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1.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(11-12): 1472-1480, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis stage ≥2 comprise a target population for pharmacotherapy. Liver biopsy, the reference standard for identifying this population, requires complete and accurate assessment of steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Aims To investigate the completeness of real-world NASH-related pathology reports, assess concordance between site pathologists and central expert interpretation of the histologic elements of NASH, and determine concordance between biopsy-diagnosed NASH and a pragmatic clinical definition of NASH. METHODS: Liver pathology reports from 222 patients across 38 TARGET-NASH sites were analysed for documentation of the histologic features of NASH. Biopsy slides were over-read by a blinded central expert pathologist. Concordance of histologic scores and interpretation was assessed. Histologic concordance with a clinical definition of NASH was determined. TARGET-NASH clinically defined NASH: elevated ALT, hepatic steatosis on biopsy or imaging and ≥1 of the following: BMI ≥30 kg/m2 , type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. RESULTS: Documentation of steatosis, lobular inflammation, portal inflammation and ballooning were missing from 21%, 35%, 46% and 40% of reports, respectively. There was slight-to-fair concordance (weighted kappa 0.01-0.35) between site and central pathologists for inflammatory features, and moderate concordance (weighted kappa 0.56-0.57) for fibrosis staging. Clinical definition of NASH was 75%-91% concordant (94%-95% sensitive) with biopsy-diagnosed NASH. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variability in reporting and grading NASH and fibrosis staging in clinical practice. This heterogeneity may adversely impact patient assessment and translation of practice guidelines into reality. The TARGET-NASH pragmatic clinical definition may serve as a valuable tool to accurately identify NASH patients in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Biópsia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes may correspond to cirrhosis diagnosis. However, these codes have not been as well studied as ICD-9 codes. We aimed to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity of ICD-10 codes for cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study of patients in Michigan Medicine (Ann Arbor, MI, USA). We evaluated patients with at least one of 28 ICD-10 codes for cirrhosis and randomly selected controls for the presence of cirrhosis and/or portal hypertensive complications. RESULTS: Among 1317 patients with at least one ICD-10 code consistent with cirrhosis and/or portal hypertension, 796 had confirmed cirrhosis. After excluding ICD-10 codes found in < 10 patients, we evaluated the PPV of the 19 remaining codes. Of these, 15 had a high PPV for cirrhosis (> 80%), including codes for cirrhosis itself, gastroesophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy, and other portal hypertensive complications. Specificity of ICD codes for cirrhosis for these 15 codes was high (> 94% for all). PPV and specificity were high across liver disease etiologies. Among patients without portal hypertension, PPVs of ICD-10 codes for cirrhosis were lower but still > 80% for the most common codes. PPVs of most codes for portal hypertensive complications were > 70%. Defining cirrhosis based on the presence of any of the 15 codes resulted in a PPV of 86% and by two different codes, a PPV 94%. CONCLUSIONS: ICD-10 codes for cirrhosis can accurately identify patients with cirrhosis with or without portal hypertensive complications.

3.
J Hepatol ; 75(6): 1452-1464, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453966

RESUMO

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication of cirrhosis characterised by neuropsychiatric and motor dysfunction. Microbiota-host interactions play an important role in HE pathogenesis. Therapies targeting microbial community composition and function have been explored for the treatment of HE. Prebiotics, probiotics and faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) have been used with the aim of increasing the abundance of potentially beneficial taxa, while antibiotics have been used to decrease the abundance of potentially harmful taxa. Other microbiome therapeutics, including postbiotics and absorbents, have been used to target microbial products. Microbiome-targeted therapies for HE have had some success, notably lactulose and rifaximin, with probiotics and FMT also showing promise. However, there remain several challenges to the effective application of microbiome therapeutics in HE, including the resilience of the microbiome to sustainable change and unpredictable clinical outcomes from microbiota alterations. Future work in this space should focus on rigorous trial design, microbiome therapy selection, and a personalised approach to HE.

4.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(7): 890-901, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in imaging technology have the potential to transform the early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through quantitative image analysis. Computational "radiomic" techniques extract biomarker information from images which can be used to improve diagnosis and predict tumour biology. AIMS: To perform a systematic review on radiomic features in HCC diagnosis and prognosis, with a focus on reporting metrics and methodologic standardisation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of all full-text articles published from inception through December 1, 2019. Standardised data extraction and quality assessment metrics were applied to all studies. RESULTS: A total of 54 studies were included for analysis. Radiomic features demonstrated good discriminatory performance to differentiate HCC from other solid lesions (c-statistics 0.66-0.95), and to predict microvascular invasion (c-statistic 0.76-0.92), early recurrence after hepatectomy (c-statistics 0.71-0.86), and prognosis after locoregional or systemic therapies (c-statistics 0.74-0.81). Common stratifying features for diagnostic and prognostic radiomic tools included analyses of imaging skewness, analysis of the peritumoural region, and feature extraction from the arterial imaging phase. The overall quality of the included studies was low, with common deficiencies in both internal and external validation, standardised imaging segmentation, and lack of comparison to a gold standard. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative image analysis demonstrates promise as a non-invasive biomarker to improve HCC diagnosis and management. However, standardisation of protocols and outcome measurement, sharing of algorithms and analytic methods, and external validation are necessary prior to widespread application of radiomics to HCC diagnosis and prognosis in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite clear evidence that weight loss via nutritional and physical activity changes improves histological outcomes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), many patients struggle to implement and maintain these health behaviour changes. The aim of this study was to characterise disease knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among persons with NAFLD and to identify the factors driving these health behaviours and perceptions. DESIGN: We conducted semistructured interviews among patients with NAFLD. We used purposeful sampling to enroll equivalent percentages based on age and sex, and enrolled approximately one-third of patients with cirrhosis to capture those perspectives. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was achieved. Transcripts were coded using NVivo software to identify themes and subthemes. RESULTS: A total of 29 patient interviews were completed. Ambiguity about the diagnosis and aetiology of their liver disease was a key theme, though the vast majority of patients were aware that weight loss via nutrition and exercise was the primary therapy. Most patients were asymptomatic, diagnosed incidentally, and reported low level of concern regarding their diagnosis. The primary barriers and facilitators to health behaviour change were the presence of social support, competing medical comorbidities and low motivation to change behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients are aware that lifestyle interventions are the primary therapy for NAFLD, there is a gap in knowledge about the condition. The presence of social support and competing medical comorbidities were the most consistent facilitators and barriers to lifestyle change. Tailoring treatment recommendations to provide relevant disease education, specific nutrition and exercise regimens, and personalised approaches based on specific individual barriers and facilitators will likely aid in uptake and maintenance of first-line therapy for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Hepatology ; 74(6): 2952-2964, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens are available to treat HCV genotype 1 infection. However, comparative effectiveness from randomized controlled trials of DAA regimens is unavailable. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (NCT02786537) to compare the effectiveness of DAAs for HCV genotype 1a or 1b on viral response, safety, tolerability, and medication nonadherence. Adults with compensated liver disease, HCV genotype 1, not pregnant or breastfeeding, and with health insurance likely to cover ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) were recruited from 34 US viral hepatitis clinics. Participants were randomized (± ribavirin) to LDV/SOF, elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR), and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir+dasabuvir (PrOD; treatment arm stopped early). Primary outcomes included sustained viral response at 12 weeks (SVR12), clinician-recorded adverse events, patient-reported symptoms, and medication nonadherence. Between June 2016 and March 2018, 1,609 participants were randomized. Among 1,128 participants who received ≥1 dose of EBR/GZR or LDV/SOF (± ribavirin), SVR12 was 95.2% (95% CI, 92.8%-97.6%) and 97.4% (95% CI, 95.5%-99.2%), respectively, with a difference estimate of 2.2% (-0.5% to 4.7%), falling within the "equivalence" interval (-5% to 5%). While most (56%) participants experienced adverse events, few were serious (4.2%) or severe (1.8%). In the absence of ribavirin, discontinuations due to adverse events were rare. Patient-reported symptoms and medication nonadherence were similar. Study limitations were dropout due to insurance denial and loss to follow-up after treatment, limiting the ability to measure SVR12. CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial demonstrated high SVR12 for participants treated with EBR/GZR and LDV/SOF with few adverse effects. Overall, the two regimens were equivalent in effectiveness. The results support current HCV guidelines that do not distinguish between ribavirin-free EBR/GZR and LDV/SOF.

9.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide analogues, with a proven record of safety and efficacy, have been the therapy of choice for over a decade for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The approval of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in 2016 provided an additional treatment option. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients treated with TAF in usual clinical practice. METHODS: Retrospective data from electronic health records was obtained from those enrolled in TARGET-HBV, a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients with chronic hepatitis B managed according to local practice standards at community and academic medical centers throughout the U.S. RESULTS: Of 500 patients enrolled, most were male (66%) and of Asian race (66%) with median age of 55 years. Cirrhosis was evident in 15%. Most patients (82%) had switched to TAF after treatment with other antivirals. The perceived safety profile of TAF was cited as the primary reason for changing therapy (32%). TAF was well tolerated and only 4 patients discontinued therapy due to adverse event during a median duration of TAF dosing of 74 weeks. Among those with paired laboratory data 12-18 months after switching to TAF, biochemical response and HBV DNA suppression was maintained. Most patients had normal renal function which was essentially unchanged throughout follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: TAF is frequently utilized in routine clinical practice due to the perception of its improved safety profile. The current study supports the growing body of evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of TAF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03692897, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03692897 .

10.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 130: 108396, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol cessation improves mortality in alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), but access to treatment is limited. To address this gap, implementation and early feasibility and outcomes of a multidisciplinary ALD clinic are described. METHODS: The clinic comprised a hepatologist, psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, and social worker. Patients included those with alcohol-associated cirrhosis or acute alcoholic hepatitis who were not in the transplant evaluation process, who had less than 6 months' sobriety and willingness to engage in alcohol use treatment. Psychosocial metrics in addition to routine hepatic function labs were collected. Treatment plans were tailored based on patient preferences and needs after multidisciplinary discussion. RESULTS: 89 patients were referred from both inpatient and outpatient settings, with 51 seen during the initial year. 38 remained active in clinic (4 died, 6 discharged, 3 moved to transplant clinic). 55% were women, 88% were white, 61% had private insurance. 49% had alcoholic hepatitis. 71% were decompensated. 80% had severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 84% had at least 1 comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorder. 63% chose one-on-one AUD treatment, 57% were prescribed relapse prevention medications. Mean MELD-Na score improved from baseline of 14 (SD 6.6) to 11.3 at 6 months (p=0.01). Hospital utilization significantly declined when comparing 6 months before to 6 months after initial visit (emergency department visits: 0.51 to 0.20 per person-month; inpatient admission: 0.34 to 0.14 per person-month; (ß= -0.89, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.60). CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary ALD clinic was feasible with encouraging early outcomes. Further research should explore ways to expand this model and increase clinic capacity.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica
11.
Hepatology ; 74(5): 2395-2409, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The clinical utility of two biomarkers, hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), as compared to conventional markers of HBV replication and disease activity, is unclear. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Untreated participants in the North American Hepatitis B Research Network Adult Cohort Study were categorized by chronic hepatitis B (CHB) phases based on HBsAg and HBeAg status and HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. HBV RNA and HBcrAg were measured (Abbott HBV pgRNA Research Assay and Fujirebio Lumipulse Immunoassay, respectively), and cross-sectional associations with conventional CHB markers were tested. Among 1,409 participants across all CHB phases, median HBV DNA was 3.8 log10 IU/mL and ALT was 34 U/L. HBV RNA was quantifiable in 99% of HBeAg+ and 58% of HBeAg- participants; HBcrAg was quantifiable in 20% of HBeAg+ (above linear range in the other 80%) and 51% of HBeAg- participants. Both markers differed across CHB phases (P < 0.001), with higher levels in the HBeAg+ and HBeAg- immune active phases. HBV RNA and HBcrAg correlated moderately strongly with HBV DNA in both HBeAg+ and HBeAg- phases (HBV RNA: e+ ρ = 0.84; e- ρ = 0.78; HBcrAg: e+ ρ = 0.66; e- ρ = 0.56; P for all, <0.001), but with HBsAg levels among HBeAg+ phases only (HBV RNA: e+ ρ = 0.71; P < 0.001; e- ρ = 0.18; P = 0.56; HBcrAg: e+ ρ = 0.51; P < 0.001; e- ρ = 0.27; P < 0.001). Associations of higher HBV RNA and HBcrAg levels with higher ALT, APRI, and Fibrosis-4 levels were consistent in HBeAg- , but not HBeAg+ , phases. CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear relationships between HBV RNA and HBcrAg levels and CHB phases, these markers have limited additional value in differentiating CHB phases because of their strong association with HBV DNA and, to a lesser extent, with clinical disease indicators.

12.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(6): 938-946, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141981

RESUMO

Much of the current data on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are derived from biopsy-based studies that may introduce ascertainment and selection bias. Selection of patients for liver biopsy has implications for clinical practice and the reported epidemiology of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine patient factors predictive of histologic versus empiric clinical diagnosis of NAFLD in real-world practice. Adults from TARGET-NASH were included in this study. Descriptive statistics are provided for the cohort and compare the characteristics of histologic NAFLD versus patients with clinically diagnosed NAFLD, followed by logistic regression and machine-learning models to describe predictors of liver biopsy. The records of 3,474 subjects were analyzed; median age was 59 years, 59% were female, 75% were White, and median body mass index was 32 kg/m2. Using histologic and/or clinical criteria, a diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was made in 37%, and cirrhosis in 33%. Comorbid conditions included cardiovascular disease (19%), mental health diagnoses (49%), and osteoarthritis (10%). Predictors of a biopsy diagnosis included White race, female sex, diabetes, and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). ALT increased the odds of liver biopsy by 14% per 10-point rise. Machine-learning analyses showed non-White patients with ALT <69 had only a 0.06 probability of undergoing liver biopsy. ALT was the dominant variable that determined liver biopsy. Conclusions: In this real-world cohort of patients with NAFLD, two-thirds of patients did not have a liver biopsy. These patients were more likely to be non-White, older, with a normal ALT, showing potential gaps in or knowledge about this population.

13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lifestyle modification is the main treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but remains challenging to implement. The aim of this pilot was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a mobile-technology based lifestyle program for NAFLD patients. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients with NAFLD in a 6-month mobile-technology based program where participants received a FitBit with weekly tailored step count goals and nutritional assessments. Anthropometrics, hepatic and metabolic parameters, Fibroscan, physical function and activity, and health-related quality of life measures were obtained at enrollment and month 6. Semi-structured exit interviews were conducted to assess patient's experience with the program. RESULTS: 40 (63%) eligible patients were enrolled. Median age was 52.5 with 53% males, 93% whites, 43% with diabetes and median BMI 33.9. On baseline Fibroscan, 59% had F0-2 fibrosis and 70% had moderate-severe steatosis. 33 patients completed the study. Median percentage of days with valid FitBit data collection was 91. 4 patients increased and maintained, 19 maintained, and 8 increased but subsequently returned to baseline weekly step count. 59% of patients reported Fitbit was easy to use and 66% felt step count feedback motivated them to increase their activity. Roughly 50% of patients had reduction in weight, triglycerides and Fibroscan liver stiffness, and 75% had improvement in controlled attenuation parameter and physical function. CONCLUSIONS: A 6-month mobile-technology based pilot lifestyle intervention was feasible and acceptable to NAFLD patients. The program promoted physical activity and was associated with improvement in clinical parameters in some patients.

14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle modification is currently the only treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The most effective way to motivate behavior change in this population is not well understood. AIMS: The aims of this study were to characterize the association between patient disease knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and to determine the impact of an educational intervention. METHODS: Adults with NAFLD had the following assessed before and after an educational intervention: (1) disease knowledge; (2) health-related quality of life (HRQOL); (3) physical activity; (4) diet; (5) stages of change; and (6) clinical variables. RESULTS: Median age of the cohort (N = 248) was 53.5, 46% were male, 85% were white, and median body mass index was 33.9. Forty-eight percentage had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and 28% had cirrhosis. The median correct knowledge score was 73.6%, median Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-NAFLD was 5.2/7, and diet score was 7/16 (higher indicating unhealthy diets). The cohort was sedentary at baseline, with 46% and 60% in active phases of change for nutrition and physical activity, respectively. Fifty-six (22%) had all three high-risk behaviors (sedentary, poor diet scores, low stage of change), which was independently associated with depression. The educational intervention improved diet scores, HRQOL, stages of change, and weight. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good disease knowledge, NAFLD participants were sedentary and 1/4 had high-risk lifestyle behaviors. An educational intervention had positive impacts on clinical outcomes, though effect size was small. Pairing educational interventions with targeted interventions to motivate behavior change can improve care for patients with NAFLD.

15.
JCI Insight ; 6(9)2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822773

RESUMO

Roughly 1 year after the first case of COVID-19 was identified and less than 1 year after the sequencing of SARS-CoV-2, multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with demonstrated safety and efficacy in phase III clinical trials are available. The most promising vaccines have targeted the surface glycoprotein (S-protein) of SARS-CoV-2 and achieved an approximate 85%-95% reduction in the risk of symptomatic COVID-19, while retaining excellent safety profiles and modest side effects in the phase III clinical trials. The mRNA, replication-incompetent viral vector, and protein subunit vaccine technologies have all been successfully employed. Some novel SARS-CoV-2 variants evade but do not appear to fully overcome the potent immunity induced by these vaccines. Emerging real-world effectiveness data add evidence for protection from severe COVID-19. This is an impressive first demonstration of the effectiveness of the mRNA vaccine and vector vaccine platforms. The success of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development should be credited to open science, industry partnerships, harmonization of clinical trials, and the altruism of study participants. The manufacturing and distribution of the emergency use-authorized SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are ongoing challenges. What remains now is to ensure broad and equitable global vaccination against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Parcerias Público-Privadas , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Segurança , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/tendências
16.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(8): 1686-1697, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatty liver disease (FLD) influences liver disease progression and liver cancer risk. We investigated the impact of FLD on liver disease severity in a large North American cohort with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). METHODS: Liver biopsies from 420 hepatitis B surface antigen-positive adults enrolled in the Hepatitis B Research Network and who were not on HBV therapy in the previous month were evaluated for inflammation and fibrosis. Steatohepatitis was based on steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning ± Mallory-Denk bodies, and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Models evaluated factors associated with steatohepatitis, and the associations of steatohepatitis with fibrosis, and longitudinal alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and Fibrosis-4. RESULTS: The median age was 42 years, 62.5% were male, and 79.5% were Asian. One hundred thirty-two (31.4%) patients had FLD (77 [18.3%] steatosis only, 55 [13.1%] steatohepatitis). Older age, overweight/obesity, and diabetes were associated with steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis (vs no FLD) was associated with 1.68 times higher risk of advanced fibrosis at baseline (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.51), and there was an indication of higher incident cirrhosis rate during follow-up. Steatohepatitis vs no FLD was also independently associated with, on average, 1.39 times higher alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.01) and 1.25 times higher Fibrosis-4 (P = 0.04) across 4 years. DISCUSSION: Coexisting steatosis occurred in nearly a third of adults (13% had steatohepatitis) with chronic HBV in this North American cohort who underwent liver biopsies. Steatohepatitis was associated with advanced fibrosis and higher biochemical measures of hepatic inflammation over time. Therefore, in addition to viral suppression, screening for and managing metabolic abnormalities is important to prevent disease progression in HBV.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biópsia , Progressão da Doença , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Liver Transpl ; 27(10): 1401-1411, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871175

RESUMO

Frailty is a powerful prognostic tool in cirrhosis. Claims-based frailty scores estimate the presence of frailty without the need for in-person evaluation. These algorithms have not been validated in cirrhosis. Whether they measure true frailty or perform as well as frailty in outcome prediction is unknown. We evaluated 2 claims-based frailty scores-Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) and Claims-Based Frailty Index (CFI)-in 3 prospective cohorts comprising 1100 patients with cirrhosis. We assessed differences in neuromuscular/neurocognitive capabilities in those classified as frail or nonfrail based on each score. We assessed the ability of the indexes to discriminate frailty based on the Fried Frailty Index (FFI), chair stands, activities of daily living (ADL), and falls. Finally, we compared the performance of claims-based frailty measures and physical frailty measures to predict transplant-free survival using competing risk regression and patient-reported outcomes. The CFI identified neuromuscular deficits (balance, chair stands, hip strength), whereas the HFRS only identified poor chair-stand performance. The CFI had areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCs) for identifying frailty as measured by the FFI, ADL, and falls of 0.57, 0.60, and 0.68, respectively; similarly, the AUROCs were 0.66, 0.63, and 0.67, respectively, for the HFRS. Claims-based frailty scores were associated with poor quality of life and sleep but were outperformed by the FFI and chair stands. The HFRS, per 10-point increase (but not the CFI) predicted survival of patients in the liver transplantation (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.12) and non-liver transplantation cohorts (SHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.22). Claims-based frailty scores do not adequately associate with physical frailty but are associated with important cirrhosis-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Transplante de Fígado , Atividades Cotidianas , Algoritmos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775894

RESUMO

Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hydoxy-3-methyglutaryl-coenzyme reductase inhibitors, statins, reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.1 Studies have shown that statins are safe among patients with liver disease, including those with compensated cirrhosis,2 and their use is associated with lower mortality, hepatic decompensation, and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma.3,4 Despite these data, statins are under prescribed among patients with liver disease due to concerns about hepatotoxicity.5 This study aimed to assess prevalence and patient factors associated with indicated statin use in patients with NAFLD in a real-world cohort.

20.
Hepatology ; 74(5): 2813-2823, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784424

RESUMO

The 2020 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology was awarded to Drs. Harvey Alter, Michael Houghton, and Charles Rice for their contributions to the discovery and characterization of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Their achievements represent a remarkable triumph of biomedical science which allowed the development of curative therapy for HCV, that will save countless lives. This tribute provides a historical perspective of the laureates' seminal work leading to the discovery of the HCV and a synopsis of a forum hosted by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases to honor the laureates in which they offered their perspectives, advice for young investigators and what's left to accomplish in the field. Finally, others in the research community who have worked closely with one or more of the laureates, share some of their personal reflections and anecdotes.

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