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1.
Bioact Mater ; 9: 77-91, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820557

RESUMO

Dry eye is a common ocular disease that results in discomfort and impaired vision, impacting an individual's quality of life. A great number of drugs administered in eye drops to treat dry eye are poorly soluble in water and are rapidly eliminated from the ocular surface, which limits their therapeutic effects. Therefore, it is imperative to design a novel drug delivery system that not only improves the water solubility of the drug but also prolongs its retention time on the ocular surface. Herein, we develop a copolymer from mono-functional POSS, PEG, and PPG (MPOSS-PEG-PPG, MPEP) that exhibits temperature-sensitive sol-gel transition behavior. This thermo-responsive hydrogel improves the water solubility of FK506 and simultaneously provides a mucoadhesive, long-acting ocular delivery system. In addition, the FK506-loaded POSS hydrogel possesses good biocompatibility and significantly improves adhesion to the ocular surface. In comparison with other FK506 formulations and the PEG-PPG-FK506 (F127-FK506) hydrogel, this novel MPOSS-PEG-PPG-FK506 (MPEP-FK506) hydrogel is a more effective treatment of dry eye in the murine dry eye model. Therefore, delivery of FK506 in this POSS hydrogel has the potential to prolong drug retention time on the ocular surface, which will improve its therapeutic efficacy in the management of dry eye.

2.
Glob Chall ; 5(11): 2100030, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754506

RESUMO

To curb the spread of the COVID-19 virus, the use of face masks such as disposable surgical masks and N95 respirators is being encouraged and even enforced in some countries. The widespread use of masks has resulted in global shortages and individuals are reusing them. This calls for proper disinfection of the masks while retaining their protective capability. In this study, the killing efficiency of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation, dry heat, and steam sterilization against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), fungi (Candida albicans), and nonpathogenic virus (Salmonella virus P22) is investigated. UV-C irradiation for 10 min in a commercial UV sterilizer effectively disinfects surgical masks. N95 respirators require dry heat at 100 °C for hours while steam treatment works within 5 min. To address the question on safe reuse of the disinfected masks, their bacteria filtration efficiency, particle filtration efficiency, breathability, and fluid resistance are assessed. These performance factors are unaffected after 5 cycles of steam (10 min per cycle) and 10 cycles of dry heat at 100 °C (40 min per cycle) for N95 respirators, and 10 cycles of UV-C irradiation for surgical masks (10 min per side per cycle). These findings provide insights into formulating the standard procedures for reusing masks without compromising their protective ability.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103953, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796698

RESUMO

With the ever-rapid miniaturization of portable, wearable electronics and Internet of Things, the volumetric performance is becoming a much more pertinent figure-of-merit than the conventionally used gravimetric parameters to evaluate the charge-storage capacity of electrochemical capacitors (ECs). Thus, it is essential to design the ECs that can store as much energy as possible within a limited space. As the most critical component in ECs, "porous and yet dense" electrodes with large ion-accessible surface area and optimal packing density are crucial to realize desired high volumetric performance, which have demonstrated to be rather challenging. In this review, the principles and fundamentals of ECs are first observed, focusing on the key understandings of the different charge storage mechanisms in porous electrodes. The recent and latest advances in high-volumetric-performance ECs, developed by the rational design and fabrication of "porous and yet dense" electrodes are then examined. Particular emphasis of discussions then concentrates on the key factors impacting the volumetric performance of porous carbon-based electrodes. Finally, the currently faced challenges, further perspectives and opportunities on those purposely engineered porous electrodes for high-volumetric-performance EC are presented, aiming at providing a set of guidelines for further design of the next-generation energy storage devices.

4.
Chempluschem ; 86(11): 1537-1543, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806844

RESUMO

Organic additives can enhance the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) performance of inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbBr3 ) but volatility, potential hygroscopicity and oxidative degradation of these additives jeopardizes the thermal stability and shelf-life of blended CsPbBr3 films. To address this problem, we have fabricated perovskite films in a two-step solution protocol involving as little added polyethylene oxide (PEO) as possible. These films exhibited enhanced crystallization, improved photoluminescence (PL) intensity and prolonged lifetimes. Their hierarchical morphology and surface passivation lowered the ASE threshold from 278 to 176 µÐˆ/cm2 under one-photon nanosecond laser excitation. The proportion of added PEO was 0.3 wt% and was subsequently almost fully removed, thereby reducing its adverse influence on the stability of resulting films under continuous pulsed laser excitation. Stable ASE spectra could be stimulated after storage in air for 10 months.

5.
Biomaterials ; : 121262, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810039

RESUMO

Vitreous endotamponades play essential roles in facilitating retina recovery following vitreoretinal surgery, yet existing clinically standards are suboptimal as they can cause elevated intra-ocular pressure, temporary loss of vision, and cataracts while also requiring prolonged face-down positioning and removal surgery. These drawbacks have spurred the development of next-generation vitreous endotamponades, of which supramolecular hydrogels capable of in-situ gelation have emerged as top contenders. Herein, we demonstrate thermogels formed from hyper-branched amphiphilic copolymers as effective transparent and biodegradable vitreous endotamponades for the first time. These hyper-branched copolymers are synthesised via polyaddition of polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, poly(ε-caprolactone)-diol, and glycerol (branch inducing moiety) with hexamethylene diisocyanate. The hyper-branched thermogels are injected as sols and undergo spontaneous gelation when warmed to physiological temperatures in rabbit eyes. We found that polymers with an optimal degree of hyper-branching showed excellent biocompatibility and was able to maintain retinal function with minimal atrophy and inflammation, even at absolute molecular weights high enough to cause undesirable in-vivo effects for their linear counterparts. The hyper-branched thermogel is cleared naturally from the vitreous through surface hydrogel erosion and negates surgical removal. Our findings expand the scope of polymer architectures suitable for in-vivo intraocular therapeutic applications beyond linear constructs.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2107674, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755922

RESUMO

Aberrant glucose metabolism and immune evasion are recognized as two hallmarks of cancer, which contribute to poor treatment efficiency and tumor progression. Herein, a novel material system consisting of a glucose and TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl) at the distal ends of PEO-b-PLLA block copolymer (glucose-PEO-b-PLLA-TEMPO), is designed to encapsulate clinical therapeutics CUDC101 and photosensitizer IR780. The specific core-shell rod structure formed by the designed copolymer renders TEMPO radicals excellent stability against reduction-induced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) silence. Tumor-targeting moiety endowed by glucose provides the radical copolymer outstanding multimodal imaging capabilities, including MRI, photoacoustic imaging, and fluorescence imaging. Efficient delivery of CUDC101 and IR780 is achieved to synergize the antitumor immune activation through IR780-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) and CUDC101-triggered CD47 inhibition, showing M1 phenotype polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). More intriguingly, this study demonstrates PDT-stimulated p53 can also re-educate TAMs, providing a combined strategy of using dual tumor microenvironment remodeling to achieve the synergistic effect in the transition from cold immunosuppressive to hot immunoresponsive tumor microenvironment.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e2108360, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726299

RESUMO

The traditional intravitreal injection delivery of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) to the posterior segment of the eye for treatment of retinal diseases is invasive and associated with sight-threatening complications. To avoid such complications, there has been significant interest in developing polymers for topical drug delivery to the retina. This study reports a nanomicelle drug delivery system made of a co-polymer EPC (nEPCs), which is capable of delivering aflibercept to the posterior segment topically through corneal-scleral routes. EPC is comprised of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylglycol (PPG) and polycaprolactone (PCL) segments. In this study, aflibercept-loaded nEPCs (nEPCs+A) is capable of penetrating the cornea in ex-vivo porcine eye models and deliver a clinically significant amount of aflibercept to the retina of laser-induced choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) murine models, causing CNV regression. nEPCs+A also demonstrates biocompatibility in-vitro and in-vivo. Interestingly, this study also suggests that nEPCs have intrinsic anti-angiogenic properties. The ability to deliver anti-VEGF drugs and the intrinsic anti-angiogenic properties of nEPCs may result in synergistic effects which can be harnessed for effective therapeutics. nEPCs may be a promising topical anti-VEGF delivery platform for the treatment of retinal diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151084, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678364

RESUMO

The global massive consumption of disposable face masks driven by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a blooming disaster to both the land and marine environment that might last for generations. Growing public concerns have been raised over the management and control of this new form of plastic pollution, and one of the proposed sustainable solution is to use renewable and/or biodegradable resources to develop mask materials in order to minimize their environmental impacts. As a representative biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA) has been proposed as a promising candidate to produce non-woven face masks instead of those fossil-based polymers. To further explore the feasibility of this alternative mask material, the present work aims to study both the hydrolytic and bio-degradation behaviors of pure PLA-derived 3-ply disposable face masks at ambient temperature. Hydrolytic degradability was investigated at different pH conditions of 2, 7 and 13 with the whole piece of face mask soaked for regular timed intervals up to 8 weeks. Weight loss study showed neutral and acidic conditions had minimal effect on PLA masks, but rapid degradation occurred under basic conditions in the first week with a sharp 25% decrease in weight that slowly tapered off, coupled with solution pH dropping from 13 to 9.6. This trend was supported by mechanical property, bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) and particulate filtration efficiency (PFE) studies. Masks soaked in basic conditions had their modulus and tensile strength dropped by more than 50% after 8 weeks where the middle layer reached 68% and 90% respectively just after 48 h, and BFE and PFE decreased by 14% and 43% respectively after 4 weeks, which was much more significant than those in neutral and acidic conditions. Base degradation was also supported by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which disclosed that only the middle layer undergo major degradation with random chain scission and cleavage of enol or enolate chain ends, while outer and inner layers were much less affected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attributed this observation to thinner PLA fibers for the middle layer of 3-7 µm diameter, which on average is 3 times smaller. This degradation was further supported by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) which saw an increase in lower molecular weight fragment Mw ~ 800 Da with soaking duration. The biodegradation behavior was studied under OECD 301F specification in sewage sludge environment. Similarly, degradation to the middle meltblown layer was more extensive, where the average weight loss and carbon loss was 25.8% and 25.7% respectively, double that of outer/inner spunbond layer. The results showed that the face masks did not completely disintegrate after 8 weeks, but small solubilized fragments of PLA formed in the biodegradation process can be completely mineralized into carbon dioxide without generation of secondary microplastic pollution in the environment. PLA masks are therefore a slightly greener option to consider in times of a pandemic that the world was caught unprepared; however future research on masks could be geared towards a higher degradability material that fully breaks down into non-harmful components while maintaining durability, filtration and protection properties for users.

9.
Adv Mater ; : e2102703, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617632

RESUMO

Biomaterials is an exciting and dynamic field, which uses a collection of diverse materials to achieve desired biological responses. While there is constant evolution and innovation in materials with time, biomaterials research has been hampered by the relatively long development period required. In recent years, driven by the need to accelerate materials development, the applications of machine learning in materials science has progressed in leaps and bounds. The combination of machine learning with high-throughput theoretical predictions and high-throughput experiments (HTE) has shifted the traditional Edisonian (trial and error) paradigm to a data-driven paradigm. In this review, each type of biomaterial and their key properties and use cases are systematically discussed, followed by how machine learning can be applied in the development and design process. The discussions are classified according to various types of materials used including polymers, metals, ceramics, and nanomaterials, and implants using additive manufacturing. Last, the current gaps and potential of machine learning to further aid biomaterials discovery and application are also discussed.

10.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14713-14722, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473183

RESUMO

Efficient drug delivery, multifunctional combined therapy and real-time diagnosis are the main hallmarks in the exploitation of precision nanomedicine. Herein, an anthracene-functionalized micelle containing a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and the photosensitizer IR780 is designed to achieve sustained drug release and enhanced photothermal and photodynamic therapy. The polymer-coated hybrid micelle was achieved by crosslinking anthracene-dimer with UV light (λ > 300 nm), which is converted from near-infrared (NIR) irradiation upon UCNPs. Besides, the water-insoluble photosensitizer IR780 is introduced into the system to achieve efficient drug delivery and photothermal and photodynamic synergistic therapy. As a consequence of NIR-induced anthracene-dimer formation, the cross-linked nanocomposite shows sustained drug release, and the enhanced retention effect of IR780 could increase the photothermal conversion efficiency. Importantly, the incorporation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidineoxyl (TEMPO) as a nitroxide MRI contrast agent presents the potential for real-time diagnosis via nanotheranostics, and the fluorescence imaging of IR780 is applied to monitor drug distribution and metabolism. This strategy of sustained drug delivery by anthracene-dimer formation through the better penetration depth of NIR-II fluorescence provides an executable platform to achieve enhanced phototherapy in biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Antracenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Micelas , Fototerapia
11.
Adv Mater ; : e2104090, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510607

RESUMO

Carbon-supported single-atom catalysts (SACs) are extensively studied because of their outstanding activity and selectivity toward a wide range of catalytic reactions. Amidst its development, excess dopants (e.g., nitrogen) are always required to ensure the high loading content of SACs on the carbon support. However, the use of excess dopants is accompanied by formation of miscellaneous structures (particularly the uncoordinated N species) on catalysts, leading to adverse effects on their performance. Herein, the synthesis of carbon-supported Ni SACs with precisely controlled single-atom structure via joule heating strategy, showing the coordination of 80% of N dopants with metal elements, is reported. The preclusion of the unfavorable N species is confirmed to be the main reason for the superior performance of optimized Ni SACs in electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction reaction, which demonstrates unprecedented activity, selectivity, and stability under an exceptionally broad voltage range (>92% CO selectivity in the range of -0.7 to -1.9 V reversible hydrogen electrode). Such a synthetic strategy is further applicable for the design of SACs with various metals. This work demonstrates a facile method for preclusion of unfavorable dopants in the SACs and its importance in catalytic application.

12.
Phys Fluids (1994) ; 33(8): 087118, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552314

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to many countries oscillating between various states of lock-down as they seek to balance keeping the economy and essential services running and minimizing the risk of further transmission. Decisions are made about which activities to keep open across a range of social settings and venues guided only by ad hoc heuristics regarding social distancing and personal hygiene. Hence, we propose the dual use of computational fluid dynamic simulations and surrogate aerosol measurements for location-specific assessment of risk of infection across different real-world settings. We propose a 3-tiered risk assessment scheme to facilitate classification of scenarios into risk levels based on simulations and experiments. Threshold values of <54 and >840 viral copies and <5% and >40% of original aerosol concentration are chosen to stratify low, medium, and high risk. This can help prioritize allowable activities and guide implementation of phased lockdowns or re-opening. Using a public bus in Singapore as a case study, we evaluate the relative risk of infection across scenarios such as different activities and passenger positions and demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk assessment methodology as a simple and easily interpretable framework. For example, this study revealed that the bus's air-conditioning greatly influences dispersion and increases the risk of certain seats and that talking can result in similar relative risk to coughing for passengers around an infected person. Both numerical and experimental approaches show similar relative risk levels with a Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.74 despite differing observables, demonstrating applicability of this risk assessment methodology to other scenarios.

13.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420503

RESUMO

Depression is a common mental illness that belongs to the category of emotional disorders that causes serious damage to the health and life of patients, while inflammation is considered to be one of the important factors that causes depression. In this case, it might be important to explore the possible therapeutic approach by using natural compounds exerting an anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effect, which it filed has not been systematically reviewed recently. Hence, this review aims to systematically sort the literature related to the mechanism of exerting an antidepressant effect through anti-inflammatory actions, and to summarize the related natural products in the past 20 years, in terms of a number of inflammatory related pathways (i.e., the protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, monoamine neurotransmitters (5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine) (5-HT and NE), the nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, proinflammatory cytokines, neurotrophins, or cytokine-signaling pathways), which might provide a useful reference for the potential treatment of depression.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442981

RESUMO

Pearl powder is a biologically active substance that is widely used in traditional medicine, skin repair and maintenance. The traditional industrial extraction processes of pearl powder are mainly based on water, acid or enzyme extraction methods, all of which have their own drawbacks. In this study, we propose a new extraction process for these active ingredients, specifically, water-soluble components of pearl powder extracted by a CO2 supercritical extraction system (SFE), followed by the extraction efficiency evaluation. A wound-healing activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This demonstrated that the supercritical extraction technique showed high efficiency as measured by the total protein percentage. The extracts exhibited cell proliferation and migration-promoting activity, in addition to improving collagen formation and healing efficiency in vivo. In brief, this study proposes a novel extraction process for pearl powder, and the extracts were also explored for wound-healing bioactivity, demonstrating the potential in wound healing.

15.
Chempluschem ; 86(8): 1116-1122, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402212

RESUMO

A series of novel 2,6-functionalized azulene molecules Azu1-3 with varied fluorene substituents at the 1- and 3-positions of azulene as well as at the 5'-position of 2-thiophene group were synthesized. Their electronic absorption and emission spectra at neutral and protonated states were examined. It was found that after functionalization with fluorenyl groups, Azu1-3 exhibited absorption maxima at 445, 451 to 468 nm, respectively. In contrast, their corresponding protonated species showed much redshifted absorption maxima at 560, 582 to 643 nm, respectively, mainly due to the extension of conjugation length and the large dipole moment along the C2v axis of 2,6-substituted azulene molecules. Azu1-3 are non-fluorescent in their neutral forms, but became emissive in their protonated states. Analysis of absorption and emission spectra shows that substitution of the 1- or 3-position of azulene led to decrease in response to trifluoroacetic acid.

16.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(9): 4659-4668, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414768

RESUMO

The rise of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria strains has been a global public health concern due to their ability to cause increased patient morbidity and a greater burden on the healthcare system. As one of the potential solutions to overcome such bacterial infections, hyperbranched copolymers with cationic charges were developed. These copolymers were assessed for their antimicrobial efficacy and their bactericidal mechanisms. They were found to be potent against mobile colistin-resistant 1 strains, which was significant as colistin is known to be the last-resort antibiotic against Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, there was no sign of mutational resistance developed by E. Coli ATCC 25922 and MCR 1+ E. Coli against the copolymer even up to 20 passages. The ability to evade inducing resistance would provide invaluable insights for future antibiotic development. Our studies suggest that the bactericidal efficacy comes from the ability to target the outer membrane efficaciously. In vivo study using a Pseudomonas keratitis model showed that the copolymer was compatible with the eye and further supported that the copolymer treatment was effective for complete bacteria elimination.


Assuntos
Ceratite , Lignina , Resistência a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Polímeros , Pseudomonas
17.
Chem Asian J ; 16(19): 2939-2946, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355858

RESUMO

It is established that food waste can be repurposed to extend its lifecycle and decrease its carbon footprint. In this work, SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast) waste from kombucha tea production has been repurposed as a catalyst support. Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) have been embedded in a piece of treated SCOBY via an in-situ method which enabled the catalyst, inCu/t-SCOBY, to be easily recycled. In addition, inCu/t-SCOBY catalyzed the full reduction of 4-nitrophenol in an excess of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 ) within 20 minutes. After 6 additional catalytic cycles, the catalyst maintained up to 50% of its performance in the first cycle. Characterization of the catalyst has also been done to understand the mechanism of action and interactions occurring between t-SCOBY and Cu NPs. The results of this work clearly present a proof-of-concept in utilizing porous wastes materials such as SCOBY as catalyst supports, allowing metallic NPs to be efficacious and practical heterogenous catalysts.

18.
Gels ; 7(3)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202514

RESUMO

Thermogels are also known as thermo-sensitive or thermo-responsive hydrogels and can undergo a sol-gel transition as the temperature increases. This thermogelling behavior is the result of combined action from multiscale thermo-responsive mechanisms. From micro to macro, these mechanisms can be attributed to LCST behavior, micellization, and micelle aggregation of thermogelling polymers. Due to its facile phase conversion properties, thermogels are injectable yet can form an in situ gel in the human body. Thermogels act as a useful platform biomaterial that operates at physiological body temperatures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in thermogel research, including investigations on the thermogel gelation mechanism and its applications in drug delivery, 3D cell culture, and tissue engineering. The review also discusses emerging directions in the study of thermogels.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(18): e2101344, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258886

RESUMO

Atomically dispersed Pt species are advocated as a promising electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to boost noble metal utilization efficiency. However, when assembled on various substrates, isolated Pt single atoms are often demonstrated to proceed through the two-electron ORR pathway due to the unfavorable O─O bond cleavage thermodynamics in the absence of catalytic ensemble sites. In addition, although their distinct local coordination environments at the exact single active sites are intensively explored, the interactions and synergy between closely neighboring single atom sites remain elusive. Herein, atomically dispersed Pt monomers strongly interacting on a Mo2 C support is demonstrated as a model catalyst in the four-electron ORR, and the beneficial interactions between two closely neighboring and yet non-contiguous Pt single atom sites (named as quasi-paired Pt single atoms) are shown. Compared to isolated Pt single atom sites, the quasi-paired Pt single atoms deliver a superior mass activity of 0.224 A mg-1 Pt and near-100% selectivity toward four-electron ORR due to the synergistic interaction from the two quasi-paired Pt atom sites in modulating the binding mode of reaction intermediates. Our first-principles calculations reveal a unique mechanism of such quasi-paired configuration for promoting four-electron ORR.

20.
Macromol Biosci ; 21(10): e2100191, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263547

RESUMO

Human organoids mimic the physiology and tissue architecture of organs and are of great significance for promoting the study of human diseases. Traditionally, organoid cultures rely predominantly on animal or tumor-derived extracellular matrix (ECM), resulting in poor reproducibility. This limits their utility in for large-scale drug screening and application for regenerative medicine. Recently, synthetic polymeric hydrogels, with high biocompatibility and biodegradability, stability, uniformity of compositions, and high throughput properties, have emerged as potential materials for achieving 3D architectures for organoid cultures. Compared to conventional animal or tumor-derived organoids, these newly engineered hydrogel-based organoids more closely resemble human organs, as they are able to mimic native structural and functional properties observed in-situ. In this review, recent developments in hydrogel-based organoid culture will be summarized, emergent hydrogel technology will be highlighted, and future challenges in applying them to organoid culture will be discussed.

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