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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620138

RESUMO

It is essential for early human life that mucosal immunological responses to developing embryos are tightly regulated. An imbalance of the complement system is a common feature of pregnancy complications. We hereby present the first full analysis of the expression and deposition of complement molecules in human pre-implantation embryos. Thus, far, immunological imbalance has been considered in stages of pregnancy following implantation. We here show that complement activation against developing human embryos takes place already at the pre-implantation stage. Using confocal microscopy, we observed deposition of activation products on healthy developing embryos, which highlights the need for strict complement regulation. We show that embryos express complement membrane inhibitors and bind soluble regulators. These findings show that mucosal complement targets human embryos, and indicate potential adverse pregnancy outcomes, if regulation of activation fails. In addition, single-cell RNA sequencing revealed cellular expression of complement activators. This shows that the embryonic cells themselves have the capacity to express and activate C3 and C5. The specific local embryonic expression of complement components, regulators, and deposition of activation products on the surface of embryos suggests that complement has immunoregulatory functions and furthermore may impact cellular homeostasis and differentiation at the earliest stages of life.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-5, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal vitamin D level in pregnancy may have implications for both the mother and fetus. Deficiency of vitamin D has been linked to several pregnancy complications and fetal skeletal health. Smoking has been associated with reduced serum level of the vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). DESIGN: A nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort, a population-based cohort which includes first-trimester sera from 98 % of pregnancies in Finland since 1987. The selection consisted of women with uncomplicated pregnancies. We studied serum concentration of 25(OH)D in 313 non-smoking and forty-six self-reported smoking pregnant women. SETTING: We hypothesize that pregnant smokers may have an increased risk of low 25(OH)D levels especially during winter months.ParticipantsA control group from an unpublished pregnancy complication study consisting of 359 uncomplicated pregnancies. Individuals who reported that they do not smoke were considered 'non-smokers' (n 313) and those who reported continued smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy were considered 'smokers' (n 46). RESULTS: Smokers had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D irrespective of sampling time (P<0·0001). Furthermore, during the low sun-exposure season, only 14 % of smokers met the guideline level of 40 nmol/l for serum 25(OH)D in comparison with 31 % of non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Expectant mothers who smoke have an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency during low sun-exposure months in northern regions. Further studies are needed to assess the associated risks for maternal and fetal health as well as possible long-term implications for the infant.

3.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2630, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483272

RESUMO

Pregnancy is an immunological challenge to the mother. The fetal tissues including the placenta must be protected from activation of the maternal immune system. On the other hand, the placental tissue sheds into the maternal circulation and must be adequately identified and phagocytized by the maternal immune system. During a healthy pregnancy, numerous immunosuppressive processes take place that allow the allograft fetus to thrive under exposure to humoral and cellular components of the maternal immune system. Breakdown of immune tolerance may result in sterile inflammation and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia, a vascular disease of the pregnancy with unpredictable course and symptoms from several organs. Immunological incompatibility between mother and fetus is strongly indicated in preeclampsia. Recently, genetic factors linking immunological pathways to predisposition to preeclampsia have been identified. In this mini-review genetic variation in immunological factors are discussed in the context of preeclampsia. Specifically, we explore immunogenetic and immunomodulary mechanisms contributing to loss of tolerance, inflammation, and autoimmunity in preeclampsia.

4.
Front Immunol ; 8: 545, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559893

RESUMO

Inflammation is an important mediator of obesity-related complications such as the metabolic syndrome but its causes and mechanisms are unknown. As the complement system is a key mediator of inflammation, we studied whether it is activated in acquired obesity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and isolated adipocytes. We used a special study design of genetically matched controls of lean and heavy groups, rare monozygotic twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI) [n = 26, within-pair difference (Δ) in body mass index, BMI >3 kg/m2] with as much as 18 kg mean Δweight. Additionally, 14 BMI-concordant (BMI <3 kg/m2) served as a reference group. The detailed measurements included body composition (DEXA), fat distribution (MRI), glucose, insulin, adipokines, C3a and SC5b-9 levels, and the expression of complement and insulin signaling pathway-related genes in AT and adipocytes. In both AT and isolated adipocytes, the classical and alternative pathway genes were upregulated, and the terminal pathway genes downregulated in the heavier co-twins of the BMI-discordant pairs. The upregulated genes included C1q, C1s, C2, ficolin-1, factor H, receptors for C3a and C5a (C5aR1), and the iC3b receptor (CR3). While the terminal pathway components C5 and C6 were downregulated, its inhibitor clusterin was upregulated. Complement gene upregulation in AT and adipocytes correlated positively with adiposity and hyperinsulinemia and negatively with the expression of insulin signaling-related genes. Plasma C3a, but not SC5b-9, levels were elevated in the heavier co-twins. There were no differences between the co-twins in BMI-concordant pairs. Obesity is associated with increased expression of the early, but not late, complement pathway components and of key receptors. The twins with acquired obesity have therefore an inflated inflammatory activity in the AT. The results suggest that complement is likely involved in orchestrating clearance of apoptotic debris and inflammation in the AT.

5.
Front Immunol ; 8: 589, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611769

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a common vascular disease of pregnancy with genetic predisposition. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated, but molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the potential linkage of severe PE to the most central complement gene, C3. Three cohorts of Finnish patients and controls were recruited for a genetic case-control study. Participants were genotyped using Sequenom genotyping and Sanger sequencing. Initially, we studied 259 Finnish patients with severe PE and 426 controls from the Southern Finland PE and the Finnish population-based PE cohorts. We used a custom-made single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay consisting of 98 SNPs in 18 genes that encode components of the complement system. Following the primary screening, C3 was selected as the candidate gene and consequently Sanger sequenced. Fourteen SNPs from C3 were also genotyped by a Sequenom panel in 960 patients with severe PE and 705 controls, including already sequenced individuals. Three of the 43 SNPs observed within C3 were associated with severe PE: rs2287845 (p = 0.038, OR = 1.158), rs366510 (p = 0.039, OR = 1.158), and rs2287848 (p = 0.041, OR = 1.155). We also discovered 16 SNP haplotypes with extreme linkage disequilibrium in the middle of the gene with a protective (p = 0.044, OR = 0.628) or a predisposing (p = 0.011, OR = 2.110) effect to severe PE depending on the allele combination. Genetic variants associated with PE are located in key domains of C3 and could thereby influence the function of C3. This is, as far as we are aware, the first candidate gene in the complement system with an association to a clinically relevant PE subphenotype, severe PE. The result highlights a potential role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of PE and may help in defining prognostic and therapeutic subgroups of preeclamptic women.

6.
Hypertension ; 70(2): 365-371, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652462

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy-specific vascular disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. Predisposition to preeclampsia is in part heritable. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. We have sequenced 124 candidate genes implicated in preeclampsia to pinpoint genetic variants contributing to predisposition to or protection from preeclampsia. First, targeted exomic sequencing was performed in 500 preeclamptic women and 190 controls from the FINNPEC cohort (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium). Then 122 women with a history of preeclampsia and 1905 parous women with no such history from the National FINRISK Study (a large Finnish population survey on risk factors of chronic, noncommunicable diseases) were included in the analyses. We tested 146 rare and low-frequency variants and found an excess (observed 13 versus expected 7.3) nominally associated with preeclampsia (P<0.05). The most significantly associated sequence variants were protective variants rs35832528 (E982A; P=2.49E-4; odds ratio=0.387) and rs141440705 (R54S; P=0.003; odds ratio=0.442) in Fms related tyrosine kinase 1. These variants are enriched in the Finnish population with minor allele frequencies 0.026 and 0.017, respectively. They may also be associated with a lower risk of heart failure in 11 257 FINRISK women. This study provides the first evidence of maternal protective genetic variants in preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção
7.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0174399, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28350823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. METHODS: We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0-13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. RESULTS: The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7-11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1-60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1-60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0-36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1-79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0-52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1-3.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier pregnancy the risk increased to 11.4 (95%CI 4.5-20.9). Chronic hypertension (n = 60) increased the risk of preeclampsia 5.3-fold (95%CI 2.4-9.8), of severe preeclampsia 22.2-fold (95%CI 9.9-41.0), and risk of early-onset preeclampsia 16.7-fold (95%CI 2.0-57.6). If a woman had chronic hypertension combined with obesity, gestational diabetes and earlier preeclampsia, the risk of term preeclampsia increased 4.8-fold (95%CI 0.1-21.7). Women with type 1 diabetes mellitus had a high risk of all subgroups of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: The risk of preeclampsia increases exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Early-onset preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia have different risk profile from term preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/prevenção & controle , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ann Med ; 48(5): 330-6, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a common and partially genetic pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Association with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes has been reported in 9p21 by several genome-wide association studies. It has been hypothesized that cardiometabolic diseases may share common etiology with preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested association with the 9p21 region to preeclampsia in the Finnish population by genotyping 23 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 extended preeclampsia families and in a nationwide cohort consisting of 281 cases and 349 matched controls. Replication was conducted in additional datasets. RESULTS: Four SNPs (rs7044859, rs496892, rs564398 and rs7865618) showed nominal association (p ≤ 0.024 uncorrected) with preeclampsia in the case-control cohort. To increase power, we genotyped two SNPs in additional 388 cases and 341 controls from the Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort. Partial replication was also attempted in a UK cohort (237 cases and 199 controls) and in 74 preeclamptic families from Australia/New Zealand. We were unable to replicate the initial association in the extended Finnish dataset or in the two international cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not find evidence for the involvement of the 9p21 region in the risk of preeclampsia. Key Message Chromosome 9p21 is not associated with preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Gravidez , Reino Unido
9.
PLoS One ; 10(2): e0117840, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25710174

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a common disorder of pregnancy characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It may be life-threatening for the mother and fetus in severe cases. Dysregulation of the complement system has been suggested to predispose women to preeclampsia. Complement is part of the innate and adaptive immune systems and potentially capable of causing inflammation and tissue damage. Membrane cofactor protein MCP (CD46) is among the potent complement regulators that have recently been linked to a severe form of preeclampsia with or without an underlying autoimmune phenotype. Mutations in CD46 predispose to thrombotic microangiopathy with endothelial cell dysfunction. The exome of CD46 were sequenced in 95 Finnish women with severe preeclampsia. Genetic variations discovered in the full exome were compared to those observed in 95 control women who did not develop preeclampsia. Because A304V (rs35366573) was associated with preeclampsia in one previous study, we sequenced the transmembrane region including the A304V variant and part of the cytoplasmic tail in 95 additional controls. We did not discover any association between A304V or other CD46 SNPs and preeclampsia. This study describes a carefully characterized cohort of severely preeclamptic Finnish women and found no potentially predisposing variants in CD46. However, it is possible that other genetic components of the complement system may affect the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia and related diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Exoma/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Circulation ; 126(25): 2990-9, 2012 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23155181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of pregnancy, originating in the placenta. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent eicosanoids regulate vascular function, inflammation, and angiogenesis, which are mechanistically important in preeclampsia. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed microarray screening of placenta and decidua (maternal placenta) from 25 preeclamptic women and 23 control subjects. The CYP subfamily 2J polypeptide 2 (CYP2J2) was upregulated in preeclamptic placenta and decidua. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the upregulation, and immunohistochemistry localized CYP2J2 in trophoblastic villi and deciduas at 12 weeks and term. The CYP2J2 metabolites, 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), 14,15-EET, and the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, were elevated in preeclamptic women compared with controls in the latter two thirds of pregnancy and after delivery. Stimulating a trophoblast-derived cell line with the preeclampsia-associated cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α enhanced CYP2J2 gene and protein expression. In 2 independent rat models of preeclampsia, reduced uterine-perfusion rat and the transgenic angiotensin II rat, we observed elevated EET, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, and preeclamptic features that were ameliorated by the CYP epoxygenase inhibitor N-(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide (MsPPOH). Uterine arterial rings of these rats also dilated in response to MsPPOH. Furthermore, 5,6-EET could be metabolized to a thromboxane analog. In a bioassay, 5,6-EET increased the beating rate of neonatal cardiomyocytes. Blocking thromboxane synthesis reversed that finding and also normalized large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data implicate CYP2J2 in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and as a potential candidate for the disturbed uteroplacental remodeling, leading to hypertension and endothelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/análogos & derivados , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/sangue , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/farmacologia , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Células Cultivadas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/análise , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/enzimologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 4: 545, 2011 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22177086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is a common vascular pregnancy disorder associated with high maternal and infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The role of Activin A and more recently type 2 Activin A receptor (ACVR2A) in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia has been the subject of genetic and biochemical research with controversial results. FINDINGS: We genotyped a candidate pre-eclampsia-associated single nucleotide polymorphism rs1424954 in ACVR2A in three independent study populations of Finnish pre-eclamptic (total N = 485) and non-pre-eclamptic (total N = 449) women using pre-designed TaqMan allele discrimination assay and polymerase chain reaction. The possible association of the alleles and genotypes of interest with pre-eclampsia was evaluated using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. We found no association of rs1424954 to pre-eclampsia in Finnish patients. CONCLUSIONS: rs1424954 was not associated to pre-eclampsia in the Finnish study population. We hypothesise that while the gene associates to pre-eclampsia worldwide, the causative polymorphism in ACVR2A may be unique in genetically differing populations. Further research is needed to characterise the haplotype structure of ACVR2A in order for the causative genetic variant to be identified.

12.
Malar J ; 10: 9, 2011 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21235777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fulani are a widely spread African ethnic group characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, clinical malaria morbidity and higher rate of lactase persistence compared to sympatric tribes. Lactase non-persistence, often called lactose intolerance, is the normal condition where lactase activity in the intestinal wall declines after weaning. Lactase persistence, common in Europe, and in certain African people with traditions of raising cattle, is caused by polymorphisms in the enhancer region approximately 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene. METHODS: To evaluate the relationship between malaria and lactase persistence genotypes, a 400 bp region surrounding the main European C/T-13910 polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene was sequenced. DNA samples used in the study originated from 162 Fulani and 79 Dogon individuals from Mali. RESULTS: Among 79 Dogon only one heterozygote of the lactase enhancer polymorphism was detected, whereas all others were homozygous for the ancestral C allele. Among the Fulani, the main European polymorphism at locus C/T-13910 was by far the most common polymorphism, with an allele frequency of 37%. Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found with allele frequencies of 3.7%, 1.9% and 0.6% each. The novel DNA polymorphism T/C-13906 was seen in six heterozygous Fulani. Among the Fulani with lactase non-persistence CC genotypes at the C/T-13910 locus, 24% had malaria parasites detectable by microscopy compared to 18% for lactase persistent genotypes (P = 0.29). Pooling the lactase enhancer polymorphisms to a common presumptive genotype gave 28% microscopy positives for non-persistent and 17% for others (P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in asymptomatic Fulani is more common in individuals with lactase non-persistence genotypes, but this difference is not statistically significant. The potential immunoprotective properties of dietary cow milk as a reason for the partial malaria resistance of Fulani warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Lactase/genética , Malária Falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Bovinos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Grupos Étnicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Mali
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