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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baseline high circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fraction in plasma and androgen receptor (AR) copy number (CN) gain identify mCRPC patients with worse outcomes. This study aimed to assess if ctDNA associates with PSA kinetics. METHODS: In this prospective biomarker study, we evaluate ctDNA fraction and AR CN from plasma samples. We divided patients into high and low ctDNA level and in AR gain and AR normal. RESULTS: 220 baseline samples were collected from mCRPC treated with abiraterone (n = 140) or enzalutamide (n = 80). A lower rate of PSA decline ≥ 50% was observed in patients with high ctDNA (p = 0.017) and AR gain (p = 0.0003). Combining ctDNA fraction and AR CN, we found a different median PSA progression-free survival (PFS) among four groups: (1) low ctDNA/AR normal, (2) high ctDNA/AR normal, (3) low ctDNA/AR gain, and (4) high ctDNA/AR gain (11.4 vs. 5.0 vs. 4.8 vs. 3.7 months, p < 0.0001). In a multivariable analysis, high ctDNA, AR gain, PSA DT, PSA DT velocity remained independent predictors of PSA PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ctDNA levels and AR gain are negatively and independently correlated with PSA kinetics in mCRPC men treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide.

2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 48, 2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabazitaxel improves overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients progressing after docetaxel. In this prospective study, we evaluated the prognostic role of CTC gene expression on cabazitaxel-treated patients and its association with plasma androgen receptor (AR) copy number (CN). METHODS: Patients receiving cabazitaxel 20 or 25 mg/sqm for mCRPC were enrolled. Digital PCR was performed to assess plasma AR CN status. CTC enrichment was assessed using the AdnaTest EMT-2/StemCell kit. CTC expression analyses were performed for 17 genes. Data are expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were fully evaluable. CTC expression of AR-V7 (HR=2.52, 1.24-5.12, p=0.011), AKR1C3 (HR=2.01, 1.06-3.81, p=0.031), AR (HR=2.70, 1.46-5.01, p=0.002), EPCAM (HR=3.75, 2.10-6.71, p< 0.0001), PSMA (HR=2.09, 1.19-3.66, p=0.01), MDK (HR=3.35, 1.83-6.13, p< 0.0001), and HPRT1 (HR=2.46, 1.44-4.18, p=0.0009) was significantly associated with OS. ALDH1 (OR=5.50, 0.97-31.22, p=0.05), AR (OR=8.71, 2.32-32.25, p=0.001), EPCAM (OR=7.26, 1.47-35.73, p=0.015), PSMA (OR=3.86, 1.10-13.50, p=0.035), MDK (OR=6.84, 1.87-24.98, p=0.004), and HPRT1 (OR=7.41, 1.82-30.19, p=0.005) expression was associated with early PD. AR CN status was significantly correlated with AR-V7 (p=0.05), EPCAM (p=0.02), and MDK (p=0.002) expression. In multivariable model, EPCAM and HPRT1 CTC expression, plasma AR CN gain, ECOG PS=2, and liver metastases and PSA were independently associated with poorer OS. In patients treated with cabazitaxel 20 mg/sqm, median OS was shorter in AR-V7 positive than negative patients (6.6 versus 14 months, HR=3.46, 1.47-8.17], p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline CTC biomarkers may be prognosticators for cabazitaxel-treated mCRPC patients. Cabazitaxel at lower (20 mg/sqm) dose was associated with poorer outcomes in AR-V7 positive patients compared to AR-V7 negative patients in a post hoc subgroup analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03381326 . Retrospectively registered on 18 December 2017.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Taxoides , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Int J Cancer ; 150(7): 1166-1173, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605002

RESUMO

Cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) is an independent predictor of outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We aimed to investigate the association between ptDNA and VTE in mCRPC. This prospective biomarker study included 180 mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone and enzalutamide from April 2013 to December 2018. We excluded patients with a previous VTE history and/or ongoing anticoagulation therapy. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to determine ptDNA fraction from pretreatment plasma samples. VTE risk based on survival analysis was performed using cumulative incidence function and estimating sub-distributional hazard ratio (SHR). At a median follow-up of 58 months (range 0.5-111.0), we observed 21 patients who experienced VTE with a cumulative incidence at 12 months of 17.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-23.9). Elevated ptDNA, visceral metastasis, prior chemotherapy and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly associated with higher VTE incidence compared to patients with no thrombosis (12-month estimate, 18.6% vs 3.5%, P = .0003; 44.4% vs 14.8%, P = .015; 24.7% vs 4.5%, P = .006; and 30.0% vs 13.5%, P = .05, respectively). In the multivariate analysis including ptDNA level, visceral metastases, number of lesions and serum LDH, high ptDNA fraction was the only independent factor associated with the risk of thrombosis (HR 5.78, 95% CI 1.63-20.44, P = .006). These results first suggest that baseline ptDNA fraction in mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide may be associated with increased VTE risk. These patients may be followed-up more closely for the VTE risk, and the need for a primary thromboprophylaxis should be taken into account in mCRPC with elevated ptDNA.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Risco
4.
Mol Oncol ; 16(2): 538-548, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657387

RESUMO

Plasma tumour DNA (ptDNA) is a potential early noninvasive biomarker of treatment outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Herein, we investigated whether pretreatment ptDNA levels reflect metabolic tumour burden in mCRPC and better predict treatment outcome in combination with functional imaging. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to estimate the ptDNA fraction from 102 mCRPC patients receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), total lesion activity (TLA) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV) were evaluated on 18 F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We assessed a Weibull multiple regression model to determine the combined impact of clinical, molecular and imaging characteristics on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and to obtain prognostic scores. A significant association was seen between ptDNA and SUVmax, MTV and TLA. For survival analysis, patients were randomly allocated into a training (n = 68) and a validation (n = 34) set. In the training set, multivariable analyses showed that ptDNA, MTV and serum lactate dehydrogenase together with visceral metastasis were independent predictors of both OS and PFS. Prognostic scores were generated, with the identification of three groups of patients with significantly different median OS (29.2, 15.9 and 8.7 months) and PFS (13.3, 7.7 and 3.2 months) probabilities. The differences in median survival between risk groups were confirmed in the validation cohort for both OS and PFS. In our study, we showed that integrating plasma DNA analysis with functional imaging may improve prognostic risk stratification and treatment selection in mCRPC.


Assuntos
Biópsia Líquida , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 778459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777395

RESUMO

High-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) has curative potential in metastatic melanoma (MM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Radiotherapy (RT) kills cancer cells and induces immunomodulatory effects. Prospective trials exploring clinical and immunological properties of combined RT/HD IL-2 are still needed. We designed a phase II, single-arm clinical trial for patients with MM and RCC. The treatment schedule consisted of 3 daily doses of 6-12 Gy of RT to 1-5 non-index metastatic fields, before IL-2 at the first and third treatment cycle. HD IL-2 was administered by continuous infusion for 72 hours and repeated every 3 weeks for up to 4 cycles, thereafter every 4 weeks for a maximum of 2 cycles. The primary endpoint was the immunological efficacy of the combined RT/HD IL-2 treatment (assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT). Nineteen out of 22 patients were evaluable for immunological and clinical response. Partial response occurred in 3 (15.7%) patients and stable disease was observed in 7 (36.8%). The disease control rate was 52.6% after a median follow up of 39.2 months. According to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 (CTCAE 4.0), the majority of toxicities were grade 1-2. Immunological responses were frequent and detected in 16 (84.2%) patients. Increased levels of IL-8 and IL-10 in melanoma, circulating effector memory CD4+ and intratumoral CD8+ T cells in both tumor types were detected after therapy. Overall the treatment was well tolerated and immunologically active. Immunomonitoring and correlative data on tumor and peripheral blood cell subsets suggest that this combination treatment could be a promising strategy for patients progressing after standard treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Interleucina-2/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Interleucina-2/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-2/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 716467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367999

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Melphalan, as a bifunctional alkylating agent has been shown to be selectively efficient in BRCA-deficient case reports of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The clinical benefit of melphalan on unselected platinum-resistant EOC population and stratified by BRCA status has not been clearly elucidated. We aimed to determine the response to melphalan in patients with recurrent EOC after platinum-based therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with recurrent EOC treated with melphalan between February 2007 to July 2020. Eligibility criteria included having a histological confirmation of EOC, previous treatment with carboplatin plus paclitaxel regimens, and disease recurrence during treatment with or within 6 months of the end of the platinum-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 75 platinum-resistant EOC patients were enrolled. Median age was 69 years (range 41-82). Median of previous therapies before melphalan was 4 (range 1-7). We observed a median follow-up of 32 months (range 1-62), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 3.6 months (range 2.9-4.7) and 9.5 months (range 8.0-14.1), respectively. In the whole population, 1 complete response, 6 partial responses and 37 stable diseases were registered with an overall clinical benefit rate of 58.7%. In BRCA1/2 mutant patients, we showed a significant longer PFS compared to BRCA1/2 wild type patients (6.2 versus 2.6 months; hazard ratio (HR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.61; p=0.002). Moreover, a trend was seen for BRCA1/2 mutants to have a better OS (25.9 versus 8.0 months; HR 0.38; 95% CI 0.12-1.19; p=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents the largest cohort of heavily-pretreated EOC patients receiving melphalan treatment. Here, we report a considerable clinical activity of melphalan chemotherapy, more evident in a subset of BRCA1/2 mutated patients. Prospective studies to validate these findings are warranted.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 152: 49-59, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma AR status has been identified as a potential biomarker of response in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients receiving docetaxel or AR-targeted therapies. However, the relevance of plasma AR in the overall management of CRPC patients receiving different docetaxel doses is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multi-institution study of associations between baseline plasma AR copy number status, assessed by droplet digital PCR, and outcome in 325 mCRPC patients receiving docetaxel at standard or adapted regimen at the discretion of the treating physician. Upon analysis, patients were assigned randomly to either a training (n = 217) or validation (n = 108) cohort. RESULTS: In the training cohort, AR-gained patients treated with adapted docetaxel regimen had a significantly worse median progression-free survival (PFS) (3.8 vs 6.3 months, hazard ratio [HR] 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-4.95, p < 0.0001), median overall survival (10.8 vs 20.6 months, HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.09-3.62, p = 0.0064) and PSA response (PSA > -50%: odds ratio 4.88 95%CI 1.55-14.32, p = 0.013) as compared to plasma AR normal patients. These findings were all confirmed in the validation cohort. However, in patients treated with standard docetaxel regimen, these differences were not seen. The interaction between AR CN status and dose reduction of docetaxel was considered as independent factor for PFS in both the training and validation cohort (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.41-5.73, p = 0.003, and HR 4.79, 95% CI 1.79-12.82, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Despite the retrospective non-randomised design of this study, our hypothesis-generating findings could suggest plasma AR as a potential biomarker for optimal docetaxel timing and dose in mCRPC patients. Prospective trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067977

RESUMO

Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequent tumor in young males. In the vast majority of cases, it is a curable disease; therefore, very often patients experience a long survival, also due to their young age at diagnosis. In the last decades, the role of the vitamin D deficiency related to orchiectomy has become an increasingly debated topic. Indeed, vitamin D is essential in bone metabolism and many other metabolic pathways, so its deficiency could lead to various metabolic disorders especially in long-term TC survivors. In our article, we report data from studies that evaluated the incidence of hypovitaminosis D in TC survivors compared with cohorts of healthy peers and we discuss molecular mechanisms and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Deficiência de Vitamina D/patologia
10.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(7): 631-640, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043486

RESUMO

Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent tumors worldwide. Due to the lack of reliable markers, patients are usually diagnosed at a late stage when it becomes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with a worse outcome. Thus, it is essential to ameliorate the clinical management of these patients. Nowadays, the use of liquid biopsy represents a minimally invasive way to provide a complete molecular landscape of prostate cancer. Thus, this review aims to outline the clinical value of cell-free DNA in real-time monitoring of metastatic CRPC (mCRPC).Areas covered: This comprehensive review explores in detail the characteristics as well as clinical applications of plasma DNA analysis in mCRPC.Expert opinion: The assessment of circulating tumor DNA fraction is a valid and robust biomarker in mCRPC able to predict clinical outcome and monitor disease evolution during treatment. Recently, several methods (i.e. next generation sequencing and digital droplet PCR) are used to investigate genomics in cell-free DNA and novel nanotechnology-based approaches are currently under evaluation in order to improve clinical management of mCRPC patients.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671294

RESUMO

Gynecological tumors are malignancies with both high morbidity and mortality. To date, only a few chemotherapeutic agents have shown efficacy against these cancer types (only ovarian cancer responds to several agents, especially platinum-based combinations). Within this context, the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to numerous clinical studies being carried out that have also demonstrated their activity in these cancer types. More recently, following the development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy in hematological malignancies, this strategy was also tested in solid tumors, including gynecological cancers. In this article, we focus on the molecular basis of gynecological tumors that makes them potential candidates for immunotherapy. We also provide an overview of the main immunotherapy studies divided by tumor type and report on CAR technology and the studies currently underway in the area of gynecological malignancies.

12.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 1758835920987654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708265

RESUMO

Over the years, an increasing proportion of metastatic prostate cancer patients has been found to experience an initial bone flare phenomenon under both standard therapies (androgen deprivation therapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, abiraterone, enzalutamide) and novel agents (immunotherapy, bone-targeting radioisotopes). The underlying biological mechanisms of the flare phenomenon are still elusive and need further clarification, particularly in relation to different types of treatment and their treatment response assessment. Flare phenomenon is often underestimated and, in some cases, can negatively affect clinical outcome. In cases with suspected bone flare, the treatment should be continued for a minimum of 12 more weeks before further decisions about efficacy can be taken. Physicians and patients should be aware of this effect to avoid unwarranted anxiety and inadequate early discontinuation of treatment. This review aims at highlighting new evidence on flare phenomenon arising after the introduction of new drugs extending across the biochemical, radiographic and clinical spectrum of the disease.

13.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103199, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316419

RESUMO

The rapidly expanding scenario of treatment options for patients affected by prostate cancer (PC) is leading to improved outcomes; however, PC still represents one of the most frequent causes of male mortality. Thus, while translational research is trying to unravel the molecular landscape underlying carcinogenesis, disease progression and treatment resistance, several clinical trials are evaluating novel options to further expand therapeutic options. The cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)-pathway represents a promising therapeutic target for different cancer types; due to the pivotal role of this pathway in the regulation of PC cell cycle, three CDK4/6-inhibitors (abemaciclib, palbociclib and ribociclib) are currently being investigated in several clinical trials. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on CDK-pathway and the mechanism of action of CDK-inhibitors; we discuss the biological rationale for their use in PC and the state of the art of clinical trials focused on the demonstration of their potential role in early or advanced stage, in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant state. Finally, the potential application of precision oncology for treatment selection in PC is discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Próstata , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 565857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072597

RESUMO

Currently, renal cell carcinoma is characterized by encouraging benefits from immunotherapy that have led to significant results in treatment outcome. The approval of nivolumab primarily as second-line monotherapy and, more recently, the approval of new combination therapies as first-line treatment have confirmed the importance of immunotherapy in this type of tumor. In this context, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T represents a further step forward in the field of immunotherapy. Initially tested on hematological malignancies, this new therapeutic approach is also becoming a topic of great interest for solid tumors. Although the treatment has several advantages over previous T-cell receptor-dependent immunotherapy, it is facing some obstacles in solid tumors such as a hostile tumor microenvironment and on-tumor/off-tumor toxicities. Several strategies are under investigation to overcome these problems, but the approval of CAR-T cell therapy is still some way off. In renal cancer, the significant advantages obtained from immune checkpoint inhibitors represent a good starting point, but the potential nephrological toxicity of CAR-T cell therapy represents an important risk. In this review, we provide the rationale and preliminary results of CAR-T cell therapy in renal cell malignancies.

15.
Front Oncol ; 10: 567809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072600

RESUMO

Introduction: Plasma androgen receptor (AR) copy number (CN) status identifies castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with worse outcome on abiraterone/enzalutamide. However, the impact of AR CN changes on clinical outcome in CRPC is unknown. Materials and Methods: Plasma samples from 73 patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide were collected at baseline and at the time of progression disease (PD). Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction was used to assess AR CN status. Results: We showed that 11 patients (15.1%) changed AR CN status from baseline to PD (9 patients from normal to gain, 2 from gain to normal). Patients changing AR CN status from normal at baseline to gain at PD had intermediate median overall survival (OS) of 20.5 months (95% CI = 8.0-44.2) between those who remained AR CN normal from baseline to PD (27.3 months [95% CI = 21.9-34.4]) and those who remained AR CN gain from baseline to PD (9.1 months [95% CI = 3.8-14.5], p < 0.0001). Patients changing AR CN from normal at baseline to gain at PD had a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9.2 months (95% CI = 2.0-14.7), patients who remained AR CN normal had a median PFS of 9.1 months (95% CI = 7.2-10.1), and patients who remained AR CN gain had a median PFS of 5.4 (95% CI = 3.6-6.5, p = 0.0005). Both OS and PFS were not significantly different between patients with AR CN that changes from normal to gain and patients with stable AR CN normal. Conclusions: We showed that CRPC patients changing AR CN status from baseline to progression time point had intermediate OS and we suggested that AR CN evaluation at baseline could be the most informative for clinical outcome of CRPC patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Larger prospective studies are warranted.

16.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923384

RESUMO

High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) has curative potential in relapsed/refractory germ cell tumors (GCT). Due to the complexity of this population and the toxicity of HDCT, we evaluated the association between blood-based systemic inflammatory indexes and the outcome of GCT patients undergoing salvage treatment with HDCT in order to define additional prognostic factors able to orient clinical decision. Baseline characteristics, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) of 62 patients undergoing HDCT for GCT were retrospectively collected. The aim is to evaluate the correlation between each inflammatory marker (NLR, PLR, and SII) and response to HDCT, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Using the receiver operating curve to identify the best cutoff values, it was found that patients with GCT with NLR ≥3.3 and SII ≥844,000 had shorter PFS and inferior OS. In the multivariable analysis including inflammatory markers, the International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) risk group, age, and previous line of treatment, NLR ≥3.3 and SII ≥844,000 were identified to be independently associated with shorter PFS and OS. Moreover, NLR, PLR, and SII significantly correlate with overall response to HDCT. Associating IPFSG prognostic score to inflammatory markers at baseline of HDCT may improve prognostic information and could help physicians to make more personalized treatment decisions.

17.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(17): 2091-2099, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783772

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Enzalutamide is the first characterized second-generation nonsteroidal androgen receptor inhibitor (ARi). Its efficacy has been established in several clinical trials evaluating its role in different settings of prostate cancer. Recently, enzalutamide has been approved for the treatment of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). AREAS COVERED: In this paper, the authors describe the chemical structure and pharmacologic characteristics of enzalutamide, providing a summary of clinical trials evaluating its efficacy and safety in prostate cancer patients. EXPERT OPINION: Enzalutamide adds to the growing arsenal of ARi used in nmCRPC. An improvement in metastasis-free survival was observed with the use of these new treatment options; recently released preliminary data report also an OS benefit. These novel agents are generally well tolerated, but their safety profiles differ slightly. Since head-to-head comparisons between ARi in nmCRPC are lacking, the adverse events profile, as well as drug availability, costs, and considerations on treatment-sequencing, would most likely influence the selection of the individual agent in this setting. Further research is needed to improve treatment selection and clarify many unsolved issues. Abbreviations ARi: nonsteroidal androgen receptor inhibitor; nmCRPC: nonmetastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; ADT: androgen deprivation therapy; OS: overall survival; PSA: prostate specific antigen; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; AR: Androgen Receptor; MFS: metastasis free survival; PSA-DT: PSA doubling time; HR: hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval; AEs: adverse events; mCRPC: metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; mHSPC: metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer; rPFS: radiographic progression-free survival; OR: odds ratio.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 153: 103036, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been revolutionizing the treatment landscape of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The use of ICIs in elderly RCC patients has become a daily practice, although their real impact in elderly patients is nowadays not completely clarified. It has been hypothesized that ICIs might not perform as effectively in the elderly as in younger patients, likely because of the gradual deterioration of the immune system brought on by natural age advancement, namely immunosenescence. METHODS: We reviewed all clinical trials with ICIs in mRCC focusing on efficacy and toxicity of elderly patients. RESULTS: Among the 21 trials reviewed, only 5 of them provided data on elderly patients. With the limits of low accrual and events for elderly patients, the efficacy of ICIs in patients ≥ 65 years seems as relevant as for younger patients, but not reliable for patients ≥ 75 years, group with overall low number of events, both in pre- or previously untreated mRCC patients. These currently available data seem not to support the hypothesis of a lower efficacy of ICIs in elderly patients, at least for mRCC. These trials reported very few data about toxicities in the specific population of elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although available data from clinical trials are poor, currently, they do not support the efficacy of ICIs is less in elderly mRCC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Humanos
19.
Br J Cancer ; 123(6): 982-987, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma tumour DNA (ptDNA) levels on treatment are associated with response in a variety of cancers. However, the role of ptDNA in prostate cancer monitoring remains largely unexplored. Here we characterised on-treatment ptDNA dynamics and evaluated its potential for early assessment of therapy efficacy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, 114 sequential plasma samples from 43 mCRPC abiraterone-treated patients were collected. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to determine ptDNA fraction. ptDNA progressive disease was defined as a rise in the fraction compared to the pre-treatment. RESULTS: A ptDNA rise in the first on-treatment sample (interquartile range (IQR) 2.6-3.7 months) was significantly associated with increased risk of early radiographic or any prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise (odds ratio (OR) = 15.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-60.2, p = 0.0002 and OR = 6.0, 95% CI 1.6-20.0, p = 0.01, respectively). We also identified exemplar cases that had a rise in PSA or pseudoprogression secondary to bone flare but no rise in ptDNA. In an exploratory analysis, initial ptDNA change was found to associate with the duration of response to prior androgen deprivation therapy (p < 0.0001) but not to prior taxanes (p = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: We found that ptDNA assessment for therapy monitoring in mCRPC is feasible and provides data relevant to the clinical setting. Prospective evaluation of these findings is now merited.


Assuntos
Androstenos/uso terapêutico , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580478

RESUMO

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone of treatment for prostate cancer and, in recent years, androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (abiraterone and enzalutamide) have both been used for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In our study, we sought to investigate the association between ADT and immune disorders, considering a potential role of androgens in the immune modulation. We retrospectively evaluated CRPC patients treated with abiraterone/enzalutamide between July 2011 and December 2018. We assessed the risk of developing immune alterations and their impact on outcome. We included 844 CRPC patients receiving AR-directed therapies, of whom 36 (4.3%) had autoimmune diseases and 47 (5.6%) second tumors as comorbidities. Median age was 70 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 63-75)]. We showed higher significant incidence of autoimmune diseases during their hormone sensitive status (p = 0.021) and the presence of autoimmune comorbidities before starting treatment with abiraterone/enzalutamide was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (10.1 vs. 13.7 months, HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.03-2.27, p = 0.038). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of autoimmune disorders was an independent predictor of OS (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.60, p = 0.031). In conclusion, CRPC patients with autoimmune alterations before starting AR-directed therapies may have worse prognosis. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess the role of immune modulation in the management of prostate cancer patients.

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