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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 43-51, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4542

RESUMO

Child-to-parent violence takes different forms (physical, psychological or economic) and can be addressed in the judicial system or in clinical practice. The current paper compares 61 clinical and 30 judicialized cases that were evaluated using the Child-to-Parent Violence Risk assessment tool (CPVR). Results showed a higher prevalence of risk factors in the judicialsample. This group of aggressors had worse profiles of violence (bidirectionality of the parent/child violence, violenceother than CPV, and more CPV complaints), more psychological issues (low frustration tolerance, little anger management,narcissism, and violent attitudes) and, most notably, more dysfunctional families (violence between parents, cohabitationproblems, inversion of the hierarchy, non-violent conflicts, and even criminal history of the parents). Logistic regressionshowed that narcissism, attitudes justifying violence, violence between parents, and problems of parents themselves(such mental disorders or drug abuse) allowed for correct classification of 89.4% of cases. Total CPVR scores differedbetween groups (25.8 vs. 14.2), and classification was good for both type of group (AUC = .830) and injuries to mother (AUC= .764). A cut-off score between 22 and 23 showed the best results in prediction of group and injuries to mother. Utility ofthe CPVR, and next steps in its development are discussed


La Violencia Filio-Parental (VFP) puede manifestarse de distintas formas (física, psicológica o económica) y su abordaje puede hacerse desde el sistema judicial o desde la práctica clínica. El presente estudio compara 61 casos clínicos (no judicializados) y 30 judicializados que fueron evaluados con la Guía para la Valoración del Riesgo de Violencia Filio-Parental (RVFP).Los resultados mostraron una mayor prevalencia de los factores de riesgo en la muestra judicial, con un perfil de violenciapeor (más bidireccionalidad, más violencia distinta a la VFP y más denuncias por VFP), más complicaciones psicológicas enlos agresores (baja tolerancia a la frustración, poco control de la ira, narcisismo y actitudes violentas) y, en especial, un perfilfamiliar más disfuncional (violencia entre los padres, problemas de convivencia, inversión de jerarquía, conflictos e inclusoantecedentes delictivos en los padres). Una regresión logística puso de manifiesto que el narcisismo, las actitudes que justifican la violencia, la violencia entre los progenitores y los problemas de los padres (como trastorno mental o abuso de drogas)permitían clasificar correctamente al 89.4% de los casos. El grupo midió diferencias en la puntuación en la Guía RVFP (25.8vs. 14.2) y la clasificación fue buena para el tipo de grupo (AUC = .830) y lesiones a la madre (AUC = .764). Un punto de corteentre 22 y 23 mostró los mejores resultados en la predicción del grupo y las lesiones a la madre. Se discute la utilidad de laRVFP y los siguientes pasos en su desarrollo

2.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 271-276, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185353

RESUMO

Background: Child sexual abuse continues to be a problem aggravated by difficulty of detection. The aim of this study was to compare intra-familial (IF) and extra-familial (EF) child sexual abuse cases in search of differential variables that may allow for better intervention and prevention. Method: A sample of 221 forensic/legal cases (44.8% IF and 55.2% EF) dealing with children between 3 and 18 years of age (75% female) was analysed. Results: IF sexual abuse was significantly more likely to occur more than once (p = .000; OR = 6.353), with greater delay in its revelation (>1 year OR = 8.132), and with younger victims (9.05 vs. 11.45; p = .000). Intellectual disability was more prevalent among EF victims (p = .017; OR = 3.053). There was a higher proportion of reconstructed families, more legal records, and more histories of domestic violence among IF sexual abuse families. Even among EF cases, 78% of abusers were known to the victims, and in around 80% of all cases the abuse was reported by a family member. Conclusion: Results point to the need for further development of detection programs in schools, police or health contexts since reporting by professionals is scarce


Antecedentes: el abuso sexual infantil (ASI) sigue siendo un problema agravado por dificultades de detección. Este estudio compara casos de ASI intrafamiliar (IF) y ASI extrafamiliar (EF) en busca de variables diferenciales que permitan una mejor intervención y prevención. Método: se analizó 221 casos forenses (55,2% EF) relacionados con menores entre 3 y 18 años (75% mujeres). Resultados: el abuso IF fue significativamente más probable que ocurriera de forma repetida (p = ,000; OR = 6,353), con mayor retraso en su revelación (>1 año OR = 8,132) y con víctimas más jóvenes (9,05 vs. 11,45 años; p = ,000). La discapacidad intelectual fue más frecuente entre las víctimas de abuso EF (p = ,017; OR = 3,053). Se encontró mayor proporción de familias reconstruidas, más antecedentes judiciales y más historia de violencia doméstica entre los abusos IF. De forma llamativa, incluso entre los casos EF el 78% de los abusadores eran conocidos y, entre ambos tipos de abuso, en torno al 80% de las veces un familiar fue quien denunció. Conclusiones: los resultados señalan la necesidad de mejorar los protocolos de detección en las escuelas, la policía o los contextos de salud ya que el informe de profesionales es escaso


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Abuso Sexual na Infância/legislação & jurisprudência , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Amigos , Fatores Etários , Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Tardio , Literatura Erótica , Características da Família , Psiquiatria Legal , Deficiência Intelectual , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 271-276, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse continues to be a problem aggravated by difficulty of detection. The aim of this study was to compare intra-familial (IF) and extra-familial (EF) child sexual abuse cases in search of differential variables that may allow for better intervention and prevention. METHOD: A sample of 221 forensic/legal cases (44.8% IF and 55.2% EF) dealing with children between 3 and 18 years of age (75% female) was analysed. RESULTS: IF sexual abuse was significantly more likely to occur more than once (p = .000; OR = 6.353), with greater delay in its revelation (>1 year OR = 8.132), and with younger victims (9.05 vs. 11.45; p = .000). Intellectual disability was more prevalent among EF victims (p = .017; OR = 3.053). There was a higher proportion of reconstructed families, more legal records, and more histories of domestic violence among IF sexual abuse families. Even among EF cases, 78% of abusers were known to the victims, and in around 80% of all cases the abuse was reported by a family member. CONCLUSION: Results point to the need for further development of detection programs in schools, police or health contexts since reporting by professionals is scarce.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/legislação & jurisprudência , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Amigos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio , Literatura Erótica , Características da Família , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 45(2): 52-58, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2968

RESUMO

Introducción: La evaluación y gestión del riesgo de violencia contra la mujer en la pareja es prioritario en contextos policiales, jurídicos y forenses. El presente trabajo analiza el funcionamiento de la última actualización de la herramienta incluida dentro del Sistema VioGén (VPR4.0). Material y método: Se analizaron 7.147 nuevas denuncias por violencia contra la mujer en la pareja, con un seguimiento de 320 días. Se comparó la reincidencia entre niveles de riesgo, calculando parámetros de predicción y la curva de supervivencia. Resultados: La reincidencia policial fue del 14,3% (el 56,5% en los 3 primeros meses) y el VPR4.0 anticipó la reincidencia, la violencia grave y la multirreincidencia significativamente (sensibilidad 79%; especificidad 35%; AUC 0,62; VPP 17%; VPN 91%). A mayor riesgo, menor fue el tiempo hasta la reincidencia. Conclusiones: El VPR4.0 resulta útil para predecir y gestionar el riesgo, más preciso detectando reincidentes (sensibilidad), pero con más aciertos en casos de bajo riesgo (VPN)


Introduction: The assessment and management of risk of intimate partner violence against women is a priority in police, legal and forensic contexts. This work analyzes the performance of the last update of the tool included in the VioGén System (VPR4.0). Material and method: A total of 7,147 new intimate partner violence against women complaints were analyzed, with a follow-up of 320 days. Recidivism between levels of risk was compared, estimating prediction parameters and the survival curve. Results: The police recidivism was 14.3% (56.5% of it in the first 3 months) and the VPR4.0 anticipated significantly recidivism, serious violence and multi-recidivism (sensitivity 79%; specificity 35%; AUC 0.62; PPV 17%; NPV 91%). The greater the risk, the less was the time until recidivism. Conclusions: The VPR4.0 is useful to predict and manage risk, being more accurate in the detection of recidivists (sensitivity), but with more success in cases labeled as low risk (NPV)

5.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 10(2): 49-55, jul.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174091

RESUMO

The most alarming type of intimate partner violence is homicide. Violence risk assessment of intimate partner violent offenders is a common topic in police and prison contexts with the aim of preventing recidivism and fatal results. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether men who kill their intimate partner (intimate partner homicide - IPH) present different risk factors from those who kill women outside of a relationship (non-intimate partner homicide - nonIPH). The crime characteristics of 30 attempted or completed IPHs that were sentenced in Catalonia (Spain) between 2004 and 2009 are described. Moreover, the risk factors of 21 completed IPHs and 20 non-IPHs were compared using the RisCanvi, an actuarial risk assessment tool used in the Catalan prison context to manage inmates. Results show differences between the two types of offenders in the criminal role and recklessness, more prevalent among non-IPHs, which is consistent with research indicating that IPH offenders are similar to other homicide offenders. The difficulties faced seeking to assess and manage the risk of IPH are discussed


La forma más alarmante de violencia de pareja es el homicidio. La evaluación del riesgo en agresores de pareja es algo habitual en contextos policiales y penitenciarios con el objetivo de prevenir la reincidencia y los desenlaces mortales. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar si los hombres que matan a su pareja (homicidio de pareja - HP) presentan factores de riesgo diferentes a los de aquellos que matan a una mujer con la que no mantienen relación de pareja (no homicidio de pareja - no-HP). Se describen las características delictivas de 30 homicidios de pareja consumados o intentados que han recibido sentencia en Cataluña (España) entre 2004 y 2009. Además, se compararon los factores de riesgo en los 21 HP consumados y una muestra de 20 no-HP utilizando el RisCanvi, un instrumento actuarial utilizado en las prisiones de Cataluña en la gestión de los internos. Los resultados solo mostraron diferencias en el rol delictivo y en temeridad, más prevalentes en los no-HP, en consonancia con la investigación que señala que los HP son similares a otros homicidas. Se discute la implicación de estos resultados en la valoración y gestión del riesgo en estos casos de violencia de pareja


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Homicídio/psicologia , Violência contra a Mulher , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores de Risco , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 27(2): 95-104, ago. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175056

RESUMO

La prevención de la violencia contra la pareja supone un problema que ha suscitado gran interés a nivel internacional. El homicidio de pareja es el exponente más grave, aunque su prevalencia sea baja y su etiología compleja. Este trabajo revisa brevemente la descripción del problema desde la perspectiva de género y la existencia de asimetría, la perspectiva de la violencia y su descripción de factores de riesgo diferenciales y el modelo ecológico que relaciona variables personales, contextuales y comunitarias, presentando una propuesta más integradora. Se describen los estudios que analizan y comparan perfiles de homicidas, así como la situación en materia de evaluación del riesgo, todo ello con especial atención a las implicaciones para el contexto español. Por último, por su relevancia se discute la existencia de tipologías de homicidas y perfiles más próximos a patrones o dinámicas suicidas (en los homicidios diádicos y los familicidios). La información disponible pone de manifiesto la necesidad de ampliar el estudio de los homicidas de pareja y la dificultad de anticipar muchos de estos casos


Intimate partner violence prevention is a challenge that has received wide international interest. Homicide is the most serious result of this type of violence, although its prevalence is low and its etiology is complex. This paper briefly reviews the description of the problem from a gender perspective and the existence of asymmetry, the perspective of violence and its description of differential risk factors, and the ecological model that connects personal, contextual, and societal variables, presenting a more integrative proposal. Studies analyzing and comparing homicide profiles are described, as well as the state of the art regarding risk assessment, with special attention to the implications for the Spanish context. Finally, due to its relevance, the existence of typologies of homicides as well as profiles closer to suicidal patterns are discussed (in dyadic homicides and familicides). The available information highlights the need to expand the study of intimate partner homicides and the difficulty of anticipating many of these cases


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Homicídio/classificação , Mulheres Maltratadas/classificação , Violência contra a Mulher , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/classificação , Fatores de Risco , Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio
7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260518759977, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475426

RESUMO

The assessment and treatment of emotional variables is a priority in the rehabilitation of offenders. Although theoretical proposals suggest a clear relationship between violence and self-esteem, attachment, and empathy, the research carried out to date has reached contradictory results due mainly to differences in the measurements used, the reliability of self-reports, or even to problems with the definition of the constructs. The present study analyzed these three variables in a prison sample of sexual offenders ( n = 48) and partner-violent men ( n = 68), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Rape Empathy Measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results confirmed the low utility of nonspecific empathy, the predominance of high self-esteem, and the difficulty of identifying an insecure attachment. The implications of the use of these variables in the treatment of offenders, and the need to improve the assessment tools, are discussed.

8.
Rev. crim ; 59(3): 153-162, sep.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-900919

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: la presencia de victimización por violencia contra la pareja (VCP) en mujeres condenadas a prisión parece ser un importante factor de riesgo para la criminalidad, la continuidad delictiva y la desadaptación social. Objetivo: en este trabajo se ha querido comparar la presencia de distintos factores de riesgo criminógenos en un grupo de mujeres internas en centros penitenciarios de Cataluña (España), comparando las que habían sido o no víctimas de VCP. Método: se analizaron 98 internas que cumplían condena de prisión por distintos tipos delictivos, evaluadas entre los años 2010 y 2012 con la herramienta para evaluar el riesgo RisCanvi. Resultados: la prevalencia de la victimización por VCP fue del 23%. El 63% presentaba problemas de empleo, el 53% contaba con expedientes penitenciarios, el 61% tenía problemas de socialización y/o crianza y el 55% mostró problemas de impulsividad y/o inestabilidad emocional. Las mujeres que habían sufrido violencia en la pareja presentaron significativamente más factores de riesgo clínicos y de personalidad y, en conjunto, más necesidades desde el punto de vista del tratamiento y la gestión del riesgo. Conclusiones: la victimización agrava el perfil de riesgo en mujeres presas. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados para la prevención y el tratamiento en el ámbito de la delincuencia femenina.


Abstract Introduction: the presence of victimization by violence against spouse, partner or companion sentenced to imprisonment seems to be an important risk factor for crime, criminal continuity and social maladjustment. Objective : this work is intended to compare the presence of different criminogenic risk factors in a group of women held in prisons in Catalonia (Spain) by contrasting those who had been VCP ("Violencia Contra la Pareja") victims or not. Method : 98 inmates having served prison terms for different types of crime were analyzed and evaluated between 2010 and 2012 with the use of the RisCanvi risk assessment tool. Results : the prevalence of VCP victimization was 23%. 63% had employment problems, 53% had prison records, 61% had socialization and/or upbringing problems, and 55% showed behavioral disorders like impulsivity and/or emotional instability. Women who had suffered partner violence had significantly more clinical and personality risk factors and, on the whole, more needs from the point of view of treatment and risk management. Conclusions : victimization aggravates risk profiles among female inmates. Results implications for both prevention and treatment in the field of female delinquency are discussed.


Resumo Introdução: a presença da vitimização pela violência contra o casal nas mulheres condenadas a prisão parece ser um fator importante do risco para a criminalidade, a continuidade criminal e a inadaptação social. Objetivo: neste trabalho o fim era comparar a presença de diferentes fatores do risco que contribuem ao crime em um grupo de mulheres internas nos centros penitenciários de Catalunha (Espanha), comparando aqueles que tinham sido ou não vítimas de VCP. Método: 98 internas que cumpriram a sentença da prisão pelos diferentes tipos delitivos foram analisadas, avaliadas entre os anos 2010 e 2012 com a ferramenta para avaliar o risco de RisCanvi. Resultados: a prevalência da vitimização por VCP foi de 23%. 63% apresentou problemas de emprego, 53% contava com registros penitenciários, 61% teve problemas da socialização e educação no lar e 55% mostrou problemas de impulsividade e/ou da instabilidade emocional. As mulheres que tinham sofrido à violência no casal apresentaram significativamente mais fatores do risco clínico e da personalidade e, em conjunto, mais necessidades do ponto da vista do tratamento e a gestão do risco. Conclusões: a vitimização agrava o perfil do risco em mulheres presas. As implicações dos resultados da prevenção e o tratamento no âmbito da delinquência feminina são discutidas.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Prisões , Medição de Risco , Crime
9.
Pap. psicol ; 38(3): 216-223, sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168073

RESUMO

La Violencia Filio-parental (VFP) ha suscitado en los últimos años el interés de numerosos investigadores y profesionales del ámbito socio-sanitario, educativo y judicial. Sin embargo, no existe un consenso sobre el concepto, encontrándonos en la literatura científica diferentes definiciones sobre esta problemática. La confusión y la disparidad de resultados encontrados en las diferentes investigaciones, induce a preguntarse si en todos los casos se está hablando del mismo problema. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo: presentar a aquellas personas interesadas en este problema, una definición que sirva de herramienta para futuras investigaciones y propuestas de intervención que posibilite delimitar lo que es y no es VFP. Tras una revisión de la literatura específica, la recopilación y selección de las principales definiciones disponibles y su análisis y codificación, se crearon diferentes categorías que fueron debatidas por los 11 profesionales que formaron el panel de expertos. El resultado obtenido es una definición consensuada, precisa y practica sobre VFP expresada en un lenguaje con perspectiva de género (AU)


In recent years, many scholars and professionals from the socio-sanitary, educational and judicial environments have started to pay increasing attention to Child to Parent Violence (CPV). This emerging phenomenon, however, does not seem to find a consensuated definition in the relevant scientific literature. The confusion found around this concept, as well as the disparate results arising from different research projects, lead us to wonder whether they are all referring to the same problem. The aim of this paper is to clearly establish what is Child to Parent Violence, as well as to provide a definition of the term as neutral and clear as possible, that can become useful and accessible to everyone interested in this problem. This definition can also play a significant role as a tool in future research and intervention proposals. After selecting the main definitions among those available in the specific literature, they were scrutinized and codified to find those categories relevant to the analysis, which were in turn debated by 11 experts in a discussion forum. As a result, we provide a precise and useful definition of CPV phrased employing a gender perspective language (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Consenso , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Análise de Dados/métodos , Papel Profissional/psicologia
10.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 23(3): 187-198, sept.-dic. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131646

RESUMO

La delincuencia violenta femenina es poco atendida en países hispanohablantes. La presente revisión resume los principales avances acumulados internacionalmente en la última década (2003-2013) sobre el estudio de la mujer como sujeto violento y/o delincuente. Se analizan la violencia contra la pareja (VCP) y sexual cometida por mujeres, la evaluación de la psicopatía y del riesgo de violencia, el tratamiento de estas agresoras y su reincidencia. Aunque la amplitud temática impide analizar exhaustivamente todos los delitos (no se incluye el maltrato infantil, por ejemplo), la revisión permite concluir que: existen sesgos jurídicos y policiales en el tratamiento de la mujer delincuente, las mujeres pueden cometer el mismo tipo de VCP y con motivaciones similares a los hombres, la violencia sexual es poco frecuente pero existen muchas limitaciones en su estudio, la predicción del riesgo de violencia inespecífica es factible con las herramientas disponibles, la psicopatía es menos prevalente en mujeres pero las diferencias con varones se reducen en población juvenil, el conocimiento sobre el tratamiento de estas agresoras es muy limitado y sin evidencias sobre su efectividad y las tasas de reincidencia son bajas (aunque la información disponible es escasa). Se discuten las principales implicaciones y líneas de interés (AU)


Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores the major research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013) about women’s violence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence committed by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism of these female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (child physical abuse is not included, for example) the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases in the treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of male offenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic; predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalent among adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescent samples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last, recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available). Main implications and research lines are discussed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Ter. psicol ; 32(1): 5-17, abr. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-706561

RESUMO

Las distorsiones cognitivas influyen en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la violencia. En agresores de pareja, la negación del problema y la culpabilización de la víctima son especialmente prevalentes, promoviendo una menor asunción de responsabilidades. Este trabajo revisa las propiedades psicométricas de un inventario diseñado para la evaluación de pensamientos distorsionados sobre la mujer y la violencia. Se analiza su aplicación en 180 agresores en prisión, así como los resultados de 11 estudios previos, comparando dos formatos de corrección (verdadero/falso y likert/factorial). el análisis factorial permitió eliminar los ítems 7, 8, 19 y 28 y agrupar el contenido en 4 factores. El ítem 27 se eliminó por considerarlo erróneo. Se detectaron limitaciones de la herramienta, como una poca sensibilidad al cambio terapéutico y baja capacidad discriminativa entre distintas muestras. Se discuten las precauciones a tener en cuenta a la hora de utilizar la herramienta en el ámbito profesional.


Cognitive distortions are related to the development and maintenance of violent behavior. Among partner-violent men the denial of the problem, and victim blaming are especially prevalent, and reduce accountability. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of an inventory designed to assess distortions about women and violence justification. Its application in 180 offenders in prison is analyzed, as well as the results of 11 previous studies, comparing two correction options (true/false and Likert/factorial). Factor analysis allowed to remove items 7, 8, 19 and 28 due to their low statistical significance, and to group them in four factors. Item 27 was removed because is considered to be wrong. Some limitations were detected, as can be a low sensitivity to therapeutic change, and a low capacity to discriminate between different samples. Precautions to be taken when using the tool in the professional field are discussed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cognição , Distorção da Percepção , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Violência contra a Mulher , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Ter. psicol ; 30(2): 61-70, jul. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-643232

RESUMO

Frecuentemente se señalan variables emocionales para describir el perfil de los agresores de pareja y para incorporarlas a los programas de tratamiento. El presente estudio compara las puntuaciones en apego adulto, empatía y autoestima de 90 agresores de pareja en prisión con un grupo de control de la población general (N=94). Ambas muestras fueron evaluadas con el cuestionario de apego adulto, el índice de reactividad Interpersonal y la escala de autoestima. Los agresores fueron clasificados en dos conglomerados para valorar la posible existencia de un subtipo patológico y otro parecido a la población general. Los resultados no muestran diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Pese a no confirmarse las hipótesis predominantes a nivel académico, los resultados son congruentes con estudios recientes que señalan la ausencia de diferencias entre agresores y grupos normativos. Se discute el efecto de los instrumentos de evaluación en los resultados y su utilidad para las intervenciones.


It is common to refer emotional variables to describe the profile of partner-violent men as well as to include them in treatment programs. This study compares scores on adult attachment, empathy and self-esteem of 90 offenders in prison and a control group from the general population (N = 94). Both samples were assessed with the adult attachment questionnaire, the interpersonal reactivity index and the rosenberg self-esteem scale. The offenders were also classified into two clusters to assess the possible existence of a pathological subtype and other similar to the control group. The results show no significant differences between groups. Although the prevailing hypothesis in the academic context has not been confirmed, the results are consistent with recent studies that indicate no differences between aggressors and control groups. The effect of the assessment tools on the results and their usefulness for interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Empatia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Autoimagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Prisioneiros , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência contra a Mulher
13.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 24(1): 142-148, ene.-mar. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-93971

RESUMO

La violencia contra la pareja es un problema complejo que requiere la actualización de las herramientas de evaluación disponibles. El objetivo del estudio es poner a prueba la versión revisada de la Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-2) en agresores de pareja. Se analizan la estructura factorial y otras propiedades psicométricas en 173 agresores condenados en los centros penitenciarios Brians-2 y Alhaurín de la Torre. Se valora su capacidad discriminante comparando los agresores con 108 hombres provenientes de la población general. La consistencia interna para los 39 ítems del agresor es de 0,88 (variando de 0,59 a 0,83 según las subescalas). La escala permite discriminar entre agresores y controles en violencia física y psicológica, si bien hay un solapamiento entre tipos de violencia y resulta difícil comparar el autoinforme con criterios externos tales como las sentencias. Los resultados del análisis factorial confirmatorio no apoyan el modelo original de cinco factores. Mediante análisis factorial exploratorio se identifican cuatro componentes con buena consistencia interna: violencia física (0,86), sexual (0,75), psicológica (0,82) y negociación (0,83). Se proponen una serie de indicaciones de uso, así como una guía de referencia para valorar las puntuaciones en muestras de maltratadores (AU)


Intimate partner violence is a complex problem that requires the update of the available assessment tools. The aim of the study is to test the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-2) in partner-violent men. Its structure and other psychometric properties are analyzed in 173 convicted offenders from Brians-2 and Alhaurín de la Torre penitentiaries. Discriminant validity is also assessed by comparing offenders with 108 males from the general population. The internal consistency for the 39 items of perpetration is .88 (varying from .59 to .83 among the subscales). The validity data indicate that the scale is useful to discriminate between batterers and general population in physical and psychological violence, although there is an overlap between different types of violence, and it is difficult to compare self-reports with external criteria such court decisions. The results of confirmatory factorial analysis do not support the original five-factor structure. Using exploratory factorial analysis, four components with good internal consistency were identified: Physical (.86), Sexual (.75), and Psychological Violence (.82), and Negotiation (.83). Recommendations for use and a reference guide of rating scores in samples of offenders are suggested (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/tendências , Conflito (Psicologia) , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Agressão/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Psicometria/organização & administração , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/normas , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Análise Fatorial , Análise de Dados/métodos
14.
Psicothema ; 24(1): 142-8, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22269377

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence is a complex problem that requires the update of the available assessment tools. The aim of the study is to test the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-2) in partner-violent men. Its structure and other psychometric properties are analyzed in 173 convicted offenders from Brians-2 and Alhaurín de la Torre penitentiaries. Discriminant validity is also assessed by comparing offenders with 108 males from the general population. The internal consistency for the 39 items of perpetration is .88 (varying from .59 to .83 among the subscales). The validity data indicate that the scale is useful to discriminate between batterers and general population in physical and psychological violence, although there is an overlap between different types of violence, and it is difficult to compare self-reports with external criteria such court decisions. The results of confirmatory factorial analysis do not support the original five-factor structure. Using exploratory factorial analysis, four components with good internal consistency were identified: Physical (.86), Sexual (.75), and Psychological Violence (.82), and Negotiation (.83). Recommendations for use and a reference guide of rating scores in samples of offenders are suggested.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negociação , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Espanha , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psicol. conduct ; 19(2): 421-438, mayo-ago. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-113072

RESUMO

Muchos estudios analizan el riesgo de conducta violenta en personas con trastornos mentales (TM). Sin embargo, su riesgo de victimización es un tema al que se ha prestado poca atención. Este sesgo en la investigación contribuye a mantener estereotipos sobre los trastornos mentales y a perpetuar la estigmatización y el aislamiento social de quienes los padecen. Según los estudios analizados, las personas con TM corren un riesgo de victimización violenta significativamente superior al de la población general, especialmente en períodos de sintomatología activa. Este artículo teórico analiza la otra cara de la relación entre trastorno mental y violencia, centrándose en la epidemiología del problema, los factores de riesgo más relevantes (victimización previa, consumo de drogas, exclusión social, comorbilidad/gravedad de los síntomas y trastornos del desarrollo) y algunas formas de victimización frecuentes (suicidio, violencia contra la pareja, violencia sexual, acoso escolar y abuso infantil). Se espera contribuir a una mejor comprensión de los riesgos de victimización en estas personas, lo que puede traducirse en unas estrategias más adecuadas de prevención y de tratamiento (AU)


A great deal of research has been conducted into the risk of violent behavior among people with mental disorders. However, their risk of victimization is a subject that has received little attention. This research bias helps to maintain stereotypes on mental disorders and perpetuate the stigma and social isolation of the people involved. According to the studies reviewed, such people are far more likely to be the victims of violence than the general population, especially during periods when the symptoms are more acute. This theoretical article examines the other side of the relationship between mental disorder and violence, focusing on the epidemiology of the problem, the most significant risk factors (prior victimization, drug abuse, social exclusion, comorbidity/symptom severity and development disorders) and some common forms of victimization (suicide, domestic violence, sexual violence, bullying and child abuse). The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the risks of victimization in these people, which may lead to more appropriate prevention and treatment strategies


Assuntos
Humanos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Violência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Agressão , Estereotipagem
16.
Psicothema ; 22(4): 1054-60, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21044552

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale and to revise it in order to ponderate the 20 items according to their discriminant capacity and to solve the missing item problem. The sample for this study consisted of 450 male batterers who were reported to the police station. The victims were classified as high-risk (18.2%), moderate-risk (45.8%) and low-risk (36%), depending on the cutoff scores in the original scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.72) and interrater reliability (r=.73) were acceptable. The point biserial correlation coefficient between each item and the corrected total score of the 20-item scale was calculated to determine the most discriminative items, which were associated with the context of intimate partner violence in the last month, with the male batterer's profile and with the victim's vulnerability. A revised scale (EPV-R) with new cutoff scores and indications on how to deal with the missing items were proposed in accordance with these results. This easy-to-use tool appears to be suitable to the requirements of criminal justice professionals and is intended for use in safety planning. Implications of these results for further research are discussed.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Humanos , Ciúmes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psicometria , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Armas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psicothema ; 22(1): 106-11, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20100435

RESUMO

Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Prisioneiros/classificação , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
18.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 22(4): 1054-1060, 2010. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-82574

RESUMO

El estudio describe y revisa las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Predicción del Riesgo de Violencia Grave Contra la Pareja (EPV) con el objetivo de ponderar sus 20 ítems según su capacidad discriminativa y solucionar el problema de las escalas incompletas. Se analizan 450 expedientes de agresores de pareja denunciados a la Ertzaintza. Los casos se han clasificado como de riesgo alto (18,2%), de riesgo moderado (45,8%) o de bajo riesgo (36%) según los puntos de corte propuestos en la escala original. La consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach= 0,72) y la fiabilidad interjueces (r= 0,73) pueden considerarse aceptables. Los ítems con mayor capacidad discriminativa, calculados mediante la correlación biserial puntual de cada ítem con la puntuación total corregida, son aquellos asociados al contexto de la violencia durante el último mes, al perfil del agresor y a la vulnerabilidad de la víctima. Se propone una escala revisada (EPV-R), con nuevos puntos de corte e indicaciones para valorar el riesgo cuando las escalas están incompletas. La escala parece adecuada para el uso de los profesionales en contacto con las víctimas y es de utilidad en la planificación de medidas de protección. Por último, se analizan las implicaciones de los resultados para futuras investigaciones(AU)


The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale and to revise it in order to ponderate the 20 items according to their discriminant capacity and to solve the missing item problem. The sample for this study consisted of 450 male batterers who were reported to the police station. The victims were classifi ed as high-risk (18.2%), moderate-risk (45.8%) and low-risk (36%), depending on the cutoff scores in the original scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= .72) and interrater reliability (r= .73) were acceptable. The point biserial correlation coefficient between each item and the corrected total score of the 20-item scale was calculated to determine the most discriminative items, which were associated with the context of intimate partner violence in the last month, with the male batterer’s profi le and with the victim’s vulnerability. A revised scale (EPV-R) with new cutoff scores and indications on how to deal with the missing items were proposed in accordance with these results. This easy-to-use tool appears to be suitable to the requirements of criminal justice professionals and is intended for use in safety planning. Implications of these results for further research are discussed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Violência contra a Mulher , Grupos de Risco , Psicometria/classificação , Psicometria/normas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Análise de Dados/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 22(1): 106-111, 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-77225

RESUMO

Los agresores contra la pareja no constituyen un grupo homogéneo. Numerosos estudios en el ámbito anglosajón avalan la posibilidad de diferenciar distintos subtipos de agresores, pero hay divergencias entre ellos. Una de las principales aplicaciones de las tipologías es la adecuación de los tratamientos a las características del sujeto. El presente estudio-piloto tiene como objetivo establecer empíricamente una tipología de agresores contra la pareja en un ámbito español. La muestra constó de 50 sujetos internados en el centro penitenciario Brians-2 (Barcelona) por violencia contra la pareja. Se evaluaron la autoestima, la ira, las distorsiones cognitivas y los trastornos de la personalidad, así como la frecuencia y el tipo de violencia. Los resultados muestran la existencia de dos subtipos diferenciables de agresores en base a las dimensiones predictivas, confirmando en parte las propuestas tipológicas (AU)


People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects’ characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
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