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1.
Nat Med ; 25(10): 1526-1533, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570822

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) brings comprehensive insights to cancer genome interpretation. To explore the clinical value of WGS, we sequenced 254 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) for which associated treatment and outcome data were collected between 2010 and 2015 via the population-based Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network-Breast (SCAN-B) project (ClinicalTrials.gov ID:NCT02306096). Applying the HRDetect mutational-signature-based algorithm to classify tumors, 59% were predicted to have homologous-recombination-repair deficiency (HRDetect-high): 67% explained by germline/somatic mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2, BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation, RAD51C hypermethylation or biallelic loss of PALB2. A novel mechanism of BRCA1 abrogation was discovered via germline SINE-VNTR-Alu retrotransposition. HRDetect provided independent prognostic information, with HRDetect-high patients having better outcome on adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive disease-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.2-0.87) and distant relapse-free interval (HR = 0.31, CI = 0.13-0.76) compared to HRDetect-low, regardless of whether a genetic/epigenetic cause was identified. HRDetect-intermediate, some possessing potentially targetable biological abnormalities, had the poorest outcomes. HRDetect-low cancers also had inadequate outcomes: ~4.7% were mismatch-repair-deficient (another targetable defect, not typically sought) and they were enriched for (but not restricted to) PIK3CA/AKT1 pathway abnormalities. New treatment options need to be considered for now-discernible HRDetect-intermediate and HRDetect-low categories. This population-based study advocates for WGS of TNBC to better inform trial stratification and improve clinical decision-making.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12184, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434940

RESUMO

Multigene expression signatures provide a molecular subdivision of early breast cancer associated with patient outcome. A gap remains in the validation of such signatures in clinical treatment groups of patients within population-based cohorts of unselected primary breast cancer representing contemporary disease stages and current treatments. A cohort of 3520 resectable breast cancers with RNA sequencing data included in the population-based SCAN-B initiative (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02306096) were selected from a healthcare background population of 8587 patients diagnosed within the years 2010-2015. RNA profiles were classified according to 19 reported gene signatures including both gene expression subtypes (e.g. PAM50, IC10, CIT) and risk predictors (e.g. Oncotype DX, 70-gene, ROR). Classifications were analyzed in nine adjuvant clinical assessment groups: TNBC-ACT (adjuvant chemotherapy, n = 239), TNBC-untreated (n = 82), HER2+/ER- with anti-HER2+ ACT treatment (n = 110), HER2+/ER+ with anti-HER2 + ACT + endocrine treatment (n = 239), ER+/HER2-/LN- with endocrine treatment (n = 1113), ER+/HER2-/LN- with endocrine + ACT treatment (n = 243), ER+/HER2-/LN+ with endocrine treatment (n = 423), ER+/HER2-/LN+ with endocrine + ACT treatment (n = 433), and ER+/HER2-/LN- untreated (n = 200). Gene signature classification (e.g., proportion low-, high-risk) was generally well aligned with stratification based on current immunohistochemistry-based clinical practice. Most signatures did not provide any further risk stratification in TNBC and HER2+/ER- disease. Risk classifier agreement (low-, medium/intermediate-, high-risk groups) in ER+ assessment groups was on average 50-60% with occasional pair-wise comparisons having <30% agreement. Disregarding the intermediate-risk groups, the exact agreement between low- and high-risk groups was on average ~80-95%, for risk prediction signatures across all assessment groups. Outcome analyses were restricted to assessment groups of TNBC-ACT and endocrine treated ER+/HER2-/LN- and ER+/HER2-/LN+ cases. For ER+/HER2- disease, gene signatures appear to contribute additional prognostic value even at a relatively short follow-up time. Less apparent prognostic value was observed in the other groups for the tested signatures. The current study supports the usage of gene expression signatures in specific clinical treatment groups within population-based breast cancer. It also stresses the need of further development to reach higher consensus in individual patient classifications, especially for intermediate-risk patients, and the targeting of patients where current gene signatures and prognostic variables provide little support in clinical decision-making.

3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(2): 459-467, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and human epidermal receptor 2-negative (HER2-) breast cancers are classified as Luminal A or B based on gene expression, but immunohistochemical markers are used for surrogate subtyping. The aims of this study were to examine the agreement between molecular subtyping (MS) and surrogate subtyping and to identify subgroups consisting mainly of Luminal A or B tumours. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 2063 patients diagnosed between 2013-2017, with primary ER+/HER2- breast cancer, analysed by RNA sequencing. Surrogate subtyping was performed according to three algorithms (St. Gallen 2013, Maisonneuve and our proposed Grade-based classification). Agreement (%) and kappa statistics (κ) were used as concordance measures and ROC analysis for luminal distinction. Ki67, progesterone receptor (PR) and histological grade (HG) were further investigated as surrogate markers. RESULTS: The agreement rates between the MS and St. Gallen 2013, Maisonneuve and Grade-based classifications were 62% (κ = 0.30), 66% (κ = 0.35) and 70% (κ = 0.41), respectively. PR did not contribute to distinguishing Luminal A from B tumours (auROC = 0.56). By classifying HG1-2 tumours as Luminal A-like and HG3 as Luminal B-like, agreement with MS was 80% (κ = 0.46). Moreover, by combining HG and Ki67 status, a large subgroup of patients (51% of the cohort) having > 90% Luminal A tumours could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement between MS and surrogate classifications was generally poor. However, a post hoc analysis showed that a combination of HG and Ki67 could identify patients very likely to have Luminal A tumours according to MS.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(21): 6368-6381, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: More than 70% of patients with breast cancer present with node-negative disease, yet all undergo surgical axillary staging. We aimed to define predictors of nodal metastasis using clinicopathological characteristics (CLINICAL), gene expression data (GEX), and mixed features (MIXED) and to identify patients at low risk of metastasis who might be spared sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB).Experimental Design: Breast tumors (n = 3,023) from the population-based Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network-Breast initiative were profiled by RNA sequencing and linked to clinicopathologic characteristics. Seven machine-learning models present the discriminative ability of N0/N+ in development (n = 2,278) and independent validation cohorts (n = 745) stratified as ER+HER2-, HER2+, and TNBC. Possible SLNB reduction rates are proposed by applying CLINICAL and MIXED predictors. RESULTS: In the validation cohort, the MIXED predictor showed the highest area under ROC curves to assess nodal metastasis; AUC = 0.72. For the subgroups, the AUCs for MIXED, CLINICAL, and GEX predictors ranged from 0.66 to 0.72, 0.65 to 0.73, and 0.58 to 0.67, respectively. Enriched proliferation metagene and luminal B features were noticed in node-positive ER+HER2- and HER2+ tumors, while upregulated basal-like features were observed in node-negative TNBC tumors. The SLNB reduction rates in patients with ER+HER2- tumors were 6% to 7% higher for the MIXED predictor compared with the CLINICAL predictor accepting false negative rates of 5% to 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Although CLINICAL and MIXED predictors of nodal metastasis had comparable accuracy, the MIXED predictor identified more node-negative patients. This translational approach holds promise for development of classifiers to reduce the rates of SLNB for patients at low risk of nodal involvement.

5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(2): 447-455, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is not known if mammographic breast compression of a primary tumor causes shedding of tumor cells into the circulatory system. Little is known about how the detection of circulating biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is affected by breast compression intervention. METHODS: CTCs and ctDNA were analyzed in blood samples collected before and after breast compression in 31 patients with primary breast cancer scheduled for neoadjuvant therapy. All patients had a central venous access to allow administration of intravenous neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which enabled blood collection from superior vena cava, draining the breasts, in addition to sampling from a peripheral vein. RESULTS: CTC and ctDNA positivity was seen in 26% and 65% of the patients, respectively. There was a significant increase of ctDNA after breast compression in central blood (p = 0.01), not observed in peripheral testing. No increase related with breast compression was observed for CTC. ctDNA positivity was associated with older age (p = 0.05), and ctDNA increase after breast compression was associated with high Ki67 proliferating tumors (p = 0.04). CTCs were more abundant in central compared to peripheral blood samples (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant release of CTCs after mammographic breast compression but more CTCs were present in central compared to peripheral blood. No significant difference between central and peripheral levels of ctDNA was observed. The small average increase in ctDNA after breast compression is unlikely to be clinically relevant. The results give support for mammography as a safe procedure from the point of view of CTC and ctDNA shedding to the blood circulation. The results may have implications for the standardization of sampling procedures for circulating tumor markers.

6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 503, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate classification of breast cancer using gene expression profiles has contributed to a better understanding of the biological mechanisms behind the disease and has paved the way for better prognostication and treatment prediction. RESULTS: We found that miRNA profiles largely recapitulate intrinsic subtypes. In the case of HER2-enriched tumors a small set of miRNAs including the HER2-encoded mir-4728 identifies the group with very high specificity. We also identified differential expression of the miR-99a/let-7c/miR-125b miRNA cluster as a marker for separation of the Luminal A and B subtypes. High expression of this miRNA cluster is linked to better overall survival among patients with Luminal A tumors. Correlation between the miRNA cluster and their precursor LINC00478 is highly significant suggesting that its expression could help improve the accuracy of present day's signatures. CONCLUSIONS: We show here that miRNA expression can be translated into mRNA profiles and that the inclusion of miRNA information facilitates the molecular diagnosis of specific subtypes, in particular the clinically relevant sub-classification of luminal tumors.

7.
Adv Ther ; 36(5): 1150-1163, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A water-soluble Cremophor EL-free formulation of paclitaxel, in which retinoic acid derivates solubilize paclitaxel by forming micelles (paclitaxel micellar), was studied for the first time in man to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK). METHODS: This was an open-label, one-arm, dose-escalating study in patients with advanced solid malignant tumours, for which no standard therapy was available or had failed. Paclitaxel micellar was given as 1-h intravenous infusion every 21 days for 3 cycles, mainly without premedication. Plasma samples were collected during 24 h at the first cycle and paclitaxel concentrations were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. PK was evaluated using a two-compartment model. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients received paclitaxel micellar at doses ranging between 90 and 275 mg/m2. MTD was established as 250 mg/m2. Fatigue and neuropathy were the most frequent dose-limiting toxicities. No hypersensitivity reactions were observed. PK of paclitaxel was evaluated in 25 data sets. Paclitaxel micellar had a rapid initial distribution phase, mean half-life 0.55 h, estimated to be completed 3 h after dosing and a mean terminal half-life of 8.8 h. Mean clearance was 13.4 L/h/m2 with fivefold interindividual variability. The residual areas after 10 h and 24 h were 15.7 ± 8.6% and 5.7 ± 3.9% of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve to infinite time (AUCinf), respectively. CONCLUSION: No new side effects unknown for paclitaxel were observed. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and AUCinf showed a tendency to increase linearly with dose within the 150-275 mg/m2 dose range. The possibility to administer paclitaxel micellar without steroid premedication makes it an attractive candidate for further studies in combination with immunotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT no: 2004-001821-54. FUNDING: Oasmia Pharmaceutical AB.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 106: 54-60, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471648

RESUMO

An international panel of experts representing 17 European countries and Israel convened to discuss current needs and future developments in BRCA testing and counselling and to issue consensus recommendations. The experts agreed that, with the increasing availability of high-throughput testing platforms and the registration of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitors, the need for genetic counselling and testing will rapidly increase in the near future. Consequently, the already existing shortage of genetic counsellors is expected to worsen and to compromise the quality of care particularly in individuals and families with suspected or proven hereditary breast or ovarian cancer. Increasing educational efforts within the breast cancer caregiver community may alleviate this limitation by enabling all involved specialities to perform genetic counselling. In the therapeutic setting, for patients with a clinical suspicion of genetic susceptibility and if the results may have an immediate impact on the therapeutic strategy, the majority voted that BRCA1/2 testing should be performed after histological diagnosis of breast cancer, regardless of oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Experts also agreed that, in the predictive and therapeutic setting, genetic testing should be limited to individuals with a personal or family history suggestive of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant and should also include high-risk actionable genes beyond BRCA1/2. Of high-risk actionable genes, all pathological variants (i.e. class IV and V) should be reported; class III variants of unknown significance, should be reported provided that the current lack of clinical utility of the variant is expressly stated. Genetic counselling should always address the possibility that already tested individuals might be re-contacted in case new information on a particular variant results in a re-classification.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the BRCAsearch study, unselected breast cancer patients were prospectively offered germline BRCA1/2 mutation testing through a simplified testing procedure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate satisfaction with the BRCAsearch testing procedure and, furthermore, to report on uptake rates of prophylactic surgeries among mutation carriers. METHODS: Pre-test information was provided by a standardized invitation letter instead of in-person genetic counseling. The patients were offered contact with a genetic counselor for telephone genetic counseling if they felt a need for that. Mutation carriers were telephoned and given a time for a face-to-face post-test genetic counseling appointment. Non-carriers were informed about the test result through a letter. One year after the test results were delivered, a study-specific questionnaire was mailed to the study participants who had consented to testing. The response rate was 83.1% (448 of 539). RESULTS: A great majority (96.0%) of the responders were content with the method used for providing information within the study, and 98.7% were content with having pursued genetic testing. 11.1% answered that they would have liked to receive more oral information. In an adjusted logistic regression model, patients with somatic comorbidity (OR 2.56; P = 0.02) and patients born outside of Sweden (OR 3.54; P = 0.01) were more likely, and patients with occupations requiring at least 3 years of university or college education (OR 0.37; P = 0.06) were less likely to wanting to receive more oral information. All 11 mutation carriers attended post-test genetic counseling. At a median follow-up of 2 years, the uptake of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy was 100%, and the uptake of prophylactic mastectomy was 55%. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with a simplified BRCA1/2 testing procedure was very high. Written pre-test information has now replaced in-person pre-test counseling for breast cancer patients in our health care region.

10.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(9): e1466017, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228933

RESUMO

Gene expression (GE) signatures and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) enumeration are predictive for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HR- and in HER2+ breast cancer, but data are conflicting in HR+/HER2- disease. This study aimed to explore their predictive value in this subset, measured both at baseline and after short exposure to chemotherapy. Specifically, the PROMIX phase 2 trial enrolled patients with locally advanced HER2- BC to receive six cycles of epirubicin and docetaxel, plus bevacizumab during cycles 3-6. Patients underwent tumor biopsies at baseline and after cycle 2 for GE profiling and enumeration of TIL, FOXP3+ T-cells and CD163+ macrophages. An immune related gene module and the quantification of the immune infiltrate were analyzed for association with pathologic complete response (pCR), decrease in tumor size and disease-free survival (DFS). Of the 150 patients enrolled in PROMIX, 113 were HR+/HER2-. Baseline GE and immune cell enumeration data were available from 71 patients, while data after 2 cycles of chemotherapy were available from 41. At baseline, only GE was statistically significantly associated with higher pCR rates (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05 - 5.38, p = 0.037) and decrease in tumor size (r = 0.25, p = 0.047). In contrast, longitudinal data indicate that both GE (r = 0.54, p<0.001) and TIL abundance (p = 0.009) are stronger predictors for the reduction of tumor size, while low FOXP3+ was statistically significantly associated with an improved DFS (p = 0.027). In conclusion, GE analysis, TIL and FOXP3+ enumeration after short-term exposure to chemotherapy carry important predictive information in HR+/HER2- breast cancer at the neoadjuvant setting.

11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 48, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) carry independent prognostic information in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) on different lines of therapy. Moreover, CTC clusters are suggested to add prognostic information to CTC enumeration alone but their significance is unknown in patients with newly diagnosed MBC. We aimed to evaluate whether longitudinal enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and CTC clusters could improve prognostication and monitoring of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) starting first-line therapy. METHODS: This prospective study included 156 women with newly diagnosed MBC. CTCs and CTC clusters were detected using CellSearch technology at baseline (BL) and after 1, 3, and 6 months of systemic therapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) and the secondary end point overall survival (OS). Median follow-up time was 25 (7-69) months. RESULTS: There were 79 (52%) and 30 (20%) patients with ≥ 5 CTCs and ≥ 1 CTC cluster at baseline, respectively; both factors were significantly associated with impaired survival. Landmark analyses based on follow-up measurements revealed increasing prognostic hazard ratios for ≥ 5 CTCs and CTC clusters during treatment, predicting worse PFS and OS. Both factors added value to a prognostic model based on clinicopathological variables at all time points and ≥ 5 CTCs and presence of CTC clusters enhanced the model's C-index to > 0.80 at 1, 3, and 6 months. Importantly, changes in CTCs during treatment were significantly correlated with survival and patients with a decline from ≥ 5 CTCs at BL to < 5 CTCs at 1 month had a similar odds ratio for progression to patients with < 5 CTCs at BL and 1 month. Stratification of patients based on CTC count and CTC clusters into four groups (0 CTCs, 1-4 CTCs, ≥ 5 CTCs, and ≥ 1 CTC + CTC clusters) demonstrated that patients with CTC clusters had significantly worse survival compared to patients without clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal evaluation of CTC and CTC clusters improves prognostication and monitoring in patients with MBC starting first-line systemic therapy. The prognostic value increases over time, suggesting that changes in CTC count are clinically relevant. The presence of CTC clusters adds significant prognostic value to CTC enumeration alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01322893 . Registered on 25 March 2011.

12.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate predictors of testing uptake among unselected breast cancer patients who were offered germline BRCA1/2 testing in a prospective study. METHODS: Pretest information was provided by a standardized invitation letter instead of in-person counseling. Data was abstracted from medical records. Using multivariate logistic regressions, predictors of testing uptake were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall uptake of testing was 67% (539 of 805 patients). Low uptake rates were found for patients aged ≥80 years (33%), and patients born outside of Europe (37%). In adjusted analysis, age ≥80 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.10; P = 0.002), psychiatric disorders (OR 0.46; P = 0.006), occupation requiring at least 3 years of university or college education (OR 2.03; P = 0.003), and breast cancer or ovarian cancer in first-degree or second-degree relatives (OR 1.66; P = 0.02) were independently associated with uptake of BRCA1/2 testing. Somatic comorbidity in patients aged <70 years was associated with lower testing uptake. CONCLUSION: Testing uptake varies across different subgroups according to patient-related factors that are readily available in the medical records. Knowledge about these factors enables health care professionals to identify patients who are less likely to pursue genetic testing.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 118(4): 480-488, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptomic profiles have shown promise as predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC). This study aimed to explore their predictive value in the advanced BC (ABC) setting. METHODS: In a Phase 3 trial of first-line chemotherapy in ABC, a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was obtained at baseline. Intrinsic molecular subtypes and gene modules related to immune response, proliferation, oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling and recurring genetic alterations were analysed for association with objective response to chemotherapy. Gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of responders vs non-responders was performed independently. Lymphocytes were enumerated in FNAB smears and the absolute abundance of immune cell types was calculated using the Microenvironment Cell Populations counter method. RESULTS: Gene expression data were available for 109 patients. Objective response to chemotherapy was statistically significantly associated with an immune module score (odds ratio (OR)=1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.64; P=0.04). Subgroup analysis showed that this association was restricted to patients with ER-positive or luminal tumours (OR=3.54; 95%, 1.43-10.86; P=0.012 and P for interaction=0.04). Gene-set enrichment analysis confirmed that in these subgroups, immune-related gene sets were enriched in responders. CONCLUSIONS: Immune-related transcriptional signatures may predict response to chemotherapy in ER-positive and luminal ABC.

14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 168(1): 117-126, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate a simplified method of pre-test information and germline BRCA1/2 mutation testing. METHODS: In a prospective, single-arm study, comprehensive BRCA1/2 testing was offered to unselected patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer at three hospitals in south Sweden (BRCAsearch, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02557776). Pre-test information was provided by a standardized invitation letter, but the patients could contact a genetic counselor for telephone genetic counseling if they felt a need for that. Noncarriers were informed about the test result through a letter. Mutation carriers were contacted and offered an appointment for in-person post-test genetic counseling. RESULTS: During the period Feb 2, 2015-Aug 26, 2016, eight hundred and eighteen patients were invited to participate in the study. Through Jan 31, 2017, five hundred and forty-two (66.2%) of them consented to analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Eleven pathogenic mutations were found (BRCA1, n = 2; BRCA2, n = 9), corresponding to a mutation prevalence of 2.0%. Six out of 11 fulfilled the Swedish BRCA testing criteria, and 9 out of 11 fulfilled the NCCN testing criteria. None of the BRCA-associated tumors were of the luminal A-like subtype. Very few patients contacted us for telephone genetic counseling or practical questions, suggesting that a majority felt that the written pre-test information was sufficient for them to make a decision on testing. CONCLUSIONS: Streamlining the process of pre-test information, genetic testing, and delivery of test results was feasible and was associated with an uptake of genetic testing in 2/3 of the breast cancer patients.

15.
J Community Genet ; 9(3): 201-208, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082482

RESUMO

Once an incidental finding (IF) is discovered in the course of genomic research, the researchers are faced with the question of whether or not that finding should be reported back to the study participant. A large number of hypothetical studies and policy documents on this issue have been published, but there are very few empirical studies to inform the bioethics debate. Within a biobank research study of somatic mutations in breast carcinomas, ten germline BRCA1/2 mutations were incidentally detected. After thorough discussions within a group of experts, the mutation carriers (n = 7) or relatives of deceased carriers (n = 3) were re-contacted and informed about the findings. Eight out of ten accepted to receive the information and underwent confirmatory testing. One year later, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with three of the study participants. All of them felt that BRCA mutations discovered in the course of research should be reported back to the individual study participants. In this paper, we report our step-by-step experiences of the re-contacting process. We hope that our detailed reporting will be helpful for other researchers and clinicians that are faced with similar situations. The results of our study lend empirical support to opinion that IFs that meet the three baseline criteria of analytic validity, clinical significance, and actionability should be reported back to the individual study participants.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 142(3): 618-628, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940389

RESUMO

Pathologic complete response (pCR) is a predictor for favorable outcome after neoadjuvant treatment in early breast cancer. Modulation of gene expression may also provide early readouts of biological activity and prognosis, offering the possibility for timely response-guided treatment adjustment. The role of early transcriptional changes in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus bevacizumab was investigated. One-hundred-and-fifty patients with large, operable and locally advanced HER2-negative breast cancer received epirubicin and docetaxel, with the addition of bevacizumab. Patients underwent tumor biopsies at baseline, after Cycle 2 and at the time of surgery. The primary end point, pCR, and its relation with the secondary endpoints event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS) and gene expression profiles, are reported. The pCR rate was 13% (95% CI 8.6-20.2), with significantly more pCRs among triple-negative [28% (95% CI 14.8-45.4)] than among hormone receptor positive (HR+) tumors [9% (95% CI 4.6-16.3); (OR = 3.9 [CI = 1.5-10.3])]. pCR rates were not associated with EFS or OS. PAM50 subtypes significantly changed after Cycle 2 (p = 0.03) and an index of absolute changes in PAM50 correlations between these time-points was associated with EFS [HR = 0.62 (CI = 0.3-1.1)]. In univariable analyses, signatures for angiogenesis, proliferation, estrogen receptor signaling, invasion and metastasis, and immune response, measured after Cycle 2, were associated with pCR in HR+ tumors. Evaluation of changes in molecular subtypes and other signatures early in the course of neoadjuvant treatment may be predictive of pCR and EFS. These factors may help guide further treatment and should be considered when designing neoadjuvant trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Docetaxel , Epirubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
17.
Cancer Cell ; 32(5): 669-683.e5, 2017 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136509

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T cells infiltrating tumors are thought to utilize HIF transcription factors during adaptation to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Deletion analyses of the two key HIF isoforms found that HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, was essential for the effector state in CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, loss of HIF-1α in CD8+ T cells reduced tumor infiltration and tumor cell killing, and altered tumor vascularization. Deletion of VEGF-A, an HIF target gene, in CD8+ T cells accelerated tumorigenesis while also altering vascularization. Analyses of human breast cancer showed inverse correlations between VEGF-A expression and CD8+ T cell infiltration, and a link between T cell infiltration and vascularization. These data demonstrate that the HIF-1α/VEGF-A axis is an essential aspect of tumor immunity.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias Experimentais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(23): 7225-7231, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972041

RESUMO

Purpose: Transcriptional pathway activity and the molecular subtypes of breast cancer metastases have been shown to significantly influence patient postrelapse survival. Here, we further determine the relevance of clinically employed gene signatures in the advanced breast cancer (ABC) setting.Experimental Design: Sufficient RNA for expression profiling was obtained from distant metastatic or inoperable loco-regional relapse tissue by fine-needle aspiration from 109 patients of the Swedish TEX clinical trial. Gene signatures (GGI, 70 gene, recurrence score, cell-cycle score, risk of recurrence score, and PAM50) were applied to all metastases, and their relationship to long- (5-year) and short-term (1.5-year) postrelapse survival at all and locoregional lymph nodes (n = 40) versus other metastatic sites (n = 69) combined was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and/or multivariate Cox regression analyses.Results: The majority of metastases were classified into intermediate or high-risk groups by all signatures, and a significant association was found between metastatic signature subgroups and primary tumor estrogen receptor status and histologic grade (P < 0.05). When considering all sites of metastasis, only PAM50 was statistically significant in Kaplan-Meier analysis (Log-rank P = 0.008 and 0.008 for long- and short-term postrelapse breast cancer-specific survival, respectively). This significance remained in both uni- and multivariate models when restricting analyses to lymph node metastases only, and a similar trend was observed in other metastatic sites combined, but did not reach formal significance.Conclusions: Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the PAM50 signature can provide prognostic information from the lymph node metastases of ABC patients. Clin Cancer Res; 23(23); 7225-31. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
19.
Fam Cancer ; 16(2): 187-193, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120249

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports the benefit of identifying BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in early breast cancer. Selection of patients for genetic testing is based on defined criteria taking individual and family history related factors into account. It is important to make a distinction between efficacy and effectiveness of BRCA testing criteria. Efficacy can be defined as the performance under ideal circumstances, whereas effectiveness refers to its real life performance. To allow for an unbiased and detailed evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the Swedish BRCA testing criteria, we retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of 273 breast cancer patients from the well-characterized, population-based, single-site All Breast Cancer in Malmö (ABiM) study. The patients were diagnosed with breast cancer during the years 2007 through 2009. Out of 20 mutation carriers identified, 13 fulfilled Swedish criteria at time of diagnosis. Thus, the efficacy of these criteria was 65%. Excluding three patients in whom a mutation was already known at time of diagnosis, only 3/17 had been identified in the clinical routine, corresponding to an effectiveness of 18%. Here we detail the reasons why mutation carriers in our cohort were not detected though routine health care. In conclusion, effectiveness of BRCA testing criteria was much lower than efficacy. Our results indicate that current testing criteria and procedures associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing are insufficient. There is room for improvement of their efficacy, but even more so regarding effectiveness. Clinical BRCA testing routines need to be critically revised.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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