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1.
Lancet ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812473

RESUMO

Breast cancer is still the most common cancer worldwide. But the way breast cancer is viewed has changed drastically since its molecular hallmarks were extensively characterised, now including immunohistochemical markers (eg, ER, PR, HER2 [ERBB2], and proliferation marker protein Ki-67 [MKI67]), genomic markers (eg, BRCA1, BRCA2, and PIK3CA), and immunomarkers (eg, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-L1). New biomarker combinations are the basis for increasingly complex diagnostic algorithms. Neoadjuvant combination therapy, often including targeted agents, is a standard of care (especially in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer), and the basis for de-escalation of surgery in the breast and axilla and for risk-adapted post-neoadjuvant strategies. Radiotherapy remains an important cornerstone of breast cancer therapy, but de-escalation schemes have become the standard of care. ER-positive tumours are treated with 5-10 years of endocrine therapy and chemotherapy, based on an individual risk assessment. For metastatic breast cancer, standard therapy options include targeted approaches such as CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, and anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy, depending on tumour type and molecular profile. This range of treatment options reflects the complexity of breast cancer therapy today.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2003639, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793299

RESUMO

PURPOSE: About one third of patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer who have residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) will relapse. Thus, additional therapy is needed. Palbociclib is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor demonstrating efficacy in the metastatic setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PENELOPE-B (NCT01864746) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study in women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative primary breast cancer without a pathological complete response after taxane-containing NACT and at high risk of relapse (clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3 or 2 and ypN+). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 13 cycles of palbociclib 125 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 in a 28-day cycle in addition to endocrine therapy (ET). Primary end point is invasive disease-free survival (iDFS). Final analysis was planned after 290 iDFS events with a two-sided efficacy boundary P < .0463 because of two interim analyses. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned. The median age was 49.0 years (range, 19-79), and the majority were ypN+ with Ki-67 ≤ 15%; 59.4% of patients had a clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3. 50.1% received aromatase inhibitor, and 33% of premenopausal women received a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog in addition to either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. After a median follow-up of 42.8 months (92% complete), 308 events were confirmed. Palbociclib did not improve iDFS versus placebo added to ET-stratified hazard ratio, 0.93 (95% repeated CI, 0.74 to 1.17) and two-sided weighted log-rank test (Cui, Hung, and Wang) P = .525. There was no difference among the subgroups. Most common related serious adverse events were infections and vascular disorders in 113 (9.1%) patients with no difference between the treatment arms. Eight fatal serious adverse events (two palbociclib and six placebo) were reported. CONCLUSION: Palbociclib for 1 year in addition to ET did not improve iDFS in women with residual invasive disease after NACT.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(16): 1529-1541, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer have a poor prognosis. Sacituzumab govitecan is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of an antibody targeting the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop-2), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers, coupled to SN-38 (topoisomerase I inhibitor) through a proprietary hydrolyzable linker. METHODS: In this randomized, phase 3 trial, we evaluated sacituzumab govitecan as compared with single-agent chemotherapy of the physician's choice (eribulin, vinorelbine, capecitabine, or gemcitabine) in patients with relapsed or refractory metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. The primary end point was progression-free survival (as determined by blinded independent central review) among patients without brain metastases. RESULTS: A total of 468 patients without brain metastases were randomly assigned to receive sacituzumab govitecan (235 patients) or chemotherapy (233 patients). The median age was 54 years; all the patients had previous use of taxanes. The median progression-free survival was 5.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 6.3; 166 events) with sacituzumab govitecan and 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.6; 150 events) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.52; P<0.001). The median overall survival was 12.1 months (95% CI, 10.7 to 14.0) with sacituzumab govitecan and 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 7.7) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.59; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with an objective response was 35% with sacituzumab govitecan and 5% with chemotherapy. The incidences of key treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (51% with sacituzumab govitecan and 33% with chemotherapy), leukopenia (10% and 5%), diarrhea (10% and <1%), anemia (8% and 5%), and febrile neutropenia (6% and 2%). There were three deaths owing to adverse events in each group; no deaths were considered to be related to sacituzumab govitecan treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Progression-free and overall survival were significantly longer with sacituzumab govitecan than with single-agent chemotherapy among patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Myelosuppression and diarrhea were more frequent with sacituzumab govitecan. (Funded by Immunomedics; ASCENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02574455; EudraCT number, 2017-003019-21.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Carga Tumoral
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671376

RESUMO

Several scores have been developed in order to estimate the prognosis of patients with brain metastases (BM) by objective criteria. The aim of this analysis was to validate all three published graded-prognostic-assessment (GPA)-scores in a subcohort of 882 breast cancer (BC) patients with BM in the Brain Metastases in the German Breast Cancer (BMBC) registry. The median age at diagnosis of BM was 57 years. All in all, 22.3% of patients (n = 197) had triple-negative, 33.4% (n = 295) luminal A like, 25.1% (n = 221) luminal B/HER2-enriched like and 19.2% (n = 169) HER2 positive like BC. Age ≥60 years, evidence of extracranial metastases (ECM), higher number of BM, triple-negative subtype and low Karnofsky-Performance-Status (KPS) were all associated with worse overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis (p < 0.001 each). All three GPA-scores were associated with OS. The breast-GPA showed the highest probability of classifying patients with survival above 12 months in the best prognostic group (specificity 68.7% compared with 48.1% for the updated breast-GPA and 21.8% for the original GPA). Sensitivities for predicting 3 months survival were very low for all scores. In this analysis, all GPA-scores showed only moderate diagnostic accuracy in predicting the OS of BC patients with BM.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2001139, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780274

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the phase III SOLAR-1 trial (NCT02437318), the PI3Kα-selective inhibitor and degrader alpelisib significantly improved median progression-free survival when added to fulvestrant in patients with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA)-mutated, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. We assessed health-related quality of life using patient-reported outcome measures in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the PIK3CA-mutant cohort, 341 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive alpelisib 300 mg daily or placebo plus fulvestrant 500 mg on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of subsequent 28-day cycles. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL of Cancer Patients and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form questionnaires. Changes from baseline and time to 10% deterioration were analyzed using repeated measurement models and Cox models, respectively. RESULTS: Global Health Status/QoL and functional status were maintained from baseline (mean changes < 10 points) in the alpelisib (overall change from baseline [95% CI], -3.50 [-8.02 to 1.02]) and placebo arms (overall change from baseline [95% CI], 0.27 [-4.48 to 5.02]). Overall treatment effect in Global Health Status/QoL was not significantly different between arms (-3.77; 95% CI, -8.35 to 0.80; P = .101). Time to 10% deterioration for Global Health Status/QoL was similar between arms (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.48). Compared with placebo, deterioration in social functioning and in diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue symptom subscales occurred with alpelisib. Numerical improvement in Worst Pain was observed with alpelisib versus placebo (42% v 32%, week 24; P = .090). CONCLUSION: In SOLAR-1, there was no statistical difference in deterioration of Global Health Status/QoL between arms, whereas symptom subscales favored placebo for diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue, known side effects of alpelisib. Treatment decisions must consider efficacy and tolerability; taken with clinical efficacy, these results support the benefit-risk profile of alpelisib in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative PIK3CA-mutated advanced breast cancer.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 159-170, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743484

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate HER2-negative breast cancer (BC) with a low hormone receptor (HR) expression, with regard to pathological complete response (pCR) and survival, in comparison to triple-negative BC (TNBC) and strong HR-positive BC. METHODS: We compared negative [oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) <1%], low-positive (ER and/or PR 1-9%) and strong-positive (ER or PR 10-100%) HR-expression in neoadjuvant clinical trial cohorts (n = 2765) of BC patients. End-points were disease-free survival (DFS), distant-disease free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). We performed RNA sequencing on available tumour tissue samples from patients with low-HR expression (n = 38). RESULTS: Ninety-four (3.4%) patients had low HR-positive tumours, 1769 (64.0%) had strong HR-positive tumours, and 902 (32.6%) had TNBC. There were no significant differences in pCR rates between women with low HR-positive tumours (27.7%) and women with TNBC (35.5%). DFS and DDFS were also not different [for DFS, hazard ratio 1.26, 95%-CI (confidence interval) : 0.87-1.83, log-rank test p = 0.951; for DDFS, hazard ratio 1.17, 95%-CI: 0.78-1.76, log-rank test p = 0.774]. Patients with strong HR-positive tumours had a significantly lower pCR rate (pCR 9.4%; odds ratio 0.38, 95%-CI: 0.23-0.63), but better DFS (hazard ratio 0.48, 95%-CI: 0.33-0.70) and DDFS (hazard ratio 0.49, 95%-CI: 0.33-0.74) than patients with low HR-positive tumours. Molecular subtyping (RNA sequencing) of low HR-positive tumours classified these predominantly into a basal subtype (86.8%). CONCLUSION: Low HR-positive, HER2-negative tumours have a similar clinical behaviour to TNBC showing high pCR rates and poor survival and also a basal-like gene expression signature. Patients with low HR-positive tumours should be regarded as candidates for therapy strategies targeting TNBC.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(4): 565-572, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538790

RESUMO

Importance: The extent of changes in estradiol levels in male patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving standard endocrine therapies is unknown. The sexual function and quality of life related to those changes have not been adequately evaluated. Objective: To assess the changes in estradiol levels in male patients with breast cancer after 3 months of therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, phase 2 randomized clinical trial assessed 56 male patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Patients were recruited from 24 breast units across Germany between October 2012 and May 2017. The last patient completed 6 months of treatment in December 2017. The analysis data set was locked on August 24, 2018, and analysis was completed on December 19, 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: tamoxifen alone or tamoxifen plus gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) or aromatase inhibitor (AI) plus GnRHa for 6 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the change in estradiol levels from baseline to 3 months. Secondary end points were changes of estradiol levels after 6 months, changes of additional hormonal parameters, adverse effects, sexual function, and quality of life after 3 and 6 months. Results: In this phase 2 randomized clinical trial, a total of 52 of 56 male patients with a median (range) age of 61.5 (37-83) years started treatment. A total of 3 patients discontinued study treatment prematurely, 1 in each arm. A total of 50 patients were evaluable for the primary end point. After 3 months the patients' median estradiol levels increased by 67% (a change of +17.0 ng/L) with tamoxifen, decreased by 85% (-23.0 ng/L) with tamoxifen plus GnRHa, and decreased by 72% (-18.5 ng/L) with AI plus GnRHa (P < .001). After 6 months, median estradiol levels increased by 41% (a change of +12 ng/L) with tamoxifen, decreased by 61% (-19.5 ng/L) with tamoxifen plus GnRHa, and decreased by 64% (-17.0 ng/L) with AI plus GnRHa (P < .001). Sexual function and quality of life decreased when GnRHa was added but were unchanged with tamoxifen alone. Conclusions and Relevance: This phase 2 randomized clinical trial found that AI or tamoxifen plus GnRHa vs tamoxifen alone led to a sustained decrease of estradiol levels. The decreased hormonal parameters were associated with impaired sexual function and quality of life. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01638247.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(8): 2148-2158, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542080

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Expression-based classifiers to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) are not routinely used in the clinic. We aimed to build and validate a classifier for pCR after NACT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective multicenter study (EXPRESSION) including 114 patients treated with anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. Pretreatment core needle biopsies from 91 patients were used for gene expression analysis and classifier construction, followed by validation in five external cohorts (n = 619). RESULTS: A 20-gene classifier established in the EXPRESSION cohort using a Youden index-based cut-off point predicted pCR in the validation cohorts with an accuracy, AUC, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.811, 0.768, 0.829, 0.587, 0.216, and 0.962, respectively. Alternatively, aiming for a high NPV by defining the cut-off point for classification based on the complete responder with the lowest predicted probability of pCR in the EXPRESSION cohort led to an NPV of 0.960 upon external validation. With this extreme-low cut-off point, a recommendation to not treat with anthracycline/taxane-based NACT would be possible for 121 of 619 unselected patients (19.5%) and 112 of 322 patients with luminal breast cancer (34.8%). The analysis of the molecular subtypes showed that the identification of patients who do not achieve a pCR by the 20-gene classifier was particularly relevant in luminal breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The novel 20-gene classifier reliably identifies patients who do not achieve a pCR in about one third of luminal breast cancers in both the EXPRESSION and combined validation cohorts.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(9): 2584-2591, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated mRNA signatures to predict response to neoadjuvant PD-L1 inhibition in combination with chemotherapy in early triple-negative breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Targeted mRNA sequencing of 2,559 transcripts was performed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 162 patients of the GeparNuevo trial. We focused on validation of four predefined gene signatures and differential gene expression analyses for new predictive markers. RESULTS: Two signatures [GeparSixto signature (G6-Sig) and IFN signature (IFN-Sig)] were predictive for treatment response in a multivariate model including treatment arm [G6-Sig: OR, 1.558; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.130-2.182; P = 0.008 and IFN-Sig: OR, 1.695; 95% CI, 1.234-2.376; P = 0.002), while the CYT metric predicted pathologic complete response (pCR) in the durvalumab arm, and the proliferation-associated gene signature in the placebo arm. Expression of PD-L1 mRNA was associated with better response in both arms, indicating that increased levels of PD-L1 are a general predictor of neoadjuvant therapy response. In an exploratory analysis, we identified seven genes that were higher expressed in responders in the durvalumab arm, but not the placebo arm: HLA-A, HLA-B, TAP1, GBP1, CXCL10, STAT1, and CD38. These genes were associated with cellular antigen processing and presentation and IFN signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Immune-associated signatures are associated with pCR after chemotherapy, but might be of limited use for the prediction of response to additional immune checkpoint blockade. Gene expressions related to antigen presentation and IFN signaling might be interesting candidates for further evaluation.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(4): 603-608, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599688

RESUMO

Importance: Adding carboplatin to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) likely benefits a subset of patients; however, determinants of benefit are poorly understood. Objective: To define the association of molecular subtype, tumor proliferation, and immunophenotype with benefit of carboplatin added to NAC for patients with stages II to III TNBC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified secondary analysis of a phase 3, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (BrighTNess) that enrolled 634 women across 145 centers in 15 countries. Women with clinical stages II to III TNBC who had undergone pretreatment biopsy were eligible to participate. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing was performed on the biopsy specimens. The prespecified end point was association of pathologic complete response (pCR) with gene expression-based molecular subtype, with secondary end points investigating established signatures (proliferation, immune) and exploratory analyses of immunophenotype. Data were collected from April 2014 to March 2016. The study analyses were performed from January 2018 to March 2019. Interventions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, or this same regimen with carboplatin or carboplatin plus veliparib. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of gene expression-based molecular subtype (PAM50 and TNBC subtypes) with pCR. Results: Of the 634 women (median age, 51 [range, 22-78] years) enrolled in BrighTNess, 482 (76%) patients had evaluable RNA sequencing data, with similar baseline characteristics relative to the overall intention-to-treat population. Pathologic complete response was significantly more frequent in PAM50 basal-like vs nonbasal-like cancers overall (202 of 386 [52.3%] vs 34 of 96 [35.4%]; P = .003). Carboplatin benefit was not significantly different in basal-like vs nonbasal-like subgroups (P = .80 for interaction). In multivariable analysis, proliferation (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.21-0.61; P < .001) and immune (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < .001) signatures were independently associated with pCR. Tumors above the median for proliferation and immune signatures had the highest pCR rate (84 of 125; 67%), while those below the median for both signatures had the lowest pCR rate (42 of 125; 34%). Exploratory gene expression immune analyses suggested that tumors with higher inferred CD8+ T-cell infiltration may receive greater benefit with addition of carboplatin. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, triple-negative breast cancer subtyping revealed high pCR rates in basal-like and immunomodulatory subsets. Analysis of biological processes related to basal-like and immunomodulatory phenotypes identified tumor cell proliferation and immune scores as independent factors associated with achieving pCR; the benefit of carboplatin on pCR was seen across all molecular subtypes. Further validation of immunophenotype with existing biomarkers may help to escalate or de-escalate therapy for patients with TNBC. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02032277.

11.
Eur J Cancer ; 145: 44-52, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 play a central role in DNA repair. Therefore, patients harbouring germline (g) BRCA1/2 mutations (m) treated with chemotherapy might be at higher risk of haematological toxicities. METHODS: Patients from German Breast Group (GBG) and Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie-breast group studies with early triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and known gBRCA1/2m status treated with anthracycline-taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analysed. Primary objective was the rate of neutropenia grade (G)III-IV in cycle 1 (C1). Secondary objectives included effects on overall and other haematological toxicities GIII-IV in C1, cumulative haematological toxicity across all cycles, relative total dose intensity, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor prophylaxis. Haematological toxicities under taxanes, carboplatin, and cyclophosphamide were explored. RESULTS: Two hundred nine of 1171 (17.8%) evaluated patients had gBRCA1/2m. In C1, 37.4% gBRCA1/2m versus 35.7% wild-type patients had neutropenia GIII-IV (P = 0.683). For C1, gBRCA1/2m predicted neither for neutropenia GIII-IV (odds ratio [OR]: 1.26, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.87-1.82, P = 0.226) nor for other haematological toxicities GIII-IV (OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.64-1.31, P = 0.625) in multivariable regression models. Analyses of cumulative toxicities across all cycles yielded similar results except thrombocytopaenia GIII-IV, which was increased in gBRCA1m patients. In patients treated with taxanes, the rate of haematological toxicities GIII-IV was higher in gBRCA1/2m compared with wild-type (59.5% versus 43.1%; p < 0.001). No difference was seen under cyclophosphamide or platinum-containing chemotherapies. CONCLUSIONS: gBRCA1/2m was not associated with higher risk of overall severe haematological toxicities in the first cycle or cumulatively across all cycles under standard chemotherapy for TNBC. Under taxane, patients with gBRCA1/2m might have a higher risk of haematological toxicities GIII-IV, requiring further research.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 212-222, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palbociclib added to endocrine therapy improves progression-free survival in hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer. The PALLAS trial aimed to investigate whether the addition of 2 years of palbociclib to adjuvant endocrine therapy improves invasive disease-free survival over endocrine therapy alone in patients with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative, early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: PALLAS is an ongoing multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study that enrolled patients at 406 cancer centres in 21 countries worldwide with stage II-III histologically confirmed hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, within 12 months of initial diagnosis. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) in permuted blocks of random size (4 or 6), stratified by anatomic stage, previous chemotherapy, age, and geographical region, by use of central telephone-based and web-based interactive response technology, to receive either 2 years of palbociclib (125 mg orally once daily on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle) with ongoing standard provider or patient-choice adjuvant endocrine therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor, with or without concurrent luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist), or endocrine therapy alone, without masking. The primary endpoint of the study was invasive disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients who started palbociclib or endocrine therapy. This report presents results from the second pre-planned interim analysis triggered on Jan 9, 2020, when 67% of the total number of expected invasive disease-free survival events had been observed. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02513394) and EudraCT (2014-005181-30). FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2015, and Nov 30, 2018, 5760 patients were randomly assigned to receive palbociclib plus endocrine therapy (n=2883) or endocrine therapy alone (n=2877). At the time of the planned second interim analysis, at a median follow-up of 23·7 months (IQR 16·9-29·2), 170 of 2883 patients assigned to palbociclib plus endocrine therapy and 181 of 2877 assigned to endocrine therapy alone had invasive disease-free survival events. 3-year invasive disease-free survival was 88·2% (95% CI 85·2-90·6) for palbociclib plus endocrine therapy and 88·5% (85·8-90·7) for endocrine therapy alone (hazard ratio 0·93 [95% CI 0·76-1·15]; log-rank p=0·51). As the test statistic comparing invasive disease-free survival between groups crossed the prespecified futility boundary, the independent data monitoring committee recommended discontinuation of palbociclib in patients still receiving palbociclib and endocrine therapy. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (1742 [61·3%] of 2840 patients on palbociclib and endocrine therapy vs 11 [0·3%] of 2903 on endocrine therapy alone), leucopenia (857 [30·2%] vs three [0·1%]), and fatigue (60 [2·1%] vs ten [0·3%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 351 (12·4%) of 2840 patients on palbociclib plus endocrine therapy versus 220 (7·6%) of 2903 patients on endocrine therapy alone. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: At the planned second interim analysis, addition of 2 years of adjuvant palbociclib to adjuvant endocrine therapy did not improve invasive disease-free survival compared with adjuvant endocrine therapy alone. On the basis of these findings, this regimen cannot be recommended in the adjuvant setting. Long-term follow-up of the PALLAS population and correlative studies are ongoing. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(1): e18-e28, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387500

RESUMO

Primary systemic therapy is increasingly used in the treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer, but few guidelines specifically address optimal locoregional therapies. Therefore, we established an international consortium to discuss clinical evidence and to provide expert advice on technical management of patients with early-stage breast cancer. The steering committee prepared six working packages to address all major clinical questions from diagnosis to surgery. During a consensus meeting that included members from European scientific oncology societies, clinical trial groups, and patient advocates, statements were discussed and voted on. A consensus was reached in 42% of statements, a majority in 38%, and no decision in 21%. Based on these findings, the panel developed clinical guidance recommendations and a toolbox to overcome many clinical and technical requirements associated with the diagnosis, response assessment, surgical planning, and surgery of patients with early-stage breast cancer. This guidance could convince clinicians and patients of the major clinical advancements purported by primary systemic therapy, the use of less extensive and more targeted surgery to improve the lives of patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Mastectomia Segmentar/normas , Oncologia/normas , Terapia Neoadjuvante/normas , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(13): 1485-1505, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507815

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop guideline recommendations concerning optimal neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer. METHODS: ASCO convened an Expert Panel to conduct a systematic review of the literature on neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer and provide recommended care options. RESULTS: A total of 41 articles met eligibility criteria and form the evidentiary basis for the guideline recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS: Patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy should be managed by a multidisciplinary care team. Appropriate candidates for neoadjuvant therapy include patients with inflammatory breast cancer and those in whom residual disease may prompt a change in therapy. Neoadjuvant therapy can also be used to reduce the extent of local therapy or reduce delays in initiating therapy. Although tumor histology, grade, stage, and estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression should routinely be used to guide clinical decisions, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of other markers or genomic profiles. Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who have clinically node-positive and/or at least T1c disease should be offered an anthracycline- and taxane-containing regimen; those with cT1a or cT1bN0 TNBC should not routinely be offered neoadjuvant therapy. Carboplatin may be offered to patients with TNBC to increase pathologic complete response. There is currently insufficient evidence to support adding immune checkpoint inhibitors to standard chemotherapy. In patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive (HR-positive), HER2-negative tumors, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be used when a treatment decision can be made without surgical information. Among postmenopausal patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative disease, hormone therapy can be used to downstage disease. Patients with node-positive or high-risk node-negative, HER2-positive disease should be offered neoadjuvant therapy in combination with anti-HER2-positive therapy. Patients with T1aN0 and T1bN0, HER2-positive disease should not be routinely offered neoadjuvant therapy.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines.

15.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 80(12): 1229-1236, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293731

RESUMO

Background Among patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), the association between pathological complete remission (pCR) in the breast and clinical/pathological parameters is well established, whereas the association between these parameters and residual axillary involvement after NACT remains unclear. Methods Patients with clinically occult nodal metastases (i.e. negative by clinical assessment but positive by SLNB prior to NACT, i.e. Arm B of the SENTINA trial) were included in the presented analysis. All patients received a second sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and axillary dissection after NACT. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between clinical/pathological parameters and axillary involvement after NACT. Results Arm B of the SENTINA study contained 360 patients, 318 of which were evaluable for this analysis. After NACT, 71/318 (22.3%) patients had involved SLNs or non-SLNs after NACT. Overall, 71/318 (22.3%) patients achieved a pCR in the breast. Associations of extranodal spread, lack of multifocality and pCR in the breast with residual axillary burden were statistically significant. In a descriptive analysis including all patients with clinically negative axilla before NACT in the SENTINA trial 1.2% of triple negative (TN) patients and 0.5% of HER/2 positive patients had residual axillary disease in case of a breast pCR. Conclusions Patients in the SENTINA trial with clinically negative axilla and involved SLNs still carried a significant risk of nodal metastases after NACT. However, the risk of residual axillary burden was particularly low in TN and HER/2 positive tumors in case of a breast pCR.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e018143, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191846

RESUMO

Background Patients with breast cancer can be affected by cardiotoxic reactions through cancer therapies. Cardiac biomarkers, like NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, might have predictive value. Methods and Results Echocardiography, ECG, hemodynamic parameters, NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T were assessed in 853 patients with early-stage breast cancer randomized in the German Breast Group GeparOcto-GBG 84 phase III trial. Patients received neo-adjuvant dose-dense, dose-intensified epirubicin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide (iddEPC group, n=424) or paclitaxel, non-pegylated doxorubicin, and in triple negative breast cancer, (paclitaxel, non-pegylated doxorubicin, carboplatin group, n=429) treatment for 18 weeks. Patients positive for human epidermal growth receptor 2 (n=354, 41.5%) received monoclonal antibodies on top of allocated therapy; 119 (12.9%) of all patients showed a cardiotoxic reaction during therapy (15 [1.8%] using a more strict definition). Presence of cardiotoxic reactions was irrespective of treatment allocation (P=0.31). Small but significant increases in NT-proBNP developed early in patients with a cardiotoxic reaction as compared with those without in whom NT-proBNP rose only towards the end of therapy (P=0.04). High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T rose early in both groups. Logistic regression showed that NT-proBNP (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.008-1.055; P=0.01) and hemoglobin (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05-1.63; P=0.02) measured at 6 weeks after treatment initiation were significantly associated with cardiotoxic reactions. Conclusions NT-proBNP and hemoglobin are significantly associated with cardiotoxic reactions in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing dose-dense and dose-intensified chemotherapy, but high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T is not. Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02125344.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer (BC). Due to the absence of targets such as HER2 or hormone receptors, early TNBC is treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Since TNBC is also considered the most immunogenic type of BC with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes that are predictive for chemotherapy response and prognostic for patients' survival, many different immunotherapeutic strategies are currently explored in clinical trials for the treatment of this disease. In order to efficiently combine chemotherapy with immunotherapy, it is important to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on immune cells in vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood was taken from 56 patients with TNBC undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (Nab-Pac) followed by epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) at three different time points. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to characterize the immune cell composition and functional properties along neoadjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: Whereas the first phase of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not significantly alter the patients' immune cell composition, after the second phase of chemotherapeutic administration most B cells (>90%) were lost and the frequency of natural killer (NK) cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes decreased approximately to 50%. In contrast, the frequency of CD8+ T cells were less affected. CONCLUSIONS: Despite late consequences of Nab-Pac cannot be ruled out, these data suggest that different chemotherapeutics might have distinct effects on the immune cell repertoire and that different immune cell populations exhibit a specific susceptibility to these chemotherapies with B and NK cells being more affected than T cells. This might also have an impact on the combination of chemotherapies with immunotherapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02685059.

18.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ExteNET trial demonstrated improved invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) with neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, versus placebo in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+)/hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early-stage breast cancer (eBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: ExteNET was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of 2840 patients with HER2+ eBC after neoadjuvant/adjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy. Patients were stratified by HR status and randomly assigned 1-year oral neratinib 240 mg/day or placebo. The primary endpoint was iDFS. Descriptive analyses were performed in patients with HR+ eBC who initiated treatment ≤ 1 year (HR+/≤ 1-year) and > 1 year (HR+/> 1-year) post-trastuzumab. RESULTS: HR+/≤ 1-year and HR+/> 1-year populations comprised 1334 (neratinib, n = 670; placebo, n = 664) and 297 (neratinib, n = 146; placebo, n = 151) patients, respectively. Absolute iDFS benefits at 5 years were 5.1% in HR+/≤ 1-year (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.82) and 1.3% in HR+/>1-year (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.29-1.84). In HR+/≤ 1-year, neratinib was associated with a numerical improvement in overall survival (OS) at 8 years (absolute benefit, 2.1%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.55-1.13). Of 354 patients in the HR+/≤ 1-year group who received neoadjuvant therapy, 295 had residual disease, and results showed absolute benefits of 7.4% at 5-year iDFS (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.33-1.07) and 9.1% at 8-year OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.92). There were fewer central nervous system events with neratinib. Adverse events were similar to those previously reported. CONCLUSION: Neratinib significantly improved iDFS in the HER2+/HR+/≤ 1-year population, and a similar trend was observed in patients with residual disease following neoadjuvant treatment. Numerical improvements in central nervous system events and OS were consistent with iDFS benefits and suggest long-term benefit for neratinib in this population.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998430

RESUMO

Background: Brain metastases (BM) have become a major challenge in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Methods: The aim of this analysis was to characterize patients with asymptomatic BM (n = 580) in the overall cohort of 2589 patients with BM from our Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Network Germany (BMBC) registry. Results: Compared to symptomatic patients, asymptomatic patients were slightly younger at diagnosis (median age: 55.5 vs. 57.0 years, p = 0.01), had a better performance status at diagnosis (Karnofsky index 80-100%: 68.4% vs. 57%, p < 0.001), a lower number of BM (>1 BM: 56% vs. 70%, p = 0.027), and a slightly smaller diameter of BM (median: 1.5 vs. 2.2 cm, p < 0.001). Asymptomatic patients were more likely to have extracranial metastases (86.7% vs. 81.5%, p = 0.003) but were less likely to have leptomeningeal metastasis (6.3% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.001). Asymptomatic patients underwent less intensive BM therapy but had a longer median overall survival (statistically significant for a cohort of HER2-positive patients) compared to symptomatic patients (10.4 vs. 6.9 months, p < 0.001). Conclusions: These analyses show a trend that asymptomatic patients have less severe metastatic brain disease and despite less intensive local BM therapy still have a better outcome (statistically significant for a cohort of HER2-positive patients) than patients who present with symptomatic BM, although a lead time bias of the earlier diagnosis cannot be ruled out. Our analysis is of clinical relevance in the context of potential trials examining the benefit of early detection and treatment of BM.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082214

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancers have a persistent risk of relapse and biomarkers for late recurrence are needed. We sought to identify tumor genomic aberrations associated with increased late-recurrence risk. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In a secondary analysis of Study of Letrozole Extension trial, a case-cohort-like sampling selected 598 primary breast cancers for targeted next-generation sequencing analysis of gene mutations and copy-number gains (CNGs). Correlations of genomic aberrations with clinicopathologic factors and breast and distant recurrence-free intervals (BCFIs and DRFIs) were analyzed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Analysis of mutations and CNGs was successfully performed for 403 and 350 samples, including 148 and 134 patients with breast cancer recurrences (median follow-up time, 5.2 years), respectively. The most frequent alterations were PIK3CA mutations (42%) and CNGs of CCND1 (15%), ERBB2 (10%), FGFR1 (8%), and MYC (8%). PIK3CA mutations and MYC CNGs were associated with lower (P = 0.03) and higher (P = 0.004) tumor grade, respectively; a higher Ki-67 was seen in tumor with CCND1, ERBB2, and MYC CNGs (P = 0.01, P < 0.001, and P = 0.03, respectively). FGFR1 CNG was associated with an increased risk of late events in univariate analyses [17/29 patients; BCFI: HR, 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-6.92; P = 0.003 and DRFI: HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.61-7.75; P = 0.002) and in multivariable models adjusted for clinicopathologic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer harboring FGFR1 CNG had an increased risk of late recurrence despite extended therapy. FGFR1 CNG may represent a useful prognostic biomarker for late recurrence and a therapeutic target.

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