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1.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(6): 547-548, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025804

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 61-year-old woman with well-differentiated thyroid cancer underwent 124I-PET/CT imaging. A 124I capsule was administered orally, and the patient was imaged 90 minutes after from the skull vertex to feet. The 124I capsule was unexpectedly lodged in the esophagus. We illustrate attenuation and scatter correction artifacts from 124I capsule unexpectedly lodged in the esophagus and the usefulness of nonattenuation correction images in such circumstances. This also highlights the importance of drinking adequate amounts of water following the ingestion of iodine capsules (123I, 124I, or 131I) to reduce the resulting radiation dose to the esophagus.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Artefatos , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
2.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(4): 321-323, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020655

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Anastomosing hemangioma (AH) is a rare benign vascular lesion that primarily involves the genitourinary tract. Cases have also rarely been reported in other organs. AH is often discovered incidentally and resembles angiosarcoma histologically. On imaging, it may mimic other vascular lesions such as renal cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman with incidentally detected AH involving the kidneys, adrenal glands, liver, and retroperitoneum, initially presumed to be neuroendocrine tumors based on imaging findings on CT and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET scans.


Assuntos
Hemangioma , Neoplasias Renais , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Compostos Organometálicos , Adulto , Feminino , Hemangioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangioma/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Cintilografia
3.
Front Genet ; 12: 721832, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The standard of care for thyroid cancer management is thyroidectomy and adjuvant radioactive iodine (RAI). There is a paucity of clinical tool that quantifies residual thyroid volume reliably for precise adjuvant RAI dosing. Serum thyroglobulin (TG), tumour marker for thyroid cancer, takes 4 weeks for complete clearance due to its long half-life, and might be undetectable in 12% of structural disease patients. It detects recurrence with a sensitivity of 19-40%, mainly attributed to issue of TG antibody interference with TG immunometric assay. We hypothesise that the quantity of thyroid-specific cell-free RNA (cfRNA) is indicative of amount of thyroid tissues, and that during thyroid surgery, cfRNA levels decrease accordingly. METHODS: We identified 11 biologically significant and highly expressed thyroid-specific targets from Human Protein Atlas and literature. To assess for a fall in thyroid-specific cfRNA level, we recruited 16 patients undergoing thyroid surgery or RAI for malignant or benign thyroid disease, and tracked longitudinal trend of cfRNA. To assess the utility of cfRNA in detecting metastatic thyroid cancer, cfRNA of 11 patients at intermediate to high risk of recurrence was measured during surveillance and at time of clinical recurrence. RESULTS: The multiplex assay was capable of amplifying and quantifying multiple thyroid-specific genes in a single reaction. The selected targets were amplified successfully from RNA extracted directly from the thyroid (positive control), indicating that they were highly expressed within thyroid tissue. These cfRNAs were present in plasma, in amounts quantifiable using qRT-PCR. Four cfRNA transcripts (TPO, GFRA2, IVD, TG) fell post-treatment in more than 50% of cohort. The thyroid peroxidase (TPO) cfRNA fell post-therapy in 63% of cohort by 80%, as early as 1 day post-treatment, supporting the potential role as early indicator of remnant thyroid tissue volume. We demonstrated the clinical relevance of circulating TPO cfRNA by tracking temporal changes in setting of peri-treatment, recurrence, and TG Ab positive state. CONCLUSION: Using a multiplex pre-amplification approach, the TPO cfRNA was a potential biomarker that can track residual thyroid mass. It can be further optimised for quantification of thyroid volume to guide RAI doses and for detection of thyroid cancer recurrence.

4.
Liver Cancer ; 10(3): 224-239, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Real-world management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucially challenging in the current rapidly evolving clinical environment which includes the need for respecting patient preferences and autonomy. In this context, regional/national treatment guidelines nuanced to local demographics have increasing importance in guiding disease management. We report here real-world data on clinical outcomes in HCC from a validation of the Consensus Guidelines for HCC at the National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS). METHOD: We evaluated the NCCS guidelines using prospectively collected real-world data, comparing the efficacy of treatment received using overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Treatment outcomes were also independently evaluated against 2 external sets of guidelines, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC). RESULTS: Overall treatment compliance to the NCCS guidelines was 79.2%. Superior median OS was observed in patients receiving treatment compliant with NCCS guidelines for early (nonestimable vs. 23.5 months p < 0.0001), locally advanced (28.1 vs. 22.2 months p = 0.0216) and locally advanced with macrovascular invasion (10.3 vs. 3.3 months p = 0.0013) but not for metastatic HCC (8.1 vs. 6.8 months p = 0.6300), but PFS was similar. Better clinical outcomes were seen in BCLC C patients who received treatment compliant with NCCS guidelines than in patients with treatment only allowed by BCLC guidelines (median OS 14.2 vs. 7.4 months p = 0.0002; median PFS 6.1 vs. 4.0 months p = 0.0286). Clinical outcomes were, however, similar for patients across all HKLC stages receiving NCCS-recommended treatment regardless of whether their treatment was allowed by HKLC. CONCLUSION: The high overall compliance rate and satisfactory clinical outcomes of patients managed according to the NCCS guidelines confirm its validity. This validation using real-world data considers patient and treating clinician preferences, thus providing a realistic analysis of the usefulness of the NCCS guidelines when applied in the clinics.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2299-e2308, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462615

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Literature suggests that oncogenic osteomalacia is usually caused by a benign mesenchymal tumor secreting fibroblast growth factor subtype-23 (FGF-23), but the involvement of other phosphatonins has only been scarcely reported. We have previously published a seemingly typical case of oncogenic osteomalacia. Following curative neoplasm resection, we now report unique molecular characteristics and biology of this tumor. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 25-year-old man had been diagnosed with severe oncogenic osteomalacia that gradually crippled him over 6 years. 68Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan localized the culprit tumor to his left sole, which on resection revealed a deep fibrous histiocytoma displaying a proliferation of spindle cells with storiform pattern associated with multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. Circulating FGF-23, which was elevated more than 2-fold, declined to undetectable levels 24 h after surgery. Microarray analysis revealed increased tumor gene expression of the phosphatonins FGF-23, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and secreted frizzled-related protein subtype 4, with elevated levels of all 3 proteins confirmed through immunoblot analysis. Differential expression of genes involved in bone formation and bone mineralization were further identified. The patient made an astonishing recovery from being wheelchair bound to fully self-ambulant 2 months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: This report describes oncogenic osteomalacia due to a deep fibrous histiocytoma, which coincidentally has been found to induce profound muscle weakness via the overexpression of 3 phosphatonins, which resolved fully upon radical resection of the tumor. Additionally, genes involved in bone formation and bone remodeling contribute to the molecular signature of oncogenic osteomalacia.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Histiocitoma Fibroso Benigno/metabolismo , Osteomalacia/etiologia , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/etiologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Doenças do Pé/genética , Doenças do Pé/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histiocitoma Fibroso Benigno/complicações , Histiocitoma Fibroso Benigno/diagnóstico , Histiocitoma Fibroso Benigno/genética , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Osteomalacia/diagnóstico , Osteomalacia/genética , Osteomalacia/metabolismo , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/genética , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/metabolismo , Singapura , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo
6.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 94(3): 504-512, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American Thyroid Association (ATA) low-intermediate-risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients without structural and biochemical evidence of disease on initial post-treatment evaluation have a low risk of recurrence. Studies have shown that with current ultrasound scans (US) and thyroglobulin assays, recurrences mostly occurred 2-8 years after initial therapy. The ATA recommends that neck US be done 6-12 months after surgery to establish patient's response to therapy, then periodically depending on risk of recurrence. The lack of clarity in recommendations on timing of follow-up US and fear of recurrence leads to frequent tests. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of routine neck US in ATA low-intermediate-risk PTC patients with no structural disease on neck US and non-stimulated thyroglobulin <1.0 ng/mL after initial therapy. METHODS: A retrospective study of 93 patients from Singapore, Saudi Arabia and Argentina with ATA low (n = 49) to intermediate (n = 44) risk PTC was conducted between 1998 and 2017. The outcome was to measure the frequency of identifying structural disease recurrence and non-actionable US abnormalities. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 5 years, five of the 93 patients (5.4%) developed structural neck recurrence on US at a median of 2.5 years after initial treatment. Indeterminate US abnormalities were detected in 19 of the 93 patients (20.4%) leading to additional tests, which did not detect significant disease. CONCLUSION: In ATA low-intermediate-risk PTC with no suspicious findings on neck US and a non-stimulated thyroglobulin of <1.0 ng/mL after initial therapy, frequent US is more likely to identify non-actionable abnormalities than clinically significant disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia
7.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(7): 1645-1648, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this short communication is to outline our experience in policies and processes of a nuclear medicine service during the COVID-19 outbreak in Singapore. METHODS: We describe the key considerations of policies and processes that have been implemented in our nuclear medicine service since the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Singapore General Hospital on 23 January 2020, up to the present time. RESULTS: Infection control, screening of patients and visitors, segregation of risk groups, segregation of staff and service continuity plans, communication and staff welfare, using electronic platforms for multi-disciplinary meetings and tele-reporting are discussed. CONCLUSION: Since our hospital received the first patient with COVID-19 in Singapore, our centre has managed 16 COVID-19 cases to date. There has not been any healthcare worker in our institution who has contracted COVID-19 through patient contact. We have highlighted for discussion some of the policies and processes to prepare a nuclear medicine service for the COVID-19 threat.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Medicina Nuclear , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Relatório de Pesquisa , Risco , Segurança
8.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 43(3): 478-487, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of prophylactic embolization of extrahepatic vessels in patients undergoing yttrium-90 selective internal radiotherapy (90Y SIRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the use of catheter-directed computed tomography hepatic angiography (CD-CTHA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 186 HCC patients who received 90Y SIRT from May 2010 to June 2015 in a single institution. All procedures were performed in a hybrid angiography-CT suite equipped with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CD-CTHA capabilities. CD-CTHA was performed during pre-treatment hepatic angiography. 90Y SIRT was administered approximately 2 weeks later. Selective prophylactic embolization of extrahepatic vessels was performed if extrahepatic enhancement was seen on CD-CTHA or if an extrahepatic vessel opacified on DSA/CD-CTHA despite the final microcatheter position for 90Y microsphere delivery being beyond the origin of this vessel. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (18.8%) required selective embolization of extrahepatic vessels. Technical success of 90Y SIRT was 99.5%. Two patients (1.1%) developed radiation-induced gastrointestinal ulceration, and one (0.54%) developed radiation-induced pneumonitis. Extrahepatic uptake of 90Y microspheres was seen in the gallbladder of one patient without significant complications. CONCLUSION: The use of CD-CTHA in 90Y SIRT of HCC was associated with a low rate of prophylactic embolization of extrahepatic vessels while maintaining a high technical success rate of treatment and low rate of complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4, case series.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/instrumentação , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/métodos , Radioisótopos de Ítrio , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cateteres , Feminino , Artéria Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Intervencionista/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 53(2): 96-101, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057680

RESUMO

The concept of theranostics, where individual patient-level biological information is used to choose the optimal therapy for that individual, has become more popular in the modern era of 'personalised' medicine. With the growth of theranostics, nuclear medicine as a specialty is uniquely poised to grow along with the ever-increasing number of concepts combining imaging and therapy. This special report summarises the status and growth of Theranostic Nuclear Medicine in Singapore. We will cover our experience with the use of radioiodine, radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, prostate specific membrane antigen radioligand therapy, radium-223 and yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy. We also include a section on our radiopharmacy laboratory, crucial to our implementation of theranostic principles. Radionuclide theranostics has seen tremendous growth and we hope to be able to grow alongside to continue to serve the patients in Singapore and in the region.

10.
Neuroendocrinology ; 108(4): 265-277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests there are differences in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEPNEN) among population groups. We aimed to contribute to the current evidence by evaluating the clinicopathological characteristics of GEPNEN in a multi-ethnic Asian group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with GEPNEN at a tertiary medical institution at Singhealth Outram Campus, Singapore, between 1995 and 2015. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-five patients were included in the evaluation, comprising Chinese (74.6%), Malay (4.4%), Indian (9.5%) and other (11.5%) ethnic backgrounds. The median age at diagnosis was 59 years; 52.5% were males. Distribution of disease stage at diagnosis was: localised (42.4%), regional (15.3%) and distant (38.0%). The three most common primary tumour sites were located in the pancreas (38.6%), rectum (19.7%) and stomach (9.5%), which varied significantly with ethnic background and age at diagnosis. Malay patients were younger (median 42 years) at diagnosis than Chinese (60 years). Patients with an appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) (48 years) were younger compared to oesophageal NEN (66 years). Disease stage correlated with primary tumour site and grade (p < 0.001). Median overall survival (OS) for all GEPNEN was 10.2 years. Age at diagnosis, disease stage and grading were prognostic factors of OS in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: Our findings correspond with other studies that focus on GEPNEN incidences in Asian countries, with the pancreas, rectum and stomach being the most common primary tumour sites. Our findings suggest racial differences in primary tumour site and age at diagnosis. Further prospective population-based registries are required to understand these epidemiological differences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
12.
Clin Nucl Med ; 36(6): 479-80, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21552032

RESUMO

Pancreatic involvement by metastasis from other primaries is rare and accounts for approximately 2% to 4% of pancreatic tumors. In this article, we describe FDG-avid pancreatic involvement in a patient with diagnosis of breast cancer. We conclude that FDG PET can be a convenient noninvasive method of early detection of recurrence and in monitoring metastatic disease during follow-up in such patients. A positive FDG PET warrants histopathologic correlation for appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/secundário , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia
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