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2.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e13167, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512066

RESUMO

Severe α1 -antitrypsin deficiency results from the Z allele (Glu342Lys) that causes the accumulation of homopolymers of mutant α1 -antitrypsin within the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes in association with liver disease. We have used a DNA-encoded chemical library to undertake a high-throughput screen to identify small molecules that bind to, and stabilise Z α1 -antitrypsin. The lead compound blocks Z α1 -antitrypsin polymerisation in vitro, reduces intracellular polymerisation and increases the secretion of Z α1 -antitrypsin threefold in an iPSC model of disease. Crystallographic and biophysical analyses demonstrate that GSK716 and related molecules bind to a cryptic binding pocket, negate the local effects of the Z mutation and stabilise the bound state against progression along the polymerisation pathway. Oral dosing of transgenic mice at 100 mg/kg three times a day for 20 days increased the secretion of Z α1 -antitrypsin into the plasma by sevenfold. There was no observable clearance of hepatic inclusions with respect to controls over the same time period. This study provides proof of principle that "mutation ameliorating" small molecules can block the aberrant polymerisation that underlies Z α1 -antitrypsin deficiency.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303557

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There are no validated measures of disease activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since "active" disease is expected to have worse outcomes (e.g. mortality), we explored potential markers of disease activity in patients enrolled in the ECLIPSE cohort in relation to 8-year all-cause mortality. METHODS: We investigated: (1) how changes in relevant clinical variables over time (1 or 3 years) relate to 8-year mortality; (2) whether these variables inter-relate; and (3) if any clinical, imaging, and/or biological marker measured cross-sectionally at baseline relates to any activity component. RESULTS: Results showed that: (1) After 1 year, hospitalisation for COPD, exacerbation frequency, worsening of body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise (BODE) index or health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]), and persistence of systemic inflammation were significantly associated with 8-year mortality; (2) At 3 years, the same markers, plus forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline and to a lesser degree computed tomography (CT) emphysema, showed association, thus qualifying as markers of disease activity; (3) Changes in FEV1, inflammatory cytokines and CT emphysema were not inter-related, while the multidimensional indices (BODE and SGRQ) showed modest correlations; and, (4) Changes in these markers could not be predicted by any baseline cross-sectional measure. CONCLUSIONS: In COPD, 1- and 3-year changes in exacerbation frequency, systemic inflammation, BODE and SGRQ scores, and FEV1 decline are independent markers of disease activity associated with 8-year all-cause mortality. These disease activity markers are generally independent and not predictable from baseline measurements.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6371, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311470

RESUMO

Genetic mutations predispose the serine protease inhibitor α1-antitrypsin to misfolding and polymerisation within hepatocytes, causing liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This misfolding occurs via a transiently populated intermediate state, but our structural understanding of this process is limited by the instability of recombinant α1-antitrypsin variants in solution. Here we apply NMR spectroscopy to patient-derived samples of α1-antitrypsin at natural isotopic abundance to investigate the consequences of disease-causing mutations, and observe widespread chemical shift perturbations for methyl groups in Z AAT (E342K). By comparison with perturbations induced by binding of a small-molecule inhibitor of misfolding we conclude that they arise from rapid exchange between the native conformation and a well-populated intermediate state. The observation that this intermediate is stabilised by inhibitor binding suggests a paradoxical approach to the targeted treatment of protein misfolding disorders, wherein the stabilisation of disease-associated states provides selectivity while inhibiting further transitions along misfolding pathways.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/química , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Medicina Molecular , Mutação , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/química
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) receive care in respiratory clinics without access to specialist hepatology expertise. Liver disease can develop asymptomatically, and non-invasive markers of fibrosis may help identify patients who require definitive assessment with liver biopsy. We evaluated the utility of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis in A1ATD to guide testing in settings without ready access to hepatology expertise. METHODS: Patients attending the London A1ATD service undergo assessment using blood tests to calculate the 'APRI' and 'FIB-4' score, liver ultrasound and Fibroscan. Liver biopsy is offered to patients who have abnormal liver function tests with abnormal liver ultrasound and/or liver stiffness >6 kPa on Fibroscan. Liver biopsies were assessed for the presence of A1AT, steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: 75 patients with A1ATD had results for analysis, 56% were female, age 16-82 years. 75% of patients had Fibroscan <6 kPa, 19% had Fibroscan 6-7.9 kPa and 6%>8 kPa. There was a significant correlation between FIB-4 and Fibroscan (r=0.244, p=0.035). Fibroscan >6 kPa corresponded to a FIB-4 score of >1.26. However, FIB-4 >1.26 had poor sensitivity (47%), specificity (32%) and positive-predictive value (PPV; 36%) to identify Fibroscan >6 kPa. The negative-predictive value (NPV) was stronger at 81%. APRI data were similar. Twelve patients underwent liver biopsy, with 11 reports available for analysis. Six had FIB-4 scores<1.26 and five had Fibroscan of <6 kPa. A1AT was present in 64% of biopsies, steatosis in 82%, mild fibrosis in 36%, moderate fibrosis in 9% and severe fibrosis in 9%. CONCLUSION: A combination of liver ultrasound and non-invasive fibrosis tests can help identify patients with A1ATD liver injury. However, APRI and FIB-4 scores alone had poor sensitivity and specificity to justify use as an independent tool for liver pathology in A1ATD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156982

RESUMO

Background: The IMPACT trial demonstrated lower moderate/severe exacerbation rates with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations. Since IMPACT was a global study, post-hoc analyses were conducted by geographic region to investigate potential differences in overall findings. Methods: IMPACT was a 52-week, randomized, double-blind trial. Patients with symptomatic COPD and ≥1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year were randomized 2:2:1 to once-daily FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25µg, FF/VI 100/25µg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25µg. Endpoints assessed in the overall, Western Europe (WE) and North America (NA) populations included on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation (rates and time-to-first), trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score. Safety was assessed. Results: Overall, 10,355 patients were enrolled, 3164 from WE, 2639 from NA. FF/UMEC/VI significantly reduced on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in WE (rate ratios 0.82 [95%CI 0.74-0.91], P<.001 and 0.76 [0.67-0.87], P<.001) and NA (0.87 [0.77-0.97], P=.014 and 0.69 [0.60-0.80], P<.001). FF/UMEC/VI reduced time-to-first moderate/severe exacerbation and improved lung function versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in both regions, and improved SGRQ total score in WE, but not NA. Safety profiles were generally similar between treatment groups/regions; the inhaled corticosteroid class effect of increased pneumonia incidence was seen in NA but not WE. Conclusion: Consistent with intent-to-treat results, FF/UMEC/VI reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rate and risk and improved lung function in WE and NA; however, between-regions differences were seen for SGRQ total score and pneumonia incidence.

7.
Pulm Ther ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the IMPACT trial, single-inhaler triple therapy fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI dual therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, pneumonia incidence was higher in FF-containing arms. As COPD is a growing problem in Asia, we compared the efficacy and safety of FF/UMEC/VI in Asia versus non-Asia regions. METHODS: IMPACT was a double-blind, 52-week trial in symptomatic COPD patients with ≥ 1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year. This pre-specified analysis evaluated the annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations, change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, mortality, and safety (including pneumonia) in Asia versus non-Asia regions. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population comprised 10,355 patients (Asia n = 1644 [16%]). Rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for moderate/severe exacerbations with FF/UMEC/VI were 0.89 (0.76-1.05) versus FF/VI and 0.86 (0.71-1.04) versus UMEC/VI in Asia, and 0.84 (0.79-0.90) and 0.74 (0.68-0.80) in non-Asia. Efficacy of FF/UMEC/VI on other endpoints was similar in both regions. There was an increased incidence of investigator-reported pneumonia in patients in Asia (FF/UMEC/VI: 13%; FF/VI: 14%; UMEC/VI: 6%) compared with non-Asia (FF/UMEC/VI: 6%; FF/VI: 5%; UMEC/VI: 4%). The increased risk of pneumonia in patients in Asia was most marked in patients with lower body mass index, lower lung function, and taking inhaled corticosteroids. In post hoc analysis of adjudicated on-treatment all-cause mortality, probabilities of death were numerically lower in both regions with FF/UMEC/VI (Asia: 1.16%; non-Asia: 1.35%) and FF/VI (Asia: 1.77%; non-Asia: 1.21%) versus UMEC/VI (Asia: 1.91%; non-Asia: 2.23%). CONCLUSIONS: FF/UMEC/VI provides similar benefits in COPD patients in Asia and non-Asia regions. Clinical benefits of treatment, including reduction in mortality risk, should be weighed against risk of pneumonia, taking account of all known risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identification, NCT02164513.

8.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108212

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In the Informing the Pathway of COPD Treatment (IMPACT) trial, single-inhaler fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) triple therapy reduced exacerbation risk versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI and mortality risk versus UMEC/VI. However, pneumonia incidence was higher in the inhaled corticosteroid (FF)-containing arms raising questions about the relative benefit of exacerbation reduction compared with the increased risk of pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: Determine benefit-risk of the three treatments by evaluating time-to-first and rates of composite exacerbation or pneumonia outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated time-to-first (pre-specified) and rates (post hoc) of investigator-reported pneumonia, serious pneumonia leading to hospitalization or death, and the composite endpoints of 1) moderate (required antibiotics/corticosteroids)/severe (hospitalized) exacerbation or pneumonia and 2) severe exacerbation or serious (hospitalized) pneumonia. Analyses were repeated for radiographically confirmed pneumonia (post hoc). RESULTS: Moderate/severe exacerbations occurred in 47%, 49%, and 50% of patients randomized to FF/UMEC/VI, FF/VI and UMEC/VI, and pneumonias in 8%, 7%, and 5%, respectively. FF/UMEC/VI reduced the risk of combined moderate/severe exacerbation or pneumonia (time-to-first) versus FF/VI (hazard ratio 0.87 [95%CI 0.82-0.92]) and UMEC/VI (0.87 [0.81-0.94]), as well as the risk of combined severe exacerbation or serious pneumonia versus UMEC/VI (0.83 [0.72-0.96]). FF/UMEC/VI reduced the rate of combined moderate/severe exacerbation or pneumonia (rate ratio 0.78 [0.72-0.84]) and combined severe exacerbation or serious pneumonia (rate ratio 0.76 [0.65-0.89]) versus UMEC/VI. Results were similar for radiographically confirmed pneumonia endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher incidence of pneumonia in FF-containing arms, these composite exacerbation/pneumonia outcomes support a favorable benefit-risk profile of FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of exacerbations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTT116855/NCT02164513.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(43)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087346

RESUMO

The serpinopathies are among a diverse set of conformational diseases that involve the aberrant self-association of proteins into ordered aggregates. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is the archetypal serpinopathy and results from the formation and deposition of mutant forms of α1-antitrypsin as "polymer" chains in liver tissue. No detailed structural analysis has been performed of this material. Moreover, there is little information on the relevance of well-studied artificially induced polymers to these disease-associated molecules. We have isolated polymers from the liver tissue of Z α1-antitrypsin homozygotes (E342K) who have undergone transplantation, labeled them using a Fab fragment, and performed single-particle analysis of negative-stain electron micrographs. The data show structural equivalence between heat-induced and ex vivo polymers and that the intersubunit linkage is best explained by a carboxyl-terminal domain swap between molecules of α1-antitrypsin.

10.
Chest ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the IMPACT trial, single-inhaler triple therapy fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations, with a similar safety profile. Research Question Does age have an effect on trial outcomes? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: IMPACT was a Phase III, double-blind, 52-week trial. Patients ≥40 years of age with symptomatic COPD and ≥1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year were randomized 2:2:1 to FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25 mcg, FF/VI 100/25 mcg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25 mcg. Endpoints assessed by age included annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations, change from baseline (CFB) in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), proportion of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) responders (≥4 units decrease from baseline in SGRQ total score) and safety. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population comprised 10,355 patients; 4724 (46%), 4225 (41%), and 1406 (14%) were ≤64, 65-74, and ≥75 years of age, respectively. FF/UMEC/VI reduced on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI (% reduction [95% confidence interval (CI)], ≤64 years: 8% [-1, 16], p=0.070; 65-74 years: 22% [14, 29], p<0.001; ≥75 years 18% [3, 31], p=0.021) and versus UMEC/VI (≤64 years: 16% [7, 25], p=0.002; 65-74 years: 33% [25, 41], p<0.001; ≥75 years 24% [6, 38], p=0.012), with greatest rate reduction seen in the 65-74 and ≥75 years subgroups. Post hoc analyses of CFB in trough FEV1, and proportion of SGRQ responders at Week 52 were significantly greater with FF/UMEC/VI than FF/VI or UMEC/VI in all subgroups. No new safety signals were identified. INTERPRETATION: FF/UMEC/VI reduced the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations and improved lung function and health status versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI irrespective of age for most endpoints, with a similar safety profile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: GSK (CTT116855/NCT02164513).

11.
FEBS J ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058391

RESUMO

The formation of ordered Z (Glu342Lys) α1 -antitrypsin polymers in hepatocytes is central to liver disease in α1 -antitrypsin deficiency. In vitro experiments have identified an intermediate conformational state (M*) that precedes polymer formation, but this has yet to be identified in vivo. Moreover, the mechanism of polymer formation and their fate in cells have been incompletely characterised. We have used cell models of disease in conjunction with conformation-selective monoclonal antibodies and a small molecule inhibitor of polymerisation to define the dynamics of polymer formation, accumulation and secretion. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that Z α1 -antitrypsin accumulates as short-chain polymers that partition with soluble cellular components and are partially secreted by cells. These precede the formation of larger, insoluble polymers with a longer half-life (10.9 ± 1.7 h and 20.9 ± 7.4 h for soluble and insoluble polymers, respectively). The M* intermediate (or a by-product thereof) was identified in the cells by a conformation-specific monoclonal antibody. This was completely abrogated by treatment with the small molecule, which also blocked the formation of intracellular polymers. These data allow us to conclude that the M* conformation is central to polymerisation of Z α1 -antitrypsin in vivo; preventing its accumulation represents a tractable approach for pharmacological treatment of this condition; polymers are partially secreted; and polymers exist as two distinct populations in cells whose different dynamics have likely consequences for the aetiology of the disease.

12.
Adv Ther ; 37(9): 3775-3790, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647911

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The phase 3 InforMing the PAthway of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Treatment (IMPACT) trial, single-inhaler therapy with fluticasone furoate (FF) 100 µg, umeclidinium (UMEC) 62.5 µg, and vilanterol (VI) 25 µg demonstrated a reduction in the rate of moderate or severe exacerbations compared with FF/VI or UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic COPD at risk of exacerbations. This article reports additional evidence of improvements in symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with FF/UMEC/VI compared with either FF/VI or UMEC/VI from the IMPACT study. METHODS: Patient-reported HRQoL assessments and symptom measures included as pre-specified IMPACT end points were the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), COPD Assessment Test (CAT), and Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) as the anchor for the Transitional Dyspnea Index (TDI) focal score (BDI/TDI) in a subset of patients enrolled at study sites in North America and Europe. Change from baseline was assessed at weeks 4, 28, and 52. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 10,355 patients (TDI population: 5058 patients). Clinically meaningful improvements in SGRQ total score between baseline and week 52 favored FF/UMEC/VI over FF/VI (- 1.8 units, p < 0.001) and UMEC/VI (- 1.8 units, p < 0.001). Similar improvements in the CAT and TDI focal score were also observed with FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that in patients with symptomatic COPD at risk of exacerbations, once-daily FF/UMEC/VI, compared with FF/VI or UMEC/VI, improves patient-perceived HRQoL and symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02164513.

13.
JCI Insight ; 5(14)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699193

RESUMO

The α-1-antitrypsin (or alpha-1-antitrypsin, A1AT) Z variant is the primary cause of severe A1AT deficiency and forms polymeric chains that aggregate in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. Around 2%-5% of Europeans are heterozygous for the Z and WT M allele, and there is evidence of increased risk of liver disease when compared with MM A1AT individuals. We have shown that Z and M A1AT can copolymerize in cell models, but there has been no direct observation of heteropolymer formation in vivo. To this end, we developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb2H2) that specifically binds to M in preference to Z A1AT, localized its epitope using crystallography to a region perturbed by the Z (Glu342Lys) substitution, and used Fab fragments to label polymers isolated from an MZ heterozygote liver explant. Glu342 is critical to the affinity of mAb2H2, since it also recognized the mild S-deficiency variant (Glu264Val) present in circulating polymers from SZ heterozygotes. Negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab2H2-labeled liver polymers revealed that M comprises around 6% of the polymer subunits in the MZ liver sample. These data demonstrate that Z A1AT can form heteropolymers with polymerization-inert variants in vivo with implications for liver disease in heterozygous individuals.

14.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 139, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This analysis of the IMPACT study assessed the cardiovascular (CV) safety of single-inhaler triple therapy with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI dual therapy. METHODS: IMPACT was a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter Phase III study comparing the efficacy and safety of FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25 mcg with FF/VI 100/25 mcg or UMEC/VI 62.5/25 mcg in patients ≥40 years of age with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ≥1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the previous year. The inclusion criteria for the study were intentionally designed to permit the enrollment of patients with significant concurrent CV disease/risk. CV safety assessments included proportion of patients with and exposure-adjusted rates of on-treatment CV adverse events of special interest (CVAESI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), as well as time-to-first (TTF) CVAESI, and TTF CVAESI resulting in hospitalization/prolonged hospitalization or death. RESULTS: Baseline CV risk factors were similar across treatment groups. Overall, 68% of patients (n = 7012) had ≥1 CV risk factor and 40% (n = 4127) had ≥2. At baseline, 29% of patients reported a current/past cardiac disorder and 58% reported a current/past vascular disorder. The proportion of patients with on-treatment CVAESI was 11% for both FF/UMEC/VI and UMEC/VI, and 10% for FF/VI. There was no statistical difference for FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI in TTF CVAESI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85, 1.11; p = 0.711 and HR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.08; p = 0.317, respectively) nor TTF CVAESI leading to hospitalization/prolonged hospitalization or death (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.51; p = 0.167 and HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.27; p = 0.760, respectively). On-treatment MACE occurred in ≤3% of patients across treatment groups, with similar prevalence and rates between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: In a symptomatic COPD population with a history of exacerbations and a high rate of CV disease/risk, the proportion of patients with CVAESI and MACE was 10-11% and 1-3%, respectively, across treatment arms, and the risk of CVAESI was low and similar across treatment arms. There was no statistically significant increased CV risk associated with the use of FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI, and UMEC/VI versus FF/VI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02164513 (GSK study number CTT116855).

15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(9): 1237-1243, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584168

RESUMO

Rationale: In the IMPACT (Informing the Pathway of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment) trial, fluticasone furoate (FF)/umeclidinium (UMEC)/vilanterol (VI) significantly reduced exacerbations compared with FF/VI or UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of exacerbations.Objectives: To understand whether inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) withdrawal affected IMPACT results, given direct transition from prior maintenance medication to study medication at randomization.Methods: Exacerbations and change from baseline in trough FEV1 and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire results were analyzed by prior ICS use. Exacerbations were also analyzed while excluding data from the first 30 days.Measurements and Main Results: FF/UMEC/VI significantly reduced the annual moderate/severe exacerbation rate compared with UMEC/VI in prior ICS users (29% reduction; P < 0.001), but only a numerical reduction was seen among prior ICS nonusers (12% reduction; P = 0.115). To minimize impact from ICS withdrawal, in an analysis excluding the first 30 days, FF/UMEC/VI continued to significantly reduce the annual on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation rate (19%; P < 0.001) compared with UMEC/VI. The benefit of FF/UMEC/VI compared with UMEC/VI was seen for severe exacerbation rates, regardless of prior ICS use (prior ICS users, 35% reduction; P < 0.001; non-ICS users, 35% reduction; P = 0.018), and overall when excluding the first 30 days (29%; P < 0.001). Improvements from baseline with FF/UMEC/VI compared with UMEC/VI were also maintained throughout the study for both trough FEV1 and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, regardless of prior ICS use.Conclusions: These data support the important treatment effects of FF/UMEC/VI combination therapy on exacerbation reduction, lung function, and quality of life that do not appear to be related to abrupt ICS withdrawal.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02164513).


Assuntos
Álcoois Benzílicos/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Clorobenzenos/administração & dosagem , Fluticasona/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 100, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cachexia contributes to increased mortality and reduced quality of life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and may be associated with underlying gene expression changes. Our goal was to identify differential gene expression signatures associated with COPD cachexia in current and former smokers. METHODS: We analyzed whole-blood gene expression data from participants with COPD in a discovery cohort (COPDGene, N = 400) and assessed replication (ECLIPSE, N = 114). To approximate the consensus definition using available criteria, cachexia was defined as weight-loss > 5% in the past 12 months or low body mass index (BMI) (< 20 kg/m2) and 1/3 criteria: decreased muscle strength (six-minute walk distance < 350 m), anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dl), and low fat-free mass index (FFMI) (< 15 kg/m2 among women and < 17 kg/m2 among men) in COPDGene. In ECLIPSE, cachexia was defined as weight-loss > 5% in the past 12 months or low BMI and 3/5 criteria: decreased muscle strength, anorexia, abnormal biochemistry (anemia or high c-reactive protein (> 5 mg/l)), fatigue, and low FFMI. Differential gene expression was assessed between cachectic and non-cachectic subjects, adjusting for age, sex, white blood cell counts, and technical covariates. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed using MSigDB. RESULTS: The prevalence of COPD cachexia was 13.7% in COPDGene and 7.9% in ECLIPSE. Fourteen genes were differentially downregulated in cachectic versus non-cachectic COPD patients in COPDGene (FDR < 0.05) and ECLIPSE (FDR < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Several replicated genes regulating heme metabolism were downregulated among participants with COPD cachexia. Impaired heme biosynthesis may contribute to cachexia development through free-iron buildup and oxidative tissue damage.

17.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299860

RESUMO

IMPACT, a 52-week, randomised, double-blind trial, assessed the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) triple therapy versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic COPD and a history of exacerbations.Subgroup analyses assessed whether the efficacy of FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI and UMEC/VI versus FF/VI varies according to prior exacerbation history, and the combined effects of exacerbation history and blood eosinophil counts. Three subgroups were defined: single moderate (1 moderate/no severe; n=3056 (30%)), frequent moderate (≥2 moderate/no severe; n=4628 (45%)) and severe (≥1 severe/any moderate; n=2671 (26%)). End-points included annual on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation rate (pre-specified), lung function and health status (both post-hoc).Moderate/severe exacerbation rates (reduction % (95% CI)) were reduced in the FF/UMEC/VI group versus FF/VI (single moderate 20% (10-29), frequent moderate 11% (2-19), severe 17% (7-26)) and versus UMEC/VI (single moderate 18% (5-29), frequent moderate 29% (21-37), severe 26% (14-35)). Moderate/severe exacerbation rates were reduced in the FF/VI group versus UMEC/VI in the frequent moderate subgroup; a numerical reduction was observed in the severe subgroup (single moderate 2% (-12-18), frequent moderate 21% (11-29), severe 11% (-3-22)). Moderate/severe exacerbation rates were lower in the FF/VI group compared with UMEC/VI in patients with higher eosinophil counts. FF/UMEC/VI improved lung function and health status versus both dual therapies irrespective of exacerbation subgroup. UMEC/VI improved lung function versus FF/VI in all subgroups.Triple therapy was more effective than dual regardless of exacerbation history, consistent with results in the intent-to-treat population. Comparisons between dual therapies were influenced by prior exacerbation history and eosinophil counts.

19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(12): 1508-1516, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162970

RESUMO

Rationale: The IMPACT (Informing the Pathway of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment) trial demonstrated a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (ACM) risk with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) versus UMEC/VI in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at risk of future exacerbations. Five hundred seventy-four patients were censored in the original analysis owing to incomplete vital status information.Objectives: Report ACM and impact of stepping down therapy, following collection of additional vital status data.Methods: Patients were randomized 2:2:1 to FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25 µg, FF/VI 100/25 µg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg following a run-in on their COPD therapies. Time to ACM was prespecified. Additional vital status data collection and subsequent analyses were performed post hoc.Measurements and Main Results: We report vital status data for 99.6% of the intention-to-treat population (n = 10,355), documenting 98 (2.36%) deaths on FF/UMEC/VI, 109 (2.64%) on FF/VI, and 66 (3.19%) on UMEC/VI. For FF/UMEC/VI, the hazard ratio for death was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.99; P = 0.042) versus UMEC/VI and 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-1.16; P = 0.387) versus FF/VI. Independent adjudication confirmed lower rates of cardiovascular and respiratory death and death associated with the patient's COPD.Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of an efficacy outcome from the IMPACT trial, once-daily single-inhaler FF/UMEC/VI triple therapy reduced the risk of ACM versus UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic COPD and a history of exacerbations.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Álcoois Benzílicos/uso terapêutico , Clorobenzenos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2681-2695, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819401

RESUMO

Background: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of single-inhaler fluticasone furoate (FF)/umeclidinium (UMEC)/vilanterol (VI) versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI from a Canadian public healthcare perspective, incorporating data from the IMPACT trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (NCT02164513). Methods: Baseline inputs and treatment effects from IMPACT were populated into the validated GALAXY-COPD disease progression model. Canadian unit costs and drug costs (Canadian dollars [C$], 2017) were applied to healthcare resource utilization and treatments. Future costs and health outcomes were discounted at 1.5% annually. Analyses were probabilistic, and outputs included exacerbation rates, costs, and life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Results: Compared with FF/VI and UMEC/VI over a lifetime horizon, the analyses predicted that treatment with FF/UMEC/VI resulted in fewer moderate and severe exacerbations, more LYs and more QALYs gained, with a small incremental cost. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY gained was C$18,989 (95% confidence interval [CI]: C$14,665, C$25,753) versus FF/VI and C$13,776 (95% CI: C$9787, C$19,448) versus UMEC/VI. FF/UMEC/VI remained cost-effective versus both FF/VI and UMEC/VI in all sensitivity analyses, including in scenario analyses that considered different intervention and comparator discontinuation rates, and treatment effects for subsequent therapy. Conclusion: Treatment with FF/UMEC/VI was predicted to improve outcomes and be a cost-effective treatment option for patients with symptomatic COPD and a history of exacerbations compared with FF/VI or UMEC/VI, in Canada.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/administração & dosagem , Androstadienos/economia , Álcoois Benzílicos/administração & dosagem , Álcoois Benzílicos/economia , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/economia , Clorobenzenos/administração & dosagem , Clorobenzenos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinuclidinas/economia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Androstadienos/efeitos adversos , Álcoois Benzílicos/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Clorobenzenos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Progressão da Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Econômicos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Quinuclidinas/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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