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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 116, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the effects of the DPP-4i sitagliptin on CV outcomes during and after incident MI in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS). METHODS: TECOS randomized 14,671 participants with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to sitagliptin or placebo, in addition to usual care. For those who had a within-trial MI, we analyzed case fatality, and for those with a nonfatal MI, we examined a composite cardiovascular (CV) outcome (CV death or hospitalization for heart failure [hHF]) by treatment group, using Cox proportional hazards models left-censored at the time of the first within-trial MI, without and with adjustment for potential confounders, in intention-to-treat analyses. RESULTS: During TECOS, 616 participants had ≥ 1 MI (sitagliptin group 300, placebo group 316, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.81-1.11, P = 0.49), of which 25 were fatal [11 and 14, respectively]). Of the 591 patients with a nonfatal MI, 87 (15%) died subsequently, with 66 (11%) being CV deaths, and 57 (10%) experiencing hHF. The composite outcome occurred in 58 (20.1%; 13.9 per 100 person-years) sitagliptin group participants and 50 (16.6%; 11.7 per 100 person-years) placebo group participants (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.83-1.77, P = 0.32, adjusted HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.83-1.82, P = 0.31). On-treatment sensitivity analyses also showed no significant between-group differences in post-MI outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and ASCVD experiencing an MI, sitagliptin did not reduce subsequent risk of CV death or hHF, contrary to expectations derived from preclinical animal models. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT00790205.

2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474240

RESUMO

We analyzed antibiotic use data from 29 southeastern US hospitals over a 5-year period to determine changes in antibiotic use after the fluoroquinolone US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory update in 2016. Fluoroquinolone use declined both before and after the FDA announcement, and the use of select, alternative antibiotics increased after the announcement.Fluoroquinolones are among the 4 most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes.1,2 Postmarketing reports of serious adverse events linked to fluoroquinolones include tendonitis, neuropathy, hypoglycemia, psychiatric side effects, and possible aortic vessel rupture, leading to safety label changes in July 2008 and August 2013.3 In July 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strengthened the "black box" warning following an initial safety announcement in May 2016, recommending avoidance of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated infections such as acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, uncomplicated urinary tract infections, and acute bacterial sinusitis.4 Concerns over safety and the association with Clostridiodes difficile infection have led inpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to develop initiatives to promote avoidance of quinolones. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the 2016 FDA "black box" update on inpatient antibiotic use among a cohort of southeastern US hospitals.

3.
Circulation ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542942

RESUMO

Background: Once-weekly exenatide (EQW) had a neutral effect on hospitalization for heart failure (hHF) in the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL), with no differential treatment effect on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) by baseline heart failure (HF) status. EQW's effects on secondary endpoints based on hHF status have not been reported. The objective was to explore the effects of EQW on secondary endpoints in patients with and without baseline HF and test the effects of EQW on recurrent hHF events. Methods: The prespecified analysis of the randomized controlled EXSCEL trial, which enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes with and without additional cardiovascular disease, analyzed EQW effects on all-cause death, each MACE component, first hHF and repeat hHF by baseline HF status (regardless of ejection fraction). A subgroup analysis of the population stratified by preserved or reduced baseline ejection fraction was performed. Results: Of 14,752 EXSCEL participants, 2389 (16.2%) had HF at baseline. Compared with those without HF at baseline, patients with preexisting HF were older, more likely to be male and White, and with a higher burden of other cardiovascular diseases. Overall, those assigned to EQW had a lower incidence of all-cause death (HR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97) and the composite outcome of all-cause death or hHF (HR 0.89, 95%CI 0.80-0.99). When stratified by presence or absence of baseline HF, there was no observed reduction in all-cause death with EQW with baseline HF (HR 1.05, 95%CI 0.85-1.29), while the risk of mortality was reduced with EQW in the no-HF group (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.68-0.92) with an interaction p-value of 0.031. Reduction in all-cause death or hHF seen with EQW in patients without baseline HF (HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.71-0.93) was not seen in patients with baseline HF (HR 1.07, 95%CI 0.89-1.29) (interaction p=0.015). First plus recurrent hHF was reduced in the exenatide group versus placebo (HR 0.82, 95%CI 0.68-0.99; p=0.038). Conclusions: In EXSCEL, the use of EQW in patients with or without HF was well tolerated, but benefits of EQW on reduction in all-cause death and first hospitalization for HF were attenuated in patients with baseline HF. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01144338.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314050

RESUMO

Importance: Limited evidence is available regarding the benefit and hazard of higher-intensity treatment to lower lipid levels among patients 75 years or older. As a result, guideline recommendations differ for this age group compared with younger patients. Objective: To determine the effect on outcomes and risks of combination ezetimibe and simvastatin compared with simvastatin monotherapy to lower lipid levels among patients 75 years or older with stabilized acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design, Setting, Participants: In this prespecified secondary analysis of the global, multicenter, prospective clinical randomized Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT), outcomes and risks were compared by age among patients 50 years or older after a hospitalization for ACS. Data were collected from October 26, 2005, through July 8, 2010, with the database locked October 21, 2014. Data were analyzed May 29, 2015, through March 13, 2018, using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Interventions: Double-blind randomized assignment to combined simvastatin and ezetimibe or simvastatin and placebo with follow-up for a median of 6 years (interquartile range, 4.3-7.1 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary composite end point consisted of death due to cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, unstable angina requiring hospitalization, and coronary revascularization after 30 days. Individual adverse ischemic and safety end points and lipid variables were also analyzed. Results: Of 18 144 patients enrolled (13 728 men [75.7%]; mean [SD] age, 64.1 [9.8] years), 5173 (28.5%) were 65 to 74 years old, and 2798 (15.4%) were 75 years or older at randomization. Treatment with simvastatin-ezetimibe resulted in lower rates of the primary end point than simvastatin-placebo, including 0.9% for patients younger than 65 years (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.05) and 0.8% for patients 65 to 74 years of age (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.06), with the greatest absolute risk reduction of 8.7% for patients 75 years or older (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90) (P = .02 for interaction). The rate of adverse events did not increase with simvastatin-ezetimibe vs simvastatin-placebo among younger or older patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In IMPROVE-IT, patients hospitalized for ACS derived benefit from higher-intensity therapy to lower lipid levels with simvastatin-ezetimibe compared with simvastatin monotherapy, with the greatest absolute risk reduction among patients 75 years or older. Addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin was not associated with any significant increase in safety issues among older patients. These results may have implications for guideline recommendations regarding lowering of lipid levels in the elderly. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00202878.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 289: 58-62, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the use of different antithrombotic therapies at baseline among patients with a history of atrial fibrillation (AF), type 2 diabetes, and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) enrolled in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS). METHODS: TECOS participants with a history of AF were stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score and their antithrombotic use evaluated. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to explore possible associations between history of AF and prespecified clinical outcomes after adjusting for key baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 14,671 TECOS participants, 1167 (8%) had a history of AF, of whom 51.6% were using vitamin K antagonists (VKA); 31.2% used VKA alone, 16.9% used aspirin plus VKA, 1.8% used clopidogrel plus VKA, and 1.7% used aspirin and clopidogrel plus VKA. Aspirin was used by 56.8%: 30.9% used aspirin alone and 7.3% aspirin plus clopidogrel. Clopidogrel alone was used by 2.9%, and 7.3% were not using any antithrombotic medication. Participants with a history of AF had a higher risk of cardiovascular events, including hospitalization for heart failure and all-cause mortality, than those without AF. White, older men with prior myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, or prior stroke were more likely to develop new-onset AF than others without these characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of high-risk AF patients with diabetes and established ASCVD in TECOS were not treated with anticoagulation therapy despite clear guideline recommendations for such therapy, highlighting the challenge and potential for clinical improvements in managing these patients in clinical practice. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00790205.

6.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(8): 1193-1201, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739657

RESUMO

Risk prediction following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains challenging. Data-driven machine-learning algorithms can potentially identify patients at high risk of clinical events. The Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial randomized 18,144 post-ACS patients to ezetimibe + simvastatin or placebo + simvastatin. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis to identify patients at high risk of adverse events. Associations between clusters and outcomes were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, unstable angina hospitalization, or coronary revascularization ≥30 days after randomization. We evaluated ezetimibe's impact on outcomes across clusters and the ability of the cluster analysis to discriminate for outcomes compared with the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. Five clusters were identified. In cluster 1 (n = 13,252), most patients experienced a non-STEMI (54.8%). Cluster 2 patients (n = 2,719) had the highest incidence of unstable angina (n = 83.3%). Cluster 3 patients (n = 782) all identified as Spanish descent, whereas cluster 4 patients (n = 803) were primarily from South America (56.2%). In cluster 5 (n = 587), all patients had ST elevation. Cluster analysis identified patients at high risk of adverse outcomes (log-rank p <0.0001); Cluster 2 (vs 1) patients had the highest risk of outcomes (hazards ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.43). Compared with GRACE risk, cluster analysis did not provide superior outcome discrimination. A consistent ezetimibe treatment effect was identified across clusters (interaction p = 0.882). In conclusion, cluster analysis identified significant difference in risk of outcomes across cluster groups. Data-driven strategies to identify patients who may differentially benefit from therapies and for risk stratification require further evaluation.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(2): e005244, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764651

RESUMO

Background Guidelines recommend patient engagement in shared decision-making regarding coronary revascularization, but studies demonstrate poor patient understanding of risks, benefits, and alternatives. Effective strategies are needed to integrate informed patient preferences into clinical care, particularly for patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. Methods and Results We developed a web-based decision aid to educate patients and survey their treatment preferences before angiography. We compared knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of 203 patients with and without use of the decision aid. In a pilot cluster-randomized study, cardiologists were assigned to receive versus not receive patient preferences, with subsequent assessment of treatment decisions. The median age of participants was 64 years, 62% were men, 74% were white, and a similar number had acute presentation (49% non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina) and stable presentation (51% stable angina or atypical symptoms). Most patients preferred treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention compared with either medical therapy alone (63% versus 21%) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (81% versus 7%). The decision aid was associated with improved performance on a 6-item knowledge scale (mean, 2.7 versus 2.2 questions correct; P<0.01) and greater interest in shared decision-making but not an overall change in patient preferences. The pilot cluster-randomized study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating patient preference information into clinical care, although providing preferences to the clinicians did not improve concordance between preference and treatment. Conclusions A web-based decision aid was associated with improved patient knowledge and greater desire to participate in shared decision-making for coronary revascularization. Most patients preferred percutaneous coronary intervention to either medical therapy alone or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Further investigation is needed to determine the impact of patient preferences on clinical decision-making and outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02272062.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(1): e005041, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cholesterol-lowering medications can reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events, premature discontinuation limits effectiveness. Discontinuation rates have not been systematically reported for lipid-lowering trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated medication discontinuation in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial), which evaluated placebo+simvastatin versus ezetimibe+simvastatin in patients hospitalized with the acute coronary syndrome and followed longitudinally postdischarge. Reasons for discontinuation were evaluated from randomization through study end (median 71.9 [interquartile range 51.8-85.8] months). Kaplan-Meier (KM) discontinuation rates were evaluated at 30 days, 1 year, and through year 7, and compared by treatment arm and region, with Cox proportional hazards modeling used to evaluate predictors of discontinuation. Overall, 46.7% of subjects discontinued study medication (KM rate by study end 50.9% [95% CI, 50.1%-51.7%]). The risk of discontinuation was highest early in the trial but decreased with increasing time, with a terminal KM rate per 100 person-years of 8.4 (8.2-8.6) from years 1 to 7. Discontinuation was higher in the placebo+simvastatin versus ezetimibe+simvastatin arm (KM rate 52.0% versus 49.8%, P=0.049) and was highest in the United States (7-year KM rate 57.4%). In multivariable modeling, smoking, prior revascularization, hypertension, unstable angina, female sex, nonwhite race, and US location were associated with higher discontinuation rates. CONCLUSIONS: Although discontinuation was highest early and stabilized to 8% per year, because of prolonged follow-up, most discontinuation occurred after year 1. Adding ezetimibe to statin therapy did not increase discontinuation risk. Geographic differences and patient-level factors should be considered in trial design and analysis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00202878.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(19): e009304, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371301

RESUMO

Background In the EXSCEL (Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering), exenatide once-weekly resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events ( MACEs ) and a nominal 14% reduction in all-cause mortality in 14 752 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM ) with and without cardiovascular disease. Whether patients at increased risk for events experienced a comparatively greater treatment benefit with exenatide is unknown. Methods and Results In the EXSCEL population, we created risk scores for MACEs and all-cause mortality using step-wise selection of baseline characteristics. A risk score was calculated for each patient, and a time-to-event model for each end point was developed including the risk score, treatment assignment, and risk-treatment interaction. Interaction P values evaluating for a differential treatment effect by baseline risk were reported. Over a median follow-up of 3.2 years (interquartile range, 2.2, 4.4), 1091 (7.4%) patients died and 1744 (11.8%) experienced a MACE . Independent predictors of MACEs and all-cause mortality included age, sex, comorbidities (eg, previous cardiovascular event), body mass index, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. The all-cause mortality and MACE risk models had modest discrimination with optimism-corrected c-indices of 0.73 and 0.71, respectively. No interaction was observed between treatment effect and risk profile for either end point (both interactions, P>0.1). Conclusions Baseline characteristics (eg, age, previous cardiovascular events) and routine laboratory values (eg, hemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate) provided modest prognostic value for mortality and MACEs in a broad population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exenatide's effects on mortality and MACEs were consistent across the spectrum of baseline risk. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01144338.

10.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000847, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364466

RESUMO

Objective: Stress testing is commonly performed in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We hypothesised that changes in N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations from baseline to post-stress testing (stress-delta values) differentiate patients with ischaemic stress tests from controls. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 320 adult patients with suspected ACS in an ED-based observation unit who were undergoing exercise stress echocardiography. We measured plasma NT-proBNP concentrations at baseline and at 2 and 4 hours post-stress and compared stress-delta NT-proBNP between patients with abnormal stress tests versus controls using non-parametric statistics (Wilcoxon test) due to skew. We calculated the diagnostic test characteristics of stress-delta NT-proBNP for myocardial ischaemia on imaging. Results: Among 320 participants, the median age was 51 (IQR 44-59) years, 147 (45.9%) were men, and 122 (38.1%) were African-American. Twenty-six (8.1%) had myocardial ischaemia. Static and stress-deltas NT-proBNP differed at all time points between groups. The median stress-deltas at 2 hours were 10.4 (IQR 6.0-51.7) ng/L vs 1.7 (IQR -0.4 to 8.7) ng/L, and at 4 hours were 14.8 (IQR 5.0-22.3) ng/L vs 1.0 (-2.0 to 10.3) ng/L for patients with ischaemia versus those without. Areas under the receiver operating curves were 0.716 and 0.719 for 2-hour and 4-hour stress-deltas, respectively. After adjusting for baseline NT-proBNP levels, the 4-hour stress-delta NT-proBNP remained significantly different between the groups (p=0.009). Conclusion: Among patients with ischaemic stress tests, static and 4-hour stress-delta NT-proBNP values were significantly higher. Further study is needed to determine if stress-delta NT-proBNP is a useful adjunct to stress testing.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(9): 1451-1458, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180960

RESUMO

The natural history of patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with pre-existing versus (vs) de novo heart failure (HF) has not been previously reported over an extended duration of follow-up. The IMPROVE-IT trial enrolled 18,144 patients hospitalized for ACS and randomized them to combination simvastatin (40 mg)/ezetimibe (10 mg) vs simvastatin (40 mg). Subjects were divided into 3 groups: pre-existing HF (i.e., defined by past medical history), de novo HF (i.e., defined by Killip class II or greater during index admission), and no HF. The final analytical cohort included 14,792 patients (82%) with HF status recorded at baseline. In total, 790 patients (5.3%) reported a pre-existing diagnosis of HF and 1374 patients (9.3%) experienced de novo HF. Patients with pre-existing or de novo HF were older, more likely to be woman, and had a greater prevalence of atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus. The incidences of death/HF-hospitalizations at 5 years were 32%/20% for pre-existing HF, 18%/7% for de novo HF, and 8%/3% for no HF. After adjusting for potential confounders, a history of pre-existing or de novo HF was independently associated with increased risk of death (pre-existing HF: hazard ratio [HR] 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68 to 2.22, p < 0.001; de novo HF: HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.72, p < 0.001) and hospitalizations for HF (pre-existing HF: HR 2.96, 95% CI 2.36 to 3.71, p < 0.001; de novo HF: HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.38, p < 0.001). There was no interaction among baseline HF status (i.e., pre-existing or de novo), lipid lowering therapy (i.e., simvastatin/ezetimibe vs simvastatin alone), and clinical outcomes. In conclusion, patients hospitalized for ACS with pre-existing or de novo HF were older and had a greater burden of medical co-morbidities. In conclusion, HF was independently associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity and mortality with the pre-existing HF cohort demonstrating the highest overall risk.

12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(8): 845-853, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hospital environment is a source of pathogen transmission. The effect of enhanced disinfection strategies on the hospital-wide incidence of infection has not been investigated in a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of four disinfection strategies on hospital-wide incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile in the Benefits of Enhanced Terminal Room (BETR) Disinfection study. METHODS: We did a prespecified secondary analysis of the results from the BETR Disinfection study, a pragmatic, multicentre, crossover cluster-randomised trial that assessed four different strategies for terminal room disinfection in nine hospitals in the southeastern USA. Rooms from which a patient with a specific infection or colonisation (due to the target organisms C difficile, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), or multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp) was discharged were terminally disinfected with one of four strategies: standard disinfection (quaternary ammonium disinfectant, except for C difficile, for which 10% hypochlorite [bleach] was used; reference); standard disinfection and disinfecting ultraviolet light (UV-C), except for C difficile, for which bleach and UV-C was used (UV strategy); 10% hypochlorite (bleach strategy); and bleach and UV-C (bleach and UV strategy). We randomly assigned the sequence of strategies for each hospital (1:1:1:1), and each strategy was used for 7 months, including a 1-month wash-in period and 6 months of data collection. The prespecified secondary outcomes were hospital-wide, hospital-acquired incidence of all target organisms (calculated as number of patients with hospital-acquired infection with a target organism per 10 000 patient days), and hospital-wide, hospital-acquired incidence of each target organism separately. BETR Disinfection is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01579370. FINDINGS: Between April, 2012, and July, 2014, there were 271 740 unique patients with 375 918 admissions. 314 610 admissions met all inclusion criteria (n=73 071 in the reference study period, n=81 621 in the UV study period, n=78 760 in the bleach study period, and n=81 158 in the bleach and UV study period). 2681 incidenct cases of hospital-acquired infection or colonisation occurred during the study. There was no significant difference in the hospital-wide risk of target organism acquisition between standard disinfection and the three enhanced terminal disinfection strategies for all target multidrug-resistant organisms (UV study period relative risk [RR] 0·89, 95% CI 0·79-1·00; p=0·052; bleach study period 0·92, 0·79-1·08; p=0·32; bleach and UV study period 0·99, 0·89-1·11; p=0·89). The decrease in risk in the UV study period was driven by decreases in risk of acquisition of C difficile (RR 0·89, 95% CI 0·80-0·99; p=0·031) and VRE (0·56, 0·31-0·996; p=0·048). INTERPRETATION: Enhanced terminal room disinfection with UV in a targeted subset of high-risk rooms led to a decrease in hospital-wide incidence of C difficile and VRE. Enhanced disinfection overcomes limitations of standard disinfection strategies and is a potential strategy to reduce the risk of acquisition of multidrug-resistant organisms and C difficile. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1174-1185, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimal treatment of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill patients is uncertain. We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of the antiseizure drugs lacosamide (LCM) and fosphenytoin (fPHT) in this population. METHODS: The TRENdS (Treatment of Recurrent Electrographic Nonconvulsive Seizures) study was a noninferiority, prospective, multicenter, randomized treatment trial of patients diagnosed with nonconvulsive seizures (NCSs) by continuous electroencephalography (cEEG). Treatment was randomized to intravenous (IV) LCM 400mg or IV fPHT 20mg phenytoin equivalents/kg. The primary endpoint was absence of electrographic seizures for 24 hours as determined by 1 blinded EEG reviewer. The frequency with which NCS control was achieved in each arm was compared, and the 90% confidence interval (CI) was determined. Noninferiority of LCM to fPHT was to be concluded if the lower bound of the CI for relative risk was >0.8. RESULTS: Seventy-four subjects were enrolled (37 LCM, 37 fPHT) between August 21, 2012 and December 20, 2013. The mean age was 63.6 years; 38 were women. Seizures were controlled in 19 of 30 (63.3%) subjects in the LCM arm and 16 of 32 (50%) subjects in the fPHT arm. LCM was noninferior to fPHT (p = 0.02), with a risk ratio of 1.27 (90% CI = 0.88-1.83). Treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were similar in both arms, occurring in 9 of 35 (25.7%) LCM and 9 of 37 (24.3%) fPHT subjects (p = 1.0). INTERPRETATION: LCM was noninferior to fPHT in controlling NCS, and TEAEs were comparable. LCM can be considered an alternative to fPHT in the treatment of NCSs detected on cEEG. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1174-1185.

14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 39(5): 612-615, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576019

RESUMO

Patient days and days present were compared to directly measured person time to quantify how choice of different denominator metrics may affect antimicrobial use rates. Overall, days present were approximately one-third higher than patient days. This difference varied among hospitals and units and was influenced by short length of stay.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:612-615.

15.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(1): 39-45, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases risk of stroke 5-fold. Carotid artery disease (CD) also augments the risk of stroke, yet there are limited data about the interplay of these 2 diseases and clinical outcomes in patients with comorbid AF and CD. HYPOTHESIS: Among patients with both AF and CD, use of rivaroxaban when compared with warfarin is associated with a lower risk of stroke. METHODS: This post hoc analysis from ROCKET AF aimed to determine absolute rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and bleeding, and the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with AF and CD (defined as history of carotid occlusive disease or carotid revascularization [endarterectomy and/or stenting]). RESULTS: A total of 593 (4.2%) patients had CD at enrollment. Patients with and without CD had similar rates of stroke or SE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-1.48, P = 0.96), and there was no difference in major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding (adjusted HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.88-1.24, P = 0.62). The efficacy of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin for the prevention of stroke/SE was not statistically significant in patients with vs those without CD (interaction P = 0.25). The safety of rivaroxaban vs warfarin for major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding was similar in patients with and without CD (interaction P = 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CD in ROCKET AF had similar risk of stroke/SE compared with patients without CD. Additionally, there was no interaction between CD and the treatment effect of rivaroxaban or warfarin for stroke prevention or safety endpoints.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia/etiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(6): 1427-1434, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405540

RESUMO

AIM: Pooled efficacy studies suggest that glycaemic responses to dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes are greatest in Asians, who may also respond better to alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. We assessed the glycaemic impact of sitagliptin by race in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS), and whether this was enhanced in Asians with concomitant acarbose therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TECOS enrolled 14 671 patients with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and HbA1c of 48-64 mmol/mol (6.5%-8.0%), and randomized them, double-blind, to sitagliptin or placebo. There were 3265 patients (22.3%) from Asian countries. Background glucose-lowering therapies were unaltered for the first 4 months post randomization unless clinically essential, facilitating comparison of sitagliptin-associated effects in self-identified East Asian, Other (South) Asian, White Caucasian, Hispanic, Black and Indigenous groups. RESULTS: Median baseline HbA1c by race was 54 to 57 mmol/mol (7.1%-7.4%). Mean 4-month reduction in placebo-adjusted HbA1c was greatest in East Asians (-6.6 mmol/mol [-0.60%] vs ≤6.0 mmol/mol [≤0.55%] in other groups), with significantly greater reduction vs the 2 largest groups (White Caucasians, Other Asians; P < .0001) after adjustment for covariates. After the first 4 months, East and Other Asians were more likely to initiate additional oral therapy (metformin and/or sulfonylureas) than insulin vs White Caucasians (P < .0001). Acarbose use increased in the Asian patients, but no glycaemic interaction with allocated study medication was observed (adjusted P = .12). CONCLUSIONS: The greatest initial reduction in HbA1c with sitagliptin in the TECOS population was in East Asians. No enhanced glycaemic effect was seen when sitagliptin was given with acarbose.

17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 39(2): 157-163, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To summarize and discuss logistic and administrative challenges we encountered during the Benefits of Enhanced Terminal Room (BETR) Disinfection Study and lessons learned that are pertinent to future utilization of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection devices in other hospitals DESIGN Multicenter cluster randomized trial SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Nine hospitals in the southeastern United States METHODS All participating hospitals developed systems to implement 4 different strategies for terminal room disinfection. We measured compliance with disinfection strategy, barriers to implementation, and perceptions from nurse managers and environmental services (EVS) supervisors throughout the 28-month trial. RESULTS Implementation of enhanced terminal disinfection with UV disinfection devices provides unique challenges, including time pressures from bed control personnel, efficient room identification, negative perceptions from nurse managers, and discharge volume. In the course of the BETR Disinfection Study, we utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers: (1) establishing safety as the priority; (2) improving communication between EVS, bed control, and hospital administration; (3) ensuring availability of necessary resources; and (4) tracking and providing feedback on compliance. Using these strategies, we deployed ultraviolet (UV) disinfection devices in 16,220 (88%) of 18,411 eligible rooms during our trial (median per hospital, 89%; IQR, 86%-92%). CONCLUSIONS Implementation of enhanced terminal room disinfection strategies using UV devices requires recognition and mitigation of 2 key barriers: (1) timely and accurate identification of rooms that would benefit from enhanced terminal disinfection and (2) overcoming time constraints to allow EVS cleaning staff sufficient time to properly employ enhanced terminal disinfection methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical trials identifier: NCT01579370 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:157-163.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Quartos de Pacientes , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 6(2): 105-113, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective glucose-lowering drugs. Findings from cardiovascular outcome trials showed cardiovascular safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists, but results for cardiovascular efficacy were varied. We aimed to examine overall cardiovascular efficacy for lixisenatide, liraglutide, semaglutide, and extended-release exenatide. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed data from eligible trials that assessed the safety and efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo in adult patients (aged 18 years or older) with type 2 diabetes and had a primary outcome including, but not limited to, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. We searched PubMed and MEDLINE without language restrictions up to Sept 18, 2017, for eligible trials. We did a meta-analysis of available trial data using a random-effects model to calculate overall hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular efficacy outcomes and odds ratios for key safety outcomes. FINDINGS: Of 12 articles identified in our search and screened for eligibility, four trials of cardiovascular outcomes of GLP-1 receptor agonists were identified: ELIXA (lixisenatide), LEADER (liraglutide), SUSTAIN 6 (semaglutide), and EXSCEL (extended-release exenatide). Compared with placebo, GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment showed a significant 10% relative risk reduction in the three-point major adverse cardiovascular event primary outcome (cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke; HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·82-0·99; p=0·033), a 13% RRR in cardiovascular mortality (0·87, 0·79-0·96; p=0·007), and a 12% relative risk reduction in all-cause mortality (0·88, 0·81-0·95; p=0·002), with low-to-moderate between-trial statistical heterogeneity. No significant effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists was identified on fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, or hospital admission for heart failure. Overall, no significant differences were seen in severe hypoglycaemia, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or medullary thyroid cancer reported between GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment and placebo. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show cardiovascular safety across all GLP-1 receptor agonist cardiovascular outcome trials and suggest that drugs in this class can reduce three-point major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality risk, albeit to varying degrees for individual drugs, without significant safety concerns. GLP-1 receptor agonists have a favourable risk-benefit balance overall, which should allow the choice of drug to be individualised to each patient's needs. FUNDING: Amylin Pharmaceuticals (AstraZeneca).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Diabetes Care ; 40(12): 1763-1770, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the specific causes of death and their associated risk factors in a contemporary cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS) study (n = 14,671), a cardiovascular (CV) safety trial adding sitagliptin versus placebo to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes and ASCVD (median follow-up 3 years). An independent committee blinded to treatment assignment adjudicated each cause of death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk factors associated with each outcome. RESULTS: A total of 1,084 deaths were adjudicated as the following: 530 CV (1.2/100 patient-years [PY], 49% of deaths), 338 non-CV (0.77/100 PY, 31% of deaths), and 216 unknown (0.49/100 PY, 20% of deaths). The most common CV death was sudden death (n = 145, 27% of CV death) followed by acute myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke (n = 113 [MI n = 48, stroke n = 65], 21% of CV death) and heart failure (HF) (n = 63, 12% of CV death). The most common non-CV death was malignancy (n = 154, 46% of non-CV death). The risk of specific CV death subcategories was lower among patients with no baseline history of HF, including sudden death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.4; P = 0.0036), MI/stroke death (HR 0.47; P = 0.049), and HF death (HR 0.29; P = 0.0057). CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of a contemporary cohort of patients with diabetes and ASCVD, sudden death was the most common subcategory of CV death. HF prevention may represent an avenue to reduce the risk of specific CV death subcategories.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Idoso , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
N Engl J Med ; 377(13): 1228-1239, 2017 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effects of adding once-weekly treatment with exenatide to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes, with or without previous cardiovascular disease, to receive subcutaneous injections of extended-release exenatide at a dose of 2 mg or matching placebo once weekly. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. The coprimary hypotheses were that exenatide, administered once weekly, would be noninferior to placebo with respect to safety and superior to placebo with respect to efficacy. RESULTS: In all, 14,752 patients (of whom 10,782 [73.1%] had previous cardiovascular disease) were followed for a median of 3.2 years (interquartile range, 2.2 to 4.4). A primary composite outcome event occurred in 839 of 7356 patients (11.4%; 3.7 events per 100 person-years) in the exenatide group and in 905 of 7396 patients (12.2%; 4.0 events per 100 person-years) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.00), with the intention-to-treat analysis indicating that exenatide, administered once weekly, was noninferior to placebo with respect to safety (P<0.001 for noninferiority) but was not superior to placebo with respect to efficacy (P=0.06 for superiority). The rates of death from cardiovascular causes, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, and hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, and the incidence of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes with or without previous cardiovascular disease, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ significantly between patients who received exenatide and those who received placebo. (Funded by Amylin Pharmaceuticals; EXSCEL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01144338 .).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peçonhas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Exenatida , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Injeções Subcutâneas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Peçonhas/efeitos adversos
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