the observation of weak anti-localization and quantum oscillations originated from surface states in Bi2Se2Te crystals. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements on cleaved Bi2Se2Te crystals show a well-defined linear dispersion without intersection of the conduction band. The measured weak anti-localization effect agrees well with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the extracted phase coherent length shows a power-law dependence with temperature (l(Φ)∼T⁻°·44), indicating the presence of the surface states. More importantly, the analysis of a Landau-level fan diagram of Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations yields a finite Berry phase of ∼0.42π, suggesting the Dirac nature of the surface states. Our results demonstrate that Bi2Se2Te can serve as a suitable topological insulator candidate for achieving intrinsic quantum transport of surface Dirac fermions.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(23): 236403, 2010 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231488

RESUMO

The heat capacity of MnSi at B = 0 and B = 4 T was measured in the temperature range 2.5-100 K. To analyze the data, calculations of the phonon spectrum and phonon density of states in MnSi were performed. The calculated phonon frequencies were confirmed by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The analysis of the data suggests the existence of negative contributions to the heat capacity and entropy of MnSi at T > T(c) that may imply a specific ordering in the spin subsystem in the paramagnetic phase of MnSi.

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