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2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(9): 745-756, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have highlighted a relationship between reduction in rate of exacerbations with therapies containing inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and baseline blood eosinophil count in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The IMPACT trial showed that once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy significantly reduced exacerbations versus dual therapies. Blood eosinophil counts and smoking status could be important modifiers of treatment response to ICS. We aimed to model these relationships and their interactions, including outcomes other than exacerbations. METHODS: IMPACT was a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, 52-week global study comparing once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy (fluticasone furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol) with dual inhaled therapy (fluticasone furoate-vilanterol or umeclidinium-vilanterol). Eligible patients had moderate-to-very-severe COPD and at least one moderate or severe exacerbation in the previous year. We used fractional polynomials to model continuous blood eosinophil counts. We used negative binomial regression for numbers of moderate and severe exacerbations, severe exacerbations, and pneumonia. We modelled differences at week 52 in trough FEV1, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, and Transition Dyspnoea Index using repeated measurements mixed effect models. IMPACT was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02164513. FINDINGS: The magnitude of benefit of regimens containing ICS (fluticasone furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol n=4151 and fluticasone furoate-vilanterol n=4134) in reducing rates of moderate and severe exacerbations increased in proportion with blood eosinophil count, compared with a non-ICS dual long-acting bronchodilator (umeclidinium-vilanterol n=2070). The moderate and severe exacerbation rate ratio for triple therapy versus umeclidinium-vilanterol was 0·88 (95% CI 0·74 to 1·04) at blood eosinophil count less than 90 cells per µL and 0·56 (0·47 to 0·66) at counts of 310 cells per µL or more; the corresponding rate ratio for fluticasone furoate-vilanterol versus umeclidinium-vilanterol was 1·09 (0·91 to 1·29) and 0·56 (0·47 to 0·66), respectively. Similar results were observed for FEV1, Transition Dyspnoea Index, and SGRQ total score; however, the relationship with FEV1 was less marked. At blood eosinophil counts less than 90 cells per µL and at counts of 310 cells per µL or more, the triple therapy versus umeclidinium-vilanterol treatment difference was 40 mL (95% CI 10 to 70) and 60 mL (20 to 100) for trough FEV1, -0·01 (-0·68 to 0·66) and 0·30 (-0·37 to 0·97) for Transition Dyspnoea Index score, and -0·01 (-1·81 to 1·78) and -2·78 (-4·64 to -0·92) for SGRQ total score, respectively. Smoking status modified the relationship between observed efficacy and blood eosinophil count for moderate or severe exacerbations, Transition Dyspnoea Index, and FEV1, with former smokers being more corticosteroid responsive at any eosinophil count than current smokers. INTERPRETATION: This analysis of the IMPACT trial shows that assessment of blood eosinophil count and smoking status has the potential to optimise ICS use in clinical practice in patients with COPD and a history of exacerbations. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline.

3.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 100, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia is associated with increased mortality risk among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, low body mass index (BMI) as opposed to cachexia is often used, particularly when calculating the BODE (BMI, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index. For this reason, we examined mortality using a consensus definition and a weight-loss definition of cachexia among COPD cases and compared two new COPD severity indices with BODE. METHODS: In the current report, the consensus definition for cachexia incorporated weight-loss > 5% in 12-months or low BMI in addition to 3/5 of decreased muscle strength, fatigue, anorexia, low FFMI and inflammation. The weight-loss definition incorporated weight-loss > 5% or weight-loss > 2% (if low BMI) in 12-months. The low BMI component in BODE was replaced with the consensus definition to create the CODE (Consensus cachexia, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index and the weight-loss definition to create the WODE (Weight loss, Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise) index. Mortality was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox Regression. Performance of models was compared using C-statistics. RESULTS: Among 1483 COPD cases, the prevalences of cachexia by the consensus and weight-loss definitions were 4.7 and 10.4%, respectively. Cachectic patients had a greater than three-fold increased mortality by either the consensus or the weight-loss definition of cachexia independent of BMI and lung function. The CODE index predicted mortality slightly more accurately than the BODE and WODE indices. CONCLUSIONS: Cachexia is associated with increased mortality among COPD patients. Monitoring cachexia using weight-loss criteria is relatively simple and predictive of mortality among COPD cases who may be missed if only low BMI is used.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0206955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633749

RESUMO

Lung disease in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) results from dysregulated proteolytic activity, mainly by neutrophil elastase (HNE), in the lung parenchyma. This is the result of a substantial reduction of circulating alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) and the presence in the plasma of inactive polymers of AAT. Moreover, some AAT mutants have reduced intrinsic activity toward HNE, as demonstrated for the common Z mutant, as well as for other rarer variants. Here we report the identification and characterisation of the novel AAT reactive centre loop variant Gly349Arg (p.G373R) present in the ExAC database. This AAT variant is secreted at normal levels in cellular models of AATD but shows a severe reduction in anti-HNE activity. Biochemical and molecular dynamics studies suggest it exhibits unfavourable RCL presentation to cognate proteases and compromised insertion of the RCL into ß-sheet A. Identification of a fully dysfunctional AAT mutant that does not show a secretory defect underlines the importance of accurate genotyping of patients with pulmonary AATD manifestations regardless of the presence of normal levels of AAT in the circulation. This subtype of disease is reminiscent of dysfunctional phenotypes in anti-thrombin and C1-inibitor deficiencies so, accordingly, we classify this variant as the first pure functionally-deficient (type II) AATD mutant.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , alfa 1-Antitripsina/química
6.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4(1): 40, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374103

RESUMO

In Figure 6 of this article (PDF and HTML) the arrows labelled 'Depolymerization' and 'Polymerization' should be labelled 'Polymerization' and 'Depolymerization', respectively.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1826: 87-107, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194595

RESUMO

Serpin polymerization is the result of end-to-end ordered aggregation of serpin monomers into linear unbranched chains. This change in molecular state represents the basis of several conformational diseases with pathological gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes, termed serpinopathies. Tools that enable quantification and characterization of polymer formation are therefore important to the study of serpin behavior in this pathophysiological context. Such methods rely on different manifestations of molecular change: polymerization-the generation of molecules with increasing molecular weight-is accompanied by concomitant structural rearrangements in the constituent subunits. Different approaches may be appropriate dependent on whether measurements are made on static samples, such as tissue or cell culture extracts, or in time-resolved experiments, often undertaken using polymers artificially induced under in vitro destabilizing conditions. In the former category, we describe the application of polyacrylamide electrophoresis, Western blot, ELISA, and negative-stain electron microscopy and in the latter category, Förster resonance energy transfer and fluorescence spectroscopy using environment-sensitive probes.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3801-3812, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060175

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, is substantially influenced by genetic factors. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency demonstrates that rare coding variants of large effect can influence COPD susceptibility. To identify additional rare coding variants in patients with severe COPD, we conducted whole exome sequencing analysis in 2543 subjects from two family-based studies (Boston Early-Onset COPD Study and International COPD Genetics Network) and one case-control study (COPDGene). Applying a gene-based segregation test in the family-based data, we identified significant segregation of rare loss of function variants in TBC1D10A and RFPL1 (P-value < 2x10-6), but were unable to find similar variants in the case-control study. In single-variant, gene-based and pathway association analyses, we were unable to find significant findings that replicated or were significant in meta-analysis. However, we found that the top results in the two datasets were in proximity to each other in the protein-protein interaction network (P-value = 0.014), suggesting enrichment of these results for similar biological processes. A network of these association results and their neighbors was significantly enriched in the transforming growth factor beta-receptor binding and cilia-related pathways. Finally, in a more detailed examination of candidate genes, we identified individuals with putative high-risk variants, including patients harboring homozygous mutations in genes associated with cutis laxa and Niemann-Pick Disease Type C. Our results likely reflect heterogeneity of genetic risk for COPD along with limitations of statistical power and functional annotation, and highlight the potential of network analysis to gain insight into genetic association studies.

10.
J Hepatol ; 69(4): 851-860, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: α1-Antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. Individuals with the Z variant (Gly342Lys) retain polymerised protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of their hepatocytes, predisposing them to liver disease. The concomitant lack of circulating A1AT also causes lung emphysema. Greater insight into the mechanisms that link protein misfolding to liver injury will facilitate the design of novel therapies. METHODS: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived hepatocytes provide a novel approach to interrogate the molecular mechanisms of A1ATD because of their patient-specific genetic architecture and reflection of human physiology. To that end, we utilised patient-specific hiPSC hepatocyte-like cells (ZZ-HLCs) derived from an A1ATD (ZZ) patient, which faithfully recapitulated key aspects of the disease at the molecular and cellular level. Subsequent functional and "omics" comparisons of these cells with their genetically corrected isogenic-line (RR-HLCs) and primary hepatocytes/human tissue enabled identification of new molecular markers and disease signatures. RESULTS: Our studies showed that abnormal A1AT polymer processing (immobilised ER components, reduced luminal protein mobility and disrupted ER cisternae) occurred heterogeneously within hepatocyte populations and was associated with disrupted mitochondrial structure, presence of the oncogenic protein AKR1B10 and two upregulated molecular clusters centred on members of inflammatory (IL-18 and Caspase-4) and unfolded protein response (Calnexin and Calreticulin) pathways. These results were validated in a second patient-specific hiPSC line. CONCLUSIONS: Our data identified novel pathways that potentially link the expression of Z A1AT polymers to liver disease. These findings could help pave the way towards identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of A1ATD. LAY SUMMARY: This study compared the gene expression and protein profiles of healthy liver cells and those affected by the inherited disease α1-antitrypsin deficiency. This approach identified specific factors primarily present in diseased samples which could provide new targets for drug development. This study also demonstrates the interest of using hepatic cells generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells to model liver disease in vitro for uncovering new mechanisms with clinical relevance.

11.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(2)2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750142

RESUMO

Triple inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA) therapy is recommended for symptomatic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and at risk of exacerbations. However, the benefits versus side-effects of triple inhaled therapy for COPD, based on distinct patient clinical profiles, are unclear. FULFIL, a phase III, randomised, double-blind study, compared 24 weeks of once-daily fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) 100/62.5/25 µg using the Ellipta inhaler with twice-daily budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FOR) 400/12 µg using the Turbuhaler. Subgroup analyses of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) Total score and exacerbation rates were carried out. Subgroups were defined by COPD medication at screening (ICS+LABA, BUD+FOR, ICS+LABA+LAMA, LAMA alone, tiotropium alone and LAMA+LABA), by disease severity (lung function and exacerbations) and by exacerbation history (exacerbation severity and frequency). In the intent-to-treat population (n=1810) at week 24, FF/UMEC/VI (n=911) versus BUD/FOR (n=899) improved FEV1 and SGRQ Total score and reduced mean annual exacerbation rates in all disease severity and exacerbation history subgroups. FF/UMEC/VI versus BUD/FOR improved FEV1 and SGRQ Total score in all medication subgroups and reduced mean annual exacerbation rates in all medication subgroups, except LAMA+LABA. Adverse events were similar across subgroups. These findings support the benefit of FF/UMEC/VI compared with dual ICS/LABA therapy in patients with symptomatic COPD regardless of disease severity or prior treatment and may help to inform clinical decision making.

12.
Chest ; 154(3): 607-616, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The deficiency of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is secondary to misfolding and polymerization of the abnormal Z-AAT in liver cells and is associated with lung emphysema. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) produce AAT; however, it is not known whether Z-AAT can polymerize in AMs, further decreasing lung AAT and promoting lung inflammation. Our intention was to investigate whether AAT polymerizes in human AMs and to study the possible relation between polymerization and degree of lung inflammation. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis with 2C1 monoclonal antibody specific for polymerized AAT was performed in sections of the following: nine lungs from individuals with AAT deficiency (AATD) and severe COPD; 35 smokers with normal AAT levels, of whom 24 had severe COPD and 11 did not have COPD; and 13 nonsmokers. AMs positive for AAT polymers were counted and expressed as the percentage of total AMs in the lungs. RESULTS: AAT polymerization was detected in 27% (4%-67%) of AMs from individuals with AATD but also in AMs from smokers with normal AAT with (24% [0%-70%]) and without (24% [0%-60%]) COPD, but not in AMs from nonsmokers (0% [0%-1.5%]) (P < .0001). The percentage of AMs with polymerized AAT correlated with pack-years smoked (r = 0.53, P = .0001), FEV1/FVC (r = -0.41, P = .005), small airways disease (r = 0.44, P = .004), and number of CD8+ T cells and neutrophils in alveolar walls (r = 0.51, P = .002; r = 0.31, P = .05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Polymerization of AAT in alveolar macrophages occurs in the lungs of individuals with AATD but also in smokers with normal AAT levels with or without COPD. Our findings highlight the similarities in the pathophysiology of COPD in individuals with and without AATD, adding a potentially important step to the mechanism of COPD.

13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767774

RESUMO

Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a major environmental risk factor for many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are shared genetic influences on cigarette smoking and COPD. Genetic risk factors for cigarette smoking in cohorts enriched for COPD are largely unknown. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for average cigarettes per day (CPD) across the COPDGene Non-Hispanic White (NHW) (n=6,659) and African American (AA) (n=3,260), GenKOLS (n=1,671), and ECLIPSE (n=1,942) cohorts. In addition, we performed exome array association analyses across the COPDGene NHW and AA cohorts. We considered analyses across the entire cohort and stratified by COPD case-control status. Results: We identified genome-wide significant associations for CPD on chromosome 15q25 across all cohorts (lowest p=1.78x10-15), except in the COPDGene AA cohort alone. Previously reported associations on chromosome 19 had suggestive and directionally consistent associations (RAB4 p=1.95x10-6; CYP2A7 p=7.50x10-5; CYP2B6 4.04x10-4). When we stratified by COPD case-control status, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 15q25 were nominally associated in both NHW COPD cases (Beta=0.11, p=5.58x10-4) and controls (Beta=0.12, p=3.86x10-5). For the gene-based exome array association analysis of rare variants, there were no exome-wide significant associations. For these previously replicated associations, the most significant results were among COPDGene NHW subjects for CYP2A7 (p=5.2x10-4). Conclusions: In a large genome-wide association study of both common variants and a gene-based association of rare coding variants in ever smokers, we found genome-wide significant associations on chromosome 15q25 with CPD for common variants, but not for rare coding variants. These results were directionally consistent among COPD cases and controls. IMPLICATIONS: We examined both common and rare coding variants associated with CPD in a large population of heavy smokers with and without COPD of NHW and AA descent. We replicated genome-wide significant associations on chromosome 15q25 with CPD for common variants among NHW subjects, but not for rare variants. We demonstrated for the first time that common variants on chromosome 15q25 associated with CPD are similar among COPD cases and controls. Previously reported associations on chromosome 19 showed suggestive and directionally consistent associations among common variants (RAB4, CYP2A7, and CYP2B6) and for rare variants (CYP2A7) among COPDGene NHW subjects. While the genetic effect sizes for these SNPs on chromosome 15q25 are modest, we show that this creates a substantial smoking burden over the lifetime of a smoker.

14.
Thorax ; 73(12): 1182-1185, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618495

RESUMO

Cardiovascular and skeletal muscle manifestations constitute important comorbidities in COPD, with systemic inflammation proposed as a common mechanistic link. Fibrinogen has prognostic role in COPD. We aimed to determine whether aortic stiffness and quadriceps weakness are linked in COPD, and whether they are associated with the systemic inflammatory mediator-fibrinogen. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), quadriceps maximal volitional contraction (QMVC) force and fibrinogen were measured in 729 patients with stable, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV COPD. The cardiovascular and muscular manifestations exist independently (P=0.22, χ2). Fibrinogen was not associated with aPWV or QMVC (P=0.628 and P=0.621, respectively), making inflammation, as measured by plasma fibrinogen, an unlikely common aetiological factor.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 378(18): 1671-1680, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of triple therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with an inhaled glucocorticoid, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and a long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA), as compared with dual therapy (either inhaled glucocorticoid-LABA or LAMA-LABA), are uncertain. METHODS: In this randomized trial involving 10,355 patients with COPD, we compared 52 weeks of a once-daily combination of fluticasone furoate (an inhaled glucocorticoid) at a dose of 100 µg, umeclidinium (a LAMA) at a dose of 62.5 µg, and vilanterol (a LABA) at a dose of 25 µg (triple therapy) with fluticasone furoate-vilanterol (at doses of 100 µg and 25 µg, respectively) and umeclidinium-vilanterol (at doses of 62.5 µg and 25 µg, respectively). Each regimen was administered in a single Ellipta inhaler. The primary outcome was the annual rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations during treatment. RESULTS: The rate of moderate or severe exacerbations in the triple-therapy group was 0.91 per year, as compared with 1.07 per year in the fluticasone furoate-vilanterol group (rate ratio with triple therapy, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.90; 15% difference; P<0.001) and 1.21 per year in the umeclidinium-vilanterol group (rate ratio with triple therapy, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.81; 25% difference; P<0.001). The annual rate of severe exacerbations resulting in hospitalization in the triple-therapy group was 0.13, as compared with 0.19 in the umeclidinium-vilanterol group (rate ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78; 34% difference; P<0.001). There was a higher incidence of pneumonia in the inhaled-glucocorticoid groups than in the umeclidinium-vilanterol group, and the risk of clinician-diagnosed pneumonia was significantly higher with triple therapy than with umeclidinium-vilanterol, as assessed in a time-to-first-event analysis (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.92; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Triple therapy with fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol resulted in a lower rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations than fluticasone furoate-vilanterol or umeclidinium-vilanterol in this population. Triple therapy also resulted in a lower rate of hospitalization due to COPD than umeclidinium-vilanterol. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; IMPACT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02164513 .).


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Androstadienos/administração & dosagem , Álcoois Benzílicos/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Clorobenzenos/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem
16.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194197, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. Systemic inflammation associated with COPD, is often hypothesised as a causal factor. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases play a key role in the inflammatory pathogenesis of COPD and atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the effects of losmapimod, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, on vascular inflammation and endothelial function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with systemic inflammation (defined by plasma fibrinogen >2·8g/l). METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase II trial that recruited COPD patients with plasma fibrinogen >2.8g/l. Participants were randomly assigned by an online program to losmapimod 7·5mg or placebo tablets twice daily for 16 weeks. Pre- and post-dose 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography co-registered with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) imaging of the aorta and carotid arteries was performed to quantify arterial inflammation, defined by the tissue-to-blood ratio (TBR) from scan images. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). RESULTS: We screened 160 patients, of whom, 36 and 37 were randomised to losmapimod or placebo. The treatment effect of losmapimod compared to placebo was not significant, at -0·05 for TBR (95% CI: -0·17, 0·07), p = 0·42, and +0·40% for FMD (95% CI: -1·66, 2·47), p = 0·70. The frequency of adverse events reported was similar in both treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this plasma fibrinogen-enriched study, losmapimod had no effect on arterial inflammation and endothelial function at 16 weeks of treatment, although it was well tolerated with no significant safety concerns. These findings do not support the concept that losmapimod is an effective treatment for the adverse cardiovascular manifestations of COPD.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1785-1793, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538751

RESUMO

The most common genotype associated with severe α-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is the Z homozygote. The Z variant (Glu342Lys) of α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) undergoes a conformational change and is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes leading to the formation of ordered polymeric chains and inclusion bodies. Accumulation of mutated protein predisposes to cirrhosis whilst plasma AAT deficiency leads to emphysema. Increased risk of liver and lung disease has also been reported in heterozygous subjects who carry Z in association with the milder S allele (Glu264Val) or even with wild-type M. However, it is unknown whether Z AAT can co-polymerize with other AAT variants in vivo. We co-expressed two AAT variants, each modified by a different tag, in cell models that replicate AAT deficiency. We used pull-down assays to investigate interactions between co-expressed variants and showed that Z AAT forms heteropolymers with S and with the rare Mmalton (Phe52del) and Mwurzburg (Pro369Ser) mutants, and to a lesser extent with the wild-type protein. Heteropolymers were recognized by the 2C1 mAb that binds to Z polymers in vivo. There was increased intracellular accumulation of AAT variants when co-expressed with Z AAT, suggesting a dominant negative effect of the Z allele. The molecular interactions between S and Z AAT were confirmed by confocal microscopy showing their colocalization within dilated ER cisternae and by positivity in Proximity Ligation Assays. These results provide the first evidence of intracellular co-polymerization of AAT mutants and contribute to understanding the risk of liver disease in SZ and MZ heterozygotes.

18.
Adv Ther ; 35(1): 56-71, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313286

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Directly recorded patient experience of symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can complement lung function and exacerbation rate data in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinical studies. The FULFIL study recorded daily symptoms and activity limitation together with additional patient-reported outcomes of dyspnea and HRQoL, as part of the prespecified analyses. FULFIL co-primary endpoint data have been previously reported. METHODS: FULFIL was a phase III, 24-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter study comparing once-daily single inhaler triple therapy [fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI)] 100 µg/62.5 µg/25 µg with twice-daily inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ß2-agonist therapy [budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FOR)] 400 µg/12 µg in patients with symptomatic COPD at risk of exacerbations. A subset participated for 52 weeks. Patient-reported assessments were: Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms in COPD™ (E-RS: COPD), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD, COPD Assessment Test (CAT), baseline and transitional dyspnea indices (TDI) and daily and global anchor questions for activity limitation. RESULTS: FF/UMEC/VI showed greater reductions from baseline in 4-weekly mean E-RS: COPD total and all subscale scores compared with BUD/FOR; differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) at each time period. FF/UMEC/VI also demonstrated greater improvements from baseline at weeks 4 and 24 in SGRQ domain scores and TDI focal score compared with BUD/FOR. At weeks 4 and 24, improvements greater than the minimal clinically important difference from baseline were observed in CAT score with FF/UMEC/VI, but not BUD/FOR; differences were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.003). CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate sustained daily symptom and HRQoL benefits of FF/UMEC/VI versus BUD/FOR. The inclusion of the CAT may provide data that are readily generalizable to everyday clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02345161. FUNDING: GSK.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223747

RESUMO

Parasitic nematodes infect hundreds of millions of people and farmed livestock. Further, plant parasitic nematodes result in major crop damage. The pipeline of therapeutic compounds is limited and parasite resistance to the existing anthelmintic compounds is a global threat. We have developed an INVertebrate Automated Phenotyping Platform (INVAPP) for high-throughput, plate-based chemical screening, and an algorithm (Paragon) which allows screening for compounds that have an effect on motility and development of parasitic worms. We have validated its utility by determining the efficacy of a panel of known anthelmintics against model and parasitic nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, and Trichuris muris. We then applied the system to screen the Pathogen Box chemical library in a blinded fashion and identified compounds already known to have anthelmintic or anti-parasitic activity, including tolfenpyrad, auranofin, and mebendazole; and 14 compounds previously undescribed as anthelmintics, including benzoxaborole and isoxazole chemotypes. This system offers an effective, high-throughput system for the discovery of novel anthelmintics.

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