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Pharmaceutics ; 14(11)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432686


The advent of skin patch formulation design and technology has enabled the commercialisation of methyl salicylate (MS) as a topical patch. However, the most fundamental aspect of skin permeation is unknown at present. The study aims to investigate the effect of solvent choice on the skin permeation of MS in a neat solvent system and patch formulation with an emphasis on patch adhesion. MS in six selected solvents (propylene glycol (PG), Transcutol®, isopropyl myristate, Labrasol®, Plurol® oleique CC 497 and Maisine® CC) was characterised and in vitro permeation studies were also performed. An ATR-FTIR analysis on solvent-treated skin was conudcted. Patch formulation was prepared and characterised for adhesion, in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies. The highest MS permeation was found in neat PG over 24 h (~90 µg/cm2) due to its strong skin protein conformation effect. Transcutol® and isopropyl myristate showed better skin deposition and formulation retention, respectively. Nevertheless, PG enhanced the patch adhesion despite having a lower cumulative amount of MS permeated (~80 µg/cm2) as compared with Transcutol® and Maisine® (~110-150 µg/cm2). These two solvents, however, demonstrated better skin deposition and formulation retention but a lower patch adhesion. The unpredictable influence of the solvent on patch adhesion highlights the importance of the trade-off between patch adhesion and skin permeation during formulation design.

ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 796196, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25054185


Cross-linked resin-captured palladium (XL-QPPd) was readily prepared by simple physical adsorption onto the high loading QuadraPure macroporous resin and a subsequent reduction process. To enhance the mechanical stability, entrapped palladium nanocatalysts were cross-linked with succinyl chloride. Both transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters ranging in 4-10 nm. The catalyst performed good catalytic activity in microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in water under aerobic condition with mild condition by using various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid. In addition, the catalyst showed an excellent recyclability without significant loss of catalytic activity.

Nanopartículas/química , Paládio/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Catálise , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/química , Micro-Ondas , Oxigênio/química , Resinas Sintéticas/efeitos da radiação